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Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods and Sub-National Government System to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is working with the Government of Benin to ensure a new tranche of US$4.45 million is used to mainstream adaptation into broader development frameworks, reduce vulnerability to climate change, and diversify and strengthen livelihoods and sources of incomes for vulnerable people in Benin.

The "Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods and Sub-National Government System to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin" project will work to ensure that climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgetary processes, improve agricultural infrastructure and human capacity to cope with changing rainfall patterns, and diversify income-generating activities on the community level.

From an economic perspective, the implementation of the project will generate agricultural revenues. Moreover, the construction phase will generate direct, indirect and temporary jobs in the five selected communes. Furthermore, this project targets sectors (agriculture in particular) that contribute greatly to the economy in Benin in terms of GDP and employment, and by supporting these sectors and improving their resilience, the project will make a clear and direct contribution to the economy. It will create opportunities for rural livelihood diversification leading to increased economic security and less reliance on climate-sensitive rural activities. It is expected that the introduction of new adaptive practices and appropriate technological packages into crop production will increase productivity in the long run. This will help rural communities and farmers to improve their overall production and better manage risks from droughts or floods. The project will improve the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable community members and most disadvantaged groups.

The social benefits from this project are therefore manifold, since, with the acquired greater economic power, the concerned beneficiaries and communities will be able to invest in healthcare and education. Enhanced nutrition will be experienced by beneficiaries – through improved food supplies and a greater diversity of available food. With stronger health, beneficiaries will be able to engage more fully in livelihood activities. Regarding security threats in the country, the project aims at increasing cohesion between different local groups, through new infrastructure making essential resources such as water more accessible to all.

This project will have several environmental benefits, notably by improving land, soil and water management, mitigating land erosion and introducing improved agro-sylvo-pastoral practices and techniques. In all, 6237 hectares of land will be protected and improved through sustainable land management practices.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (2.2521972508485 9.0015580242753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.4 million (proposed GEF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$30 million
Project Details: 

Benin is vulnerable to climate change. Medium-term climate projections for its territory indicate important risks of insufficient levels of rain, increased evapotranspiration and more rainfall variability from one year to another. Therefore, droughts are more likely to become more and more intensive. This will impose significant challenges – most notably on growing rain-fed crops, natural tree regeneration and grazing animals. The National Land Planning scheme further describes droughts, floods and late rains as three major climatic risks. Projects aiming at preserving these areas are therefore a clear priority at the Government level.

Climate change has important impact on the agricultural sector. Agro-climatic parameters are constraining for the agricultural and forestry sector, especially in the South-West and in the Far-North that suffer frequent droughts. Academic work from Boko (1988), Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999) et de Ogouwalé (2004), are showing that rainfall decrease, reduction in the length of the agricultural season, persistence of negative anomalies, minimal temperature increase is now typical for Benin’s climate. Rainfall regimes and agricultural production systems are therefore modified.

Direct impacts of climate change on agriculture concern crop behavior, pedological modifications and yield reduction. At the crop level, phenomenon of shortening of growth cycle and premature bloom are happening, due to the increase of temperature. Besides, agricultural yield will be seriously affected by the repeated effect of rainfall deficiencies and perturbations. Hence, integration of adaptation into the agricultural sector would be crucial for reducing vulnerability of the sector.

Available evidence suggests that the most certain manifestation of climate change on precipitation is an increase in variability while the directions of changes are much more uncertain. These predicted changes in climate, despite uncertainties, are likely to have an impact on farmers who engage in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, the landless who are usually dependent on on-farm labor opportunities, and women-headed households.

Many environmental and adaptation benefits are expected to be delivered by the project at the national and local levels, among which:

  • Improved living conditions of agro-pastoral communities (through diversifying and increasing production and income).
  • Ensuring food security in concerned communes and villages
  • Better linkages between disaster risk management and climate change, by addressing existing vulnerabilities through development and operational planning, policy processes, and incentive systems.
  • Creating a virtuous circle by reducing risks induced by flooding.  
  • Emphasis on a multi-level, integrated approach to pastoral and agriculture development through support and funding for a range of initiatives to help communities and households undertake income generating activities, accompanied by awareness raising, diversification of income sources, information and capacity building.
  • Mainstreaming gender issues into pastoral development namely by: (i) addressing in all initiatives the specific needs of women and men (for instance, through well-tailored training programs, gender-sensitive income generation activities, etc.); and (ii) by identifying interventions that specifically target women as main beneficiaries (for instance, to better address households’ subsistence priority needs, cash transfers will be provided directly to women).
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Output 1.1. The capacity of the five targeted departments and municipalities and all relevant ministries to integrate gender responsive climate change adaptation in their planning and budgeting work is improved 

