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Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egyptproject aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25 percent of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced sea-level rise. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation with a total budget of US$ 31.4 million over seven years.

Sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands. Egypt relies on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, accordingly coastal inundation or saline intrusion will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s entire economy. The number of extreme weather events inducing casualties and economic losses have increased significantly in Egypt over the last ten years. These extreme events have flooded major cities, destroyed infrastructure and disturbed economic activities. In the countryside it has destroyed homes and agricultural lands, and disrupted development initiatives and the Government of Egypt's work to meet sustainable development gaols.

The GCF-financed project will expand the use of low-cost dikes system to prevent the flooding of the low-lying lands from sea surges during extreme weather events. The dike system was first tested under the pilot level under the GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) project. The project will also support the development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZM) for the North Coast of Egypt that links the plan for shore protection from sea-level rise with the national development plan of the coastal zones. The ICZM plan will be associated with the establishment of a systematic observation system to monitor Oceanographic parameters changes under a changing climate as well as the impact of the different shore protection scenarios on the coastal erosion and shore stability.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.741210567179 30.755053419625)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The "soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban and rural communities.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$31.4 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$73.8 million (co-financing from Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation)
Project Details: 

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt project will reduce coastal flooding risks in Egypt’s North Coast due to the combination of projected sea level rise and more frequent and intense extreme storm events. The first output of the project focuses on the installation of 69 km of sand dune dikes along five vulnerable hotspots within the Nile Delta that were identified during an engineering scoping assessment and technical feasibility study. This will provide a “beneficial reuse” for existing maintenance dredged material from a number of local sources that are operating under existing Government of Egypt approvals. The second project output focuses on the development of an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) plan for the entire North Coast, to manage long-term climate change risks and provide Egypt with adaptability to impending flood risks. These measures would limit potential displacement of local coastal communities and reduce the number of young people who otherwise would be compelled to search for immigration opportunities.

The barriers that will be addressed by the proposed project include a lack of high quality data to inform planning decisions; absence of a suitable framework for implementing integrated approaches to coastal adaptation; weak institutional coordination to build coastline resilience to sea level rise impacts; the significant reduction of dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment; and low institutional capacity to anticipate and manage expected sea level rise impacts. The proposed project will facilitate transformational change in the short-term by reducing coastal flooding threats along vulnerable hotspots in the Delta and in the long-term by integrating additional risks of climate change into coastal management and planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures.

The “soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban/rural communities. They have been designed to mirror natural coastal features and/or sand dunes and will transform the areas from high to low risk zones for coastal flooding. They will be stabilized with a combination of rocks and local vegetation species to encourage dune growth by trapping and stabilizing blown sand. Importantly, the coastal protection measures will provide beneficial reuse of existing dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment.

The ICZM plan will provide benefits through capacity building to enable high resolution diagnosis of coastal threats, updated regulatory and institutional frameworks to account for sea level rise, and a coastal observation system for ongoing data collection/analysis.

The project is aligned with the Government of Egypt's (GoE) priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Egypt’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the National Designated Authority (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency NDA; Coastal Research Institute (CoRI) and Shore Protection Authority (SPA)), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Work Programme to the GCF and is aligned with Government’s priorities to focus on as per the Country Programme Document, which outlines UNDP’s foci in Egypt.

Climate impacts on Egypt's North Coast

The IPCC has singled out low-lying river deltas to be one of the most vulnerable systems to climate change and sea level rise. Low-lying river deltas are home to millions of people, highly productive agricultural lands, industrial/transport infrastructure and valuable touristic assets. Compounding the vulnerability of these areas is the fact that deltas, areas of land formed from sediment where a river flows into the sea, are sinking due to both natural factors (i.e., compaction of river sediments over time) and anthropogenic factors (construction of dams that restrict the flow of sediment that would otherwise reach the river mouth and build up delta lands, groundwater abstraction). The downward motion heightens vulnerability to coastal flooding, particularly when combined with sea-level rise.