Output 1.2. The technical capacity of agricultural extension agents and local NGOs concerning resilience to climate change is improved

Output 1.3. The coordination and communication between actors is improved

 

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Output 2.1. Small scale climate resilient water harvesting infrastructures are designed and implemented in the five targeted municipalities

Output 2.2. Risks of floods and riverbanks erosion are reduced through the stabilization of slopes of critical riverbanks using bamboo plantation

Output 2.3. Resilient practices, such as drip irrigation techniques or short cycle improved seeds, are adopted in the five targeted municipalities

 

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Output 3.1. Targeted population’s dependency and vulnerability to climate change effects is reduced through the introduction of alternative livelihoods

Output 3.2. All women of target population (3,281 women) are trained on alternative livelihoods to agriculture to better cope with climate change impacts

Output 3.3. The capacities of 300 rural entrepreneurs and 50 SMEs (aiming at 50% women) to develop business plans in the field of sustainable craft and small-scale manufacture are strengthened in order to stimulate employment and growth

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is working with the Government of Guinea-Bissau to ensure a new tranche of US$6 milion from the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund is used to improve climate services and early warning systems in this West African nation. The "Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau" project will work to enhance the capacity of the National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) in Guinea-Bissau, ensure the effective use of weather and water information to make early warnings, mainstream climate change information into long-term development plans, and work toward ensuring the sustainability of investments in new climate services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-15.018310587294 11.978606370702, -15.029296915418 11.946363139781, -14.996337931048 11.935614542432, -15.018310587294 11.978606370702)), POINT (-14.974365274802 11.935614542432))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million (proposed GEF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$63 million (Government of Guinea Bissau proposed co-financing)
Project Details: 

Guinea-Bissau consistently ranks among the most vulnerable countries in West Africa to climate change. The primary drivers of Guinea-Bissau’s climate vulnerability are physical exposure, dependence on agriculture and fishing. Guinea-Bissau is a rural country in which agriculture, forestry, fishing and livestock farming accounted for 49.1% of GDP in 2013. The economic wealth of Guinea-Bissau bases essentially in its natural capital.

Even by African standards, little industry exists in Guinea-Bissau. Most of the population (about 82 %) work as subsistence farmers in an agriculture sector that is undeveloped and is largely based on rudimentary technology. Furthermore, the agriculture sector is dominated by the cashew nut monoculture. Over the past three years, cashew nuts have dominated Guinea-Bissau’s agriculture and national exports. In 2013, cashew nut production generated 11.9% of the country’s GDP and cashew sales accounted for 87.7% of total exports. According to the World Food Programme, 80% of those living outside the city of Bissau currently make their living from cashew nuts, which they use to trade for rice and other staple products. This can lead to a crippling dependence on a single crop for entire communities, putting their livelihoods and even their ability to feed themselves at the mercy of the harvest and international cashew prices.

The fisheries also play a vital role for Guinea-Bissau’s government, with fees for fishing licenses providing 35% of government revenue. Climate change is predicted to have adverse effects on fisheries and fishing. Rising sea temperatures, changes in circulation, acidification and loss of nursery areas, are predicted to reduce fish populations. Meanwhile, in places with rich fisheries like Guinea-Bissau, the destruction of coral reefs and mangroves destroys fish spawning grounds, decreasing the availability of fish, limiting the livelihoods of fishermen, and leading to precarious food security.

Additionally, low-elevation coastal zones stand out as Guinea-Bissau’s indicator of physical vulnerability. Most of Guinea-Bissau’s terrain consists of coastal swamps and mangroves, and over 19% of its land area lies in areas less than 10 meters above sea level. Increased flooding and saltwater intrusion due to global sea level rise could potentially affect these areas. Climate change has already begun to affect coastal farmers through saltwater intrusion into their rice paddies. Because of this, farmers who can no longer grow rice have shifted into cashew production.

Like many of its West African neighbors, Guinea-Bissau faces rainy seasons and long dry seasons, with abrupt transitions. The West African monsoon that characterizes the region’s climate is less stable than its eastern counterpart, and long droughts such as those that affected the area during the 1970s and 1980s are possible. Northern Guinea-Bissau borders the Sahel region. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the long droughts that characterize the Sahel may be spreading to this region.

Guinea-Bissau is also subject to climate related disasters risk, such as floods, storms, droughts grasshopper blights, disease epidemics (cholera, meningitis, and malaria), and sea accidents due to increasing sea surges.