One of the three most vulnerable deltas in the world to climate change is the Nile Delta in Egypt. This region accounts for more than 50% of Egypt’s economic activity through agriculture, industry and fisheries. The Nile Delta contributes about 20% of the Egypt’s GDP and account for the largest source of employment, around 30% of the labor force. As Egypt does not produce enough food to feed its current population, any loss of prime agricultural land  due to coastal flooding from sea level rise will have a direct adverse impact on the livelihoods of millions of people and lead to hardship throughout the entire economy.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta are especially vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level. Extreme events that result in increased sea level events, driven by the combination of high tides associated with sea level rise and storm surges, have led to devastating coastal flooding and millions of dollars in damages. The impacts, including the loss of life during coastal floods in Alexandria in 2015, as well as flood waters reaching and threatening to damage the international coastal road located hundreds of meters inland were significant. The rate of sea level rise for the Nile Delta ranges between 3.2 - 6.6mm/year and is due to three major factors; globally rising sea due to thermal ocean expansion; locally sinking land due to compaction of sediments; and loss of annual replenishment of sediments. The IPCC concludes that global mean sea levels have risen between 2.8 and 3.6mm/year from 1993 to 2010. During the same period, local land subsidence has been evident across the entire Delta, with actual rates ranging from about 0.4mm/year in Alexandria to the West to around 3mm/year in Port Said to the East.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta will be more vulnerable to an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme coastal storms associated with sea level rise. As with many climate change modeling outcome, regional projections at the spatial scale of the Nile Delta suggest that the southern Mediterranean has already seen a measurable increase in the number of natural disasters: from an average of three natural disasters/year in 1980; to an average of>15/year in 2006. An increase in frequency and severity of storm surges is already evident ; and the continuation of rising seas, sinking lands, and more frequent and intense storms is a necessary inference from the review of recent trends and future climate change forecasts.

Economic damages from climate change induced sea-level rise on the North Coast of Egypt has been and will continue to be direct and far-reaching. As of 2017, much of Egypt’s population, industry, agriculture, private sector and tourism infrastructure and development is located along the northern low coastal lands, and the reliance on the Nile Delta for prime agricultural land is critically important to the country’s economy. Studies on the vulnerability of Alexandria, indicated that sea level rise of 0.3m would lead to infrastructure damage worth billions of dollars, displacement of over half a million inhabitants, and a loss of about 70,000 jobs. Moreover, the Nile Delta’s coastal lagoons are among the most productive natural systems in Egypt and they are internationally renowned for their abundant bird life. Approximately 60% of Egypt’s annual fish catch are from three main Delta lagoons, Idku, Burullus and Manzalla, separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km sand belt and dune system. Coastal flooding and/or permanent inundation of these areas would lead to a decline in water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons and corresponding adverse impacts on fisheries and biodiversity.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

The  project will enable reducing vulnerabilities of assets and populations through promoting and scaling up a set of “soft engineering solutions” and ecosystem-based coastal protection measures that can sustain proper ecosystem functioning and productivity in each of the coastal lagoons such as the conservation of existing wetlands and enhancement of their functionality. A UNDP-GEF-SCCF Climate Change Adaptation in the Nile Delta Project has tested the design and feasibility of several soft engineering solutions for coastal protection (namely beach nourishment and using of geotubes and low cost soft dikes to alleviate impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure and human settlements) per the geomorphologic, climatic, and development characteristics of the Nile Delta area. The initial results confirm the effectiveness of these designs and have been accepted by the Egyptian coastal engineering community.

The project will scale up the use of soft engineering solutions and ecosystem-based approaches to coastal protection. The proposed interventions are no-regret interventions that need to be done no matter what priorities emerge from the ICZM plan given the incidence of coastal flooding that is currently occurring. It will support the implementation of specific measures include developing a ‘vegetative buffer’ structure for coastal protection, re-nourishing beaches, reinforcing sand dune systems as a defense mechanism, re-vegetation to stabilize seabed sediment, wetland restoration and the establishment of conservation zones to preserve essential coastal habitats.