The cost of climate change and disasters is high in Guinea-Bissau. The cholera epidemic in 2008 affected 105,380 people with 3032 dead, the drought between 1987 and 2009 affected 132,000 people, floods affected 1,750 people in 2007, and tropical cyclones caused 2712 victims in 2009.

To allow Guinea-Bissau to better manage climate related challenges undermining economic growth and development, it is essential to address a number of pressing challenges. These include the needs to: enhance capacity of hydro-meteorological services and networks for predicting climatic events and associated risks; develop a more effective, efficient and targeted delivery of climate information including early warnings to both planners as well as communities living on the fringes of climate induced pressures; and support improved and timely preparedness and response to forecast climate-related risks and vulnerabilities.

These objectives require developing in-country robust weather and climate observation capability, including now-casting and forecasting infrastructure which can be rapidly deployed, is relatively easy to maintain, and simple to use. Such a weather and climate monitoring system can provide Guinea-Bissau with the capacity necessary to develop: (i) an early warning system for severe weather; (ii) real-time weather and hydrological monitoring; (iii) weather forecasting capabilities (Numerical Weather Prediction); (iv) agro-meteorological information and services (including integrated crop and pest management); (v) applications related to building and management of infrastructure; (vi) tailored products for the mining planning and management; (vii) risk informed land, air and maritime transport management; (viii) integrated water resources management; (ix) adaptive coastal zone and land management; and (x) adaptation planning and policy making processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Output 1.1. Installation or rehabilitation (as appropriate) of 08 Tide Gauge Stations and 17 Limnigraphic stations with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.2. Procurement and installation and/or rehabilitation of 40 meteorological monitoring stations, with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.3. Procurement and installation of technology using lightning data for monitoring severe weather events

Output 1.4. Procurement and installation of maritime weather stations (AWS430), maritime observation console (MCC401), MetCast observation console (MCC301) in the 6 ports of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.5. Procurement and installation of 10-day site specific weather forecasting systems in the 12 major towns of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.6. Procurement and installation of satellite monitoring equipment to receive real time climate and environmental information

Output 1.7. Development and implementation of a capacity building program to provide Guinea-Bissau with the required capacity to operate and maintain the purchased equipment

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into long-term development plans.  

Output 2.1. Development of a capacity building and institutional strengthening program to run hydrometeorological models and provide forecast and EW information

Output 2.2. Development of national capacity for integrating climate risk information into existing development planning and disaster management systems

Output 2.3. Development of a sustainable financing mechanism for the climate information production and dissemination system

Output 2.4. Development of new tailored climate information products for the users in the priority vulnerable sectors and locations (protected Areas, biodiversity hotspots, cash and areas agriculture, fisheries and natural capital), identified in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.5. Integration of climate risks into the GB 2025 development strategy and related operational programs in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.6. Development of an efficient and sustainable mechanism for sharing climate products and early warning information

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Output 3.1. Project activities and impacts on global, national and local environmental benefits of MPA assessed and monitored.

Output 3.2. Project lessons and knowledge codified and disseminated nationally and internationally.

Output 3.3. Wider public awareness of climate services available and the benefits of their use achieved through comprehensive multimedia outreach and education campaigns

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into  long-term development plans. 

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone

The coastal zone of Sierra Leone is highly vulnerable to the increased frequency and severity of coastal erosion, flooding and storm surges which severely impact social wellbeing, livelihood security, water resources and major economic sectors such as fishing, tourism and agriculture. Coastal communities are already experiencing considerable repercussions of these impacts, notably on their livelihoods with reduced fishing productivity, ecosystem degradation and low farming outputs. The limited accessibility of climate-related data – in particular marine and sea parameters databases such as wave height, wave period, wind speed and direction – affects the ability of decision-makers to make informed planning and policy decisions for the coast and to take any clear strategic actions to remedy these negative effects. This inadequate lack of knowledge is contributing towards undermining social and economic development, particularly under a changing climate.

The "Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone" project will strengthen the ability of coastal communities to systematically manage climate change risks and impacts on physical infrastructure and economic livelihoods. The project will work along the coastal zone in six pilot sites (Conakry Dee, Lakka, Hamilton, Tombo, Shenge and Turtle Island).

Barriers need to be overcome in order to achieve the project objective. These include: (i) the limited accessibility and use of data and information relevant to understanding coastal related climate risks, (ii) inadequate institutional and policy capacities for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), (iii) limited awareness programmes on coastal related climate risk and human activities along the coast; (iv) inadequate resources and financial constraints, and (v) the need to introduce climate resilient livelihood options and approaches to address the climate risk facing coastal communities. The project’s approach to be adopted will deliver three complimentary outcomes to address these barriers in a coherent and holistic manner. It shall also contribute to the improvement of Sierra Leone’s ability to systematically manage coastal risks in the face of a changing climate.

Key national partners include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA SL), the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR), the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceanography (IMBO) and the National Tourist Board (NTB).

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-12.782592799886 8.3405037764018)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
116,000 people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9.9 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$ 31.6 million (anticipated cofinancing)
Project Details: 

Studies and results relating to climate change impacts from Sierra Leone’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, 2007) revealed that rainfall and temperature patterns experienced in Sierra Leone are changing. Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged from different climate model predictions show a wide range of changes in precipitation, though all indicate a trend towards overall precipitation increase, particularly from July to December. Regional trends, indicated by the IPCC AR4, also anticipate that climate change will result in increased rainfall variability and frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including Sea Level Rise and higher storm surge risks within West African Coastal regions. Further, results from recent studies carried out as part of the second national communication (GEF-UNDP, 2012) confirm these climate change trends with records of extreme rainfall events, extensive coastal flooding throughout the country, and severe and extensive coastal erosion as result of both heavy rainfall and tidal activity.

The continued vulnerability of coastal communities in Sierra Leone to climate induced risks and related hazards are deemed a key problem. This is further exacerbated by the limited access to accurate and timely climate data and information that can be used to inform decision-making on the coast. In addition to this key problem, weak institutional regulatory capacity coupled with the absence of a national “coastal specific” community-based information system that focuses on supporting the management of climate-related risks continue to hamper long-term coastal planning, management and early warning activities. This thereby affects the ability of coastal communities to effectively and efficiently adapt to the pressures of climate change. The introduction of innovative and resilient livelihood options to address the issue of sand mining along the coast of Sierra Leone shall provide a sustainable and economically viable solution that may be embraced by the GoSL and the construction sector.

Aligning with the SDGs

  • SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere - This project aims to improve flood and marine forecasting within the coastal zone of Sierra Leone, providing useful climate information such as daily and seasonal forecasts, particularly for coastal fishing communities. By 2030 the project will seek to improve the resilience of the poor, reducing their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
  • SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security – The project will contribute towards ensuring that sustainable food production systems are initiated and that climate resilient agricultural practices are implemented within vulnerable coastal communities so as to increase productivity and production. The project will work with local Women’s Associations and develop resilient coastal small-scale farming including the provision of small scale water sources and irrigation systems to withstand droughts.
  • SDG 5 Achieve gender equality – Women account for over 90% of the people engaged in fish marketing, over 80% of retailers of food products and vegetables, and over 90% of operators involved in the artisanal processing of agricultural and fishery products. The project shall seek to ensure that women will be better empowered by enabling them to have access to financial services through a newly established Community Grant Facility, encouraging them to take action to get involved in local coastal adaptation projects that invest in sustainable livelihood activities.
  • SDG 11: Resilient cities and human settlements - The project will effectively develop national capabilities to better predict future climate scenarios of sea level rise and its related impacts on coastal communities. It will also work to create systematic processes for packaging, translating and disseminating climate information and warnings.
  • SDG 13: Fighting climate change and its impacts - The project will undertake a detailed topographic analyse along the coastline to develop coastal erosion profiles. This will allow for better detailed setback values and the development of a national coastal zone vulnerability and risk mapping programme. The new knowledge base generated on future climate risks will be integrated into national policies, strategies and planning processes. The project will also improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity strengthening on topics such as climate change adaptation, impact reduction and early warning systems.
  • SDG 15: Protect, restore and reverse land degradation – In an attempt to restore degraded mangrove forests, the project will support ecosystem-based interventions (including mangrove afforestation and reforestation programmes) as well as promoting the implementation of sustainable community based alternative income generation activities to help address deforestation.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Output 1.1:  Climate and oceanographic monitoring network (with 6 automated oceanographic monitoring systems) and related data processing systems installed along the coastal zone to improve the knowledge base for measuring future climate induced risks.

Output 1.2: Institutional capacity of MFMR, EPA-SL, SLMD, ONS, SLMQ and IMBO for assessing coastal hazard risk and vulnerability to climate change through probabilistic modelling is strengthened.

Output 1.3: A systematical link between the collected data and the existing CIDMEWS (web based GIS) is established.

Output 1.4: The human capacity of the MFMR, EPA-SL, MLGRD is strengthened and trained on CVA techniques.