Activity 1.1 focuses on the development of soft coastal protection (pre-construction) detailed designs, and site-specific assessments undertaken for protecting 69 km of the Nile Delta in 5 vulnerable hotspot locations.
Sub-Activity 1.1.1: Generation of local data needed to characterize the vulnerable hotspot locations including, but not limited to, digital elevation maps, geomorphology, wave characteristics, storm events, erosion/accretion trends, and other data needed to assess the suitability of soft coastal protection measures subject to the combined impact of sea level rise and extreme storm events.
Sub-Activity 1.1.2: Use of the local data generated to undertake flood modeling with and without soft coastal protection in order to establish detailed design characteristics for each of the hotspot locations
Sub-Activity 1.1.3: Finalization of all in-depth design documents, specifications, and engineering drawings necessary for the development of a comprehensive bill of quantities for the soft protection measures.

Activity 2.1 focuses on constructing location-specific coastal soft protection structures at the 5 vulnerable hotspot locations. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.2.1: Initiate a tendering process to select local contractor(s) to construct the coastal protection measures, including quality control requirements, based on the finalized design documents and bill of quantities.
Sub-Activity 1.2.2: Carry out all site preparation activities associated with clearing, grubbing, stripping, dewatering and any other activities associated with site preparation at the five locations.
Sub-Activity 1.2.3: Construct the 5 coastal protection measures, including all excavation, fill placement/compaction, rip-rap placement, geotextile placement, and final grading.
Sub-Activity 1.2.4: Conduct and maintain records for site inspection during the construction period, including environmental safeguard monitoring during the lifetime of the coastal protection works

Activity 3.1 focuses developing and implementing an operations & maintenance programme for the installed soft protection structures. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.3.1: Develop a soft coastal protection maintenance manual to govern future maintenance and rehabilitation activities, tailored to Nile Delta conditions.
Sub-Activity 1.3.2: Codify the procedures in the manual within the governing regulations of the SPA.
Sub-Activity 1.3.3: Conduct operations and maintenance activities over the lifetime of the project consistent with the coastal protection maintenance manual.

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

The impacts of climate change on the north coast, especially regarding sea level rise, will further place the Nile Delta and the entire North Coast at risk. On the one hand, impacts such erosion and flooding will increase under different climate change scenarios with sea level rise, causing damages and losses in the coastal system (infrastructures, housing, livelihoods, coastal resources, etc.) leading to human migration outside and inside the country. On the other hand, key stakeholders will need stronger mechanisms to collaborate and join forces to face climate change challenges. A shift away from business-as-usual practices in coastal management is needed urgently to cope with sea level rise which is already occurring. The goal of long-term resilience building and risk reduction under climate change threats in the north coast requires a new planning paradigm, one offered by the implementation of the ICZM plan.

Activity 2.1 focuses on the development of national capability to conduct long-term climate change risk-induced hazard, vulnerability and risk high resolution assessments of erosion and flooding under climate change scenarios on an ongoing and iterative basis. This activity will include training in methods for the characterization of marine dynamics, establishment of databases and tools to model shoreline dynamics, high-resolution (HR) hazard assessment, and HR exposure, vulnerability and risk assessment. The assessments will be performed for different scenarios: current situation and long term scenarios (considering climate change and future coastal developments). The risk assessment will be performed at two different geographical scopes and scales: national for the whole north coast (based on the hazard assessment performed under the ICZM Scoping Study) and local at selected priority areas. The results of the process will lead to the selection of the next set of priority areas. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.1.1: Characterization of marine dynamics based on the numerical modelling of wind, waves, currents and sea level change in the future.
Sub-Activity 2.1.2: Establishment of coastal modeling systems consisting of databases, methods and tools suitable for modeling shoreline dynamics in the North Coast context.
Sub-Activity 2.1.3: Conducting high-resolution hazard assessment under a set of climate change scenarios to develop flooding maps that account for storm surge inundation levels that factor in projected sea level rise.
Sub-Activity 2.1.4: Conducting of vulnerability and risk high resolution assessment under climate change scenarios to integrate the exposure of coastal areas and their sensitivity to flooding and erosion impacts.