 

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Output 2.1: Sea Level Rise and coastal erosion profiles developed for the six target pilot sites to support the strengthening of Coastal Zone Management Plans at both urban and district levels.

Output 2.2: Ecosystem-based adaptation design guidance to support future climate resilient planning and development in place.

Output 2.3: Marine spatial plan framework to compliment with ICZM is developed.

Output 2.4:  Sierra Leone ICZM is strengthened with the establishment of SL-ICZM-WG and sustainability mechanisms.

 

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Output 3.1: An outreach communication, information and awareness strategy designed and implemented to enhance decision-making and foster public awareness and safety about the potential impacts of climate change;

Output 3.2:  Adaptation strategies for alternative livelihoods are designed to strengthen women and sand miner youth association’s resilience to CC impact on the coastal zone so as to reduce pressure on natural resources.

Output 3.3: CSEB practices are introduced to mitigate the risk of unregulated sand mining in Sierra Leone.

Output 3.4: Participatory implementation of urgent and priority medium-scale soft (non-structural) and hard (structural) coastal adaptation works undertaken to protect coastal community at risks.

Output 3.5: Early Warning Systems are extended to target sites in the coastal zone to protect fishing and farming communities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Civil Society Engagement: 

 

     

    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: The Gambia

    The agriculture sectors in the Gambia heavily feature subsistence farming, mostly of cereals, and the farming of cash crops, such as groundnuts and cotton. Crop production employs roughly 70 percent of the population and generates 33 percent of GDP. The country is highly susceptible to sea-level rise, which could cause major damage to the country’s important coastal economic development assets. The Gambia has been working to formulate a comprehensive transformational adaptation plan. The country’s long-term adaptation priorities are being included in a NAP while short to medium-term priorities are being added to the Low Emissions Climate Resilient Development Strategy (LECRDS) and National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP). In addition, climate change adaptation priorities will be mainstreamed into national agriculture and livestock policies, plans and programmes.

    Region/Country: 
    Key Collaborators: 
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    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Guatemala

    Guatemala is vulnerable to frequent natural disasters. It’s not just the country’s geographical location that leaves it susceptible. Poor housing, high malnutrition and unemployment also compound the situation to make the country’s inhabitants more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with indigenous communities and farmers being among the most affected. In an effort to increase resilience, Guatemala developed a National Climate Change Action Plan (Plan de Acción Nacional de Cambio Climático, PANCC) that incorporates mitigation and adaptation priority actions. Some the activities that the country is looking to implement include: increase the production of grains, strengthen early warning systems for food and nutrition insecurity, and provide technical assistance to farmers on phytosanitary and zoosanitary measures.

    Region/Country: 
    Level of Intervention: 
    Key Collaborators: 
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    Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
    Location: 
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    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Colombia

    Colombia launched its National Adaptation Plan (Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PNACC) in 2012. This milestone document was followed in 2013 by a Road Map for the country’s National Adaptation Plan (Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC). The specifics of the country’s adaptation actions are being elaborated in additional territorial and sectorial adaptation plans – one of which is a plan for the agriculture sectors. Colombia is also developing a set of adaptation indicators to monitor and evaluate impacts in selected territories. These will be incorporated into a national monitoring system and protocol.

    Region/Country: 
    Key Collaborators: 
    Coordinates: 
    GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (14.062499990295 29.697596503683), POINT (38.671874985886 25.334096687047))
    Funding Source: 
    Location: 
    Project Status: 
    Display Photo: 

    Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali

    Like other countries in the Sahel, Mali is susceptible to climate variability and is suffering from the impacts of global climate change. According to forecasts, rainfall will fluctuate even more in the future and the frequency of extreme events such as drought or heavy rain will increase. The poorest groups are harder hit by the impacts of climate change because they depend directly on natural resources for their livelihoods.

    The "Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali" Project will work to strengthen Mali's National Adaptation Strategy, and works in conjunction with other UNDP-supported projects in Mali, including the Supporting Mali to Advance their NAP Process Project. 

    The main objective of the project is to ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

    Region/Country: 
    Level of Intervention: 
    Coordinates: 
    POINT (-1.3183593819504 17.855904418065)
    Financing Amount: 
    US$5.4 million (BMUB funding)
    Project Details: 

    Mali ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and presented its National Adaptation Programme of Action in 2007. The country has had a national climate policy, a climate strategy and an action plan for implementation since July 2011. At the donor conference held in May 2013 in response to the crisis in Mali, a plan was adopted for the country’s economic reconstruction. Core themes in this plan include the environment, private sector development and agriculture.

    In January 2012, the Malian Government created a national climate fund designed to mobilise national and international financing from public and private sources. The government plans to use these funds to increase the population's resilience to the impacts of climate change. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) has pledged EUR 4 million to the fund and the Norwegian Government plans to contribute EUR 1.8 million. The Malian Ministry of Environment has asked GIZ to serve on the fund's steering committee as one of five donors.

    The project team is working with the Malian partners to integrate climate-related issues into policies and existing planning, strategy development and monitoring instruments. The different levels of decentralisation – central government, regions and municipalities – are taken into account, which ensures that this approach is firmly established throughout the country and that resilience is being increased. Existing processes are being overhauled to take account of adaptation and mitigation potential and, where necessary, new, integrated instruments are being created to promote climate-resistant development.

    Municipalities that have successfully integrated climate aspects into their planning instruments are working with the project team to identify and implement activities designed to help them and their residents deal more effectively with the consequences of climate change. This capability is extremely important, particularly when it comes to securing families’ livelihoods. The project team has given women a strong role in this process. Through direct cooperation with the municipalities, both municipal employees and the poor can benefit directly from the measures and pass on the lessons learned to other communities.

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is responsible for three other areas of activity. The network of weather stations is being expanded and capabilities for analysing and using weather data developed. In addition, UNDP supports operationalisation of the climate fund so that it can be incorporated into Mali’s structures. In close consultation with the GIZ project team, UNDP also promotes adaptation measures in selected municipalities.

    Project Status: 
    Display Photo: 
    Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

    Main Objective - Ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

    Project Dates: 
    2014 to 2019

    Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean

    The main objective of the proposed “Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean” project is to upscale the function of local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of the population. The project works in three target countries: Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms. The project will address climate change and disaster risks related to water resources management: in Cuba and Jamaica. The project will also focus on sustainable water management to address drought-related water shortages and coastal erosion related to sea-level rise in Jamaica and Dominican Republic. Finally, the project will address the risks related to river flooding and its effects on environment and livelihoods. The project builds on the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI), a platform launched in 2004 by UNDP, which supported the Cuban model of Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) and its transfer.

    Region/Country: 
    Coordinates: 
    POINT (-76.871337919963 21.085781465014)
    Funding Source: 
     
    Financing Amount: 
    US$4.9 million (proposed financing)
    Project Details: 

    Latin America and the Caribbean is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods and landslides, many of which are regularly exacerbated by climate variability. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation regimes, including shifts in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate-related events, will affect population health, livelihoods, economies, the environment and natural resource availability across national borders. Sea level rise, already observed in recent decades, will likely lead to greater inundation, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion and greater susceptibility to storm surges.

    Exposure to climate change and extreme climate-related events in the LAC region varies considerably with more than half of  Caribbean nations facing ‘extreme’ exposure risks. The Caribbean nations of Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba as facing extreme and high-risk vulnerability to climate change.

    The Caribbean possesses inherent geographical, economic and social characteristics which intensify vulnerability and limit ability to respond to catastrophic events. These include geographic isolation, small populations located in hazard prone areas, coastal positioning of critical and economic infrastructures, prevalence of poverty, limited capacity and resources, fragile ecosystems and undiversified economies vulnerable to shocks; weather-dependent economic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, create greater risk of negative impact of climate related events and conditions.

    Changes in the rainfall regime and sea level rise are the key risk drivers in the Caribbean. Decreasing rainfall over the Caribbean is likely to be accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of heavy rainfall events, affecting the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts. A high proportion of land area of many Caribbean islands is near sea level, resulting in susceptibility to future sea level rise. Though highly uncertain, climate change may act to decrease the overall number of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) but increase the frequency of the most intense storms in the Caribbean region.

    These driving forces affect important ecosystems and ecological processes in the region. Human-induced soil erosion is affecting up to 2.23 million square kilometers of land in LAC, and river networks transport these sediments and other land-based sources of pollution to the oceans, impacting coastal ecosystems. The World’s Water Quality Assessment (2016) states that about one-quarter of all river stretches in LAC fall in the severe pollution class; and the number of rural people coming into contact with polluted surface waters is estimated to be as high as 25 million.

    The main objective of the project is to upscale the function of local RRMC in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of population. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms.

     

    Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

    Component 1: Local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMCs)

    Outcome 1.1.: Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

    Output 1.1.1.: RRMCs established, equipped, functional linked with national EWS. 43

    Output  1.1.2.: Vulnerability and hazard studies and risk mapping available at the municipal/community level.