Activity 2.2 focuses on the development of a climate change risk-informed ICZM plan to include a shoreline management plan and a regulatory/legislative/institutional framework. This is the core activity of the ICZM policy cycle where the ICZM plan for the North Coast of Egypt is developed. It is estimated that the complete process for the development of the ICZM plan including the supporting frameworks will need five years. However, it is expected that there will be outputs from the ICZM plan starting from the third year of the project. Accordingly implementation of the urgent coastal protection measures will overlap with the development of ICZM plan. The ICZM Plan is essentially a planning tool that defines the objectives and measures necessary to achieve a climate-resilient development of the North Coast. It will consist of a Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) and a Coastal Management Plan (CMP), as mentioned earlier. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.2.1: Development of a Shoreline Management Plan for climate change adaptation to define the most promising shoreline management measures for climate change adaptation, and their implementation strategy.
Sub-Activity 2.2.2: Development of a regulatory and legislative framework to ensure the effective implementation of climate change adaptation activities under ICZM principles.
Sub-Activity 2.2.3: Development of an institutional governance mechanism at the national and governorate levels to ensure a shared ownership of the ICZM Plan with concerned authorities and civil society groups in the planning process.
Sub-Activity 2.2.4: Establishment of the monitoring and evaluation system to enable managers to take appropriate corrective actions to achieve the expected results of the plan by evaluating the progress of the plan implementation.
Sub-Activity 2.2.5: Initiate implementation of the coastal protection measures generated from the ICZM plan

Activity 2.3  focuses on the development of a capacity building program on climate change risk management for institutions involved in the long-term management of the north coast. The program will create the basis for a thorough understanding of various aspects of coastal management, including climate change adaptation and ICZM, as well as promoting collaborative networks equipped with the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to undertake different tasks involved in the climate change adaptation and planning of the coastal areas of Egypt. The framework for the program will aim to identify gaps and corresponding capacity needs relative to key ICZM implementation issues, and to build capacity of individuals and institutions to implement the ICZM Plan. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.3.1: Assessment of capacity needs for ICZM planning to catalog on-going coastal management capacity building activities, and to identify gaps in skills, knowledge and attitudes for the practice of ICZM and climate change adaptation.
Sub-Activity 2.3.2: Transfer of coastal observation and modelling systems to coastal management to ensure that staff from selected institutions have the necessary scientific knowledge to assimilate and integrate both the coastal observation and modelling systems.
Sub-Activity 2.3.3: Design and implementation of modular training program for MWRI/SPA and EEAA to build skills for professional development of coastal management practitioners, in a diversity of capacities (e.g. policy positions or day-to-day management).
Sub-Activity 2.3.4: Design and implementation of the modular training program for other stakeholders to be able to collaborate and actively participate in the implementation of the ICZM Plan.
Sub-Activity 2.3.5: Monitoring and evaluation of the capacity building program's results.
Sub-Activity 2.3.6: Design and implementation of a programme to promote sustainable livelihoods of poor women in hotspot areas for household income diversification and other community development activities

Activity 2.4  focuses on the implementation of specific components of a national observation system. The National Observation System has already been designed (see Annex IIa). It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.4.1: Procurement and installation of an observation/monitoring equipment relative to meteorological, oceanographic, networking, and other operational objectives for coastal zone management of climate change induced risks on coastal areas.
Sub-Activity 2.4.2: Development and implementation of a capacity building programme for MWRI/SPA and EEAA that focuses on training in the operation of all elements of the national observation system, including