    Output 1.1.3.: Local government and population trained on preparedness measures using EWS

    Component 2: National climate information and early warning services for disaster risk reduction

    Outcome 2.1.: Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

    Ouput 2.1.1: Observation network strengthened with automated weather and flow stations and related data transmission equipment refurbished and installed in disaster-prone areas44

    Ouput 2.1.2.:Hydro-met and sectorial databases and information systems and platforms streamlined, software, methodologies and procedures developed for information analysis and prognosis.

    Ouput 2.1.3.: Climate information and EWS products complemented and developed with ICT protocols and tailored to sectorial and local entities.

    Component 3: Disaster Risk Reduction/Adaptatio n plans and measures

    Outcome 3.1: Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

    Output 3.1.1: climate resilient territorial development plans (municipal, parish, provincial) developed with DRR/CCA measures integrated

    Output 3.1.2. Selected adaptation measures prioritized in the development plans are implemented

    Component 4: Knowledge management and South-South cooperation

    Outcome 4.1: Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

    Output 4.1.1.: Technical guides, toolkits, standardized methodologies, experience notes and multimedia experience materials are developed and disseminated

    Output 4.1.2.: Exchange site visits organized between participating government and community reps

    Output 4.1.3.: Regional training and lessons learnt events held

    Funding Source Short Code: 
    Adaptation Fund
    Country-level Initiatives: 
    Display Photo: 
    Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

    Outcome 1 - Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

    Outcome 2 - Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

    Outcome 3 - Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

    Outcome 4 - Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

    Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan

    Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.

    Region/Country: 
    Level of Intervention: 
    Key Collaborators: 
    Thematic Area: 
    Coordinates: 
    POINT (58.139648412713 39.725144814926)
    Funding Source: 
    Financing Amount: 
    US$$3 million (proposed GEF SCCF Funding)
    Co-Financing Total: 
    US$20.8 million (proposed co-financing, including US$20 million Government of Turkmenistan and US$830,000 UNDP)
    Project Details: 

    By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.

    The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.

    The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.

    The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.

    Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

    Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:

    Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;

    Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;

    Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;

    Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;

    Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.

    Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:

    Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;

    Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;

    Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;

    Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.

    Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.

    Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making

    Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:

    Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.

    Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.

    Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.

    Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.

    Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
    Location: 
    Country-level Initiatives: 
    Display Photo: 
    Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

    Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.

    Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.

    Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.

    Enhancing Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Forest and Agricultural Landscape and Community Livelihoods in Bhutan

    The proposed "Enhancing Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Forest and Agricultural Landscape and Community Livelihoods in Bhutan" Project will operationalize an integrated landscape approach in Bhutan by strengthening biological corridors, supporting sustainable forest and agricultural systems, and building the climate resilience of community livelihoods.

    The project will address concerns regarding the adverse impacts of climate change on rural livelihood security and poverty, and the effects of sector-led development practices on the ecological integrity of biodiversity-rich forested landscapes.  Bhutan’s renewable natural resource (RNR) sector, which is made up of agriculture, livestock production and forestry forms a significant part of the national economy, as the largest employer with 58 percent of the working population, and with agriculture contributing 16.7 percent to the national economy in 2015. However, the RNR sector is very vulnerable to climate change impacts, which have been increasing as a result of heavy rainfall, drought, frost, hailstorms, windstorms and related land degradation.

    In addition to climate-related losses, damage to crops and livestock from wildlife causes major production losses. Bhutan’s biodiversity resources are of regional and global significance and the preservation of intact, forested landscapes through the protected areas network and associated biological corridors is needed to sustain these values. However, climate change impacts and other anthropogenic threats such as land conversion, forest fires, infrastructure development and unsustainable agriculture are placing increasing pressure on biodiversity and the integrity of ecosystems in the country. 

    The long-term solution envisaged by the project is to ensure the effective climate resilient management of forest areas including biological corridors and adjoining protected areas, securing ecosystem services that underpin livelihoods, local and national development and climate change adaptation (CCA). However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome: 1) Insufficient institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and CCA; 2) Insufficient capacity to operationalize the biological corridor system; 3) Limited capacity, awareness and support for building livelihood resilience; and 4) Inadequate knowledge on natural resource status, ecosystem services and resilient livelihood options.

    Region/Country: 
    Key Collaborators: 
    Coordinates: 
    POINT (90.395507774745 27.470505945282)
    Funding Source: 
    Financing Amount: 
    US$13.9 million proposed financing (source GEF LDCF and TF)
    Co-Financing Total: 
    US$42.6 million proposed co-financing
    Project Details: 

    The primary rationale for the selection of the project landscapes in the central belt of the country is based on the need to strengthen the ecological network connecting protected areas in the northern third of the country with those in the centre and south of the country – in other words, biological corridors that generally follow the alignment of river valleys and intervening ridges. This is of great importance for key wildlife species such as the tiger, leopard, snow leopard and elephant with large ranges. In particular, Bhutan is regarded as key source population for the tiger across the Himalayan range and this project will be of great significance in supporting national and global tiger recovery plans.

    The project landscapes contain some of the finest representational samples of a continuum of ecosystems, connecting the largely subtropical zone of southern Bhutan and the predominantly sub-alpine/ alpine zone of northern Bhutan. These landscapes, with proper conservation management plans in operation and sustainable livelihoods in practice, will cushion the adverse impacts of climate change to key development sectors and local livelihoods and enhance the ecological resilience to changing climate and associated risks.

    The primary global environmental benefits that will be delivered include the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation and climate change resilient livelihoods over a landscape of 1,304,958 ha, some 75.3 % of which is under forest cover, 9.7% shrub cover, a mere 1.6% agricultural land (due to the rugged terrain), and the remainder meadows, rocky terrain and snow 13.4%. 176,400 ha lies in the four BCs and 324,405 ha in the three associated PAs, thus totalling 500,805 ha of land within the national protected areas system (including the BCs). This far exceeds the PIF target of 350,000 ha of globally significant landscapes under improved management.

    The project’s climate smart agriculture and sustainable land management interventions will target SLM practices in at least 2,000 ha (some 10% of the agricultural land within the project landscapes), and SFM implementation will be supported over at least 100,000 ha of FMUs, LFMP areas and CF areas within the landscapes, in line with the PIF target. Sustainable forest management and forest conservation is anticipated to result in avoided GHG emissions of some 3,578,372tCO2 eq over 10 years, exceeding the PIF target of 3,084,953 tCO2 eq.

    Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

    The project components can be summarized as follows:

    Outcome 1: Enhanced institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and climate change resilience: this component will focus on building institutional capacities for ILM as well enhancing climate resilience across rural communities. Specifically, it will incorporate biodiversity conservation objectives and safeguards and climate change concerns in the land use and natural resource use planning and management process, aiming to catalyse an economically and ecologically optimal land use mix and practices in the biological corridors and neighbouring landscapes. 

    Outcome 2: Biological corridor (BC) governance and management established and demonstrated with management linkage to adjoining PAs: this component will enable the RGoB to operationalize four BCs in the project landscapes through the development of climate-smart conservation management plans and the development of technical capacity and basic infrastructure, including strengthened biological monitoring and law enforcement systems and human-wildlife conflict management interventions to address threats including encroachment and poaching in conjunction with adjoining PAs in the project landscapes.

    Outcome 3: Livelihood options for communities are made climate-resilient through diversification, SLM and climate-smart agriculture and supported by enhanced climate-resilient infrastructure: this component supports communities and service providers to enhance climate resilience of livelihoods by optimizing and diversifying production, adding post-production value and improving sustainable access to markets.  In addition, it will demonstrate how climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation as well sustainable forest management objectives can jointly be addressed, creating synergistic impacts for sustainable local development. 

    Outcome 4: Knowledge management system established to support sustainable management of forest and agricultural landscapes and climate-resilient communities: through this component, the project will ensure that information and knowledge accumulated and produced within the project will be documented and made available for wider communication and dissemination of project lessons and experiences to support the replication and scaling-up of project results.

    Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
    Location: 
    News and Updates: 

    UN to propose USD 42M from Green Climate Fund Bhutan

    UNDP and the government have collaborated to design Bhutan’s first Green Climate Fund (GCF) project worth USD 42 million (M). This project will be submitted to the GCF by next week. UNDP and the government worked for 18 months to prepare this first GCF  project. The project is aimed at making the agriculture sector resilient to climate change. While there are many irrigation channels and farm roads across the country they are currently not resilient or adaptive to climate change. The government has identified numerous areas that require  attention in such areas, which will now be submitted to the GCF.

    Kuensel Bhutan

    Tuesday 14 March 2017

     

    Display Photo: 
    Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

    Outcome 1: Enhanced institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and climate change resilience

    Outcome 2: Biological corridor (BC) governance and management established and demonstrated with management linkage to adjoining PAs.

    Outcome 3: Livelihood options for communities are made climate-resilient through diversification, SLM and climate-smart agriculture and supported by enhanced climate-resilient infrastructure.

    Outcome 4: Knowledge management system established to support sustainable management of forest and agricultural landscapes and climate-resilient communities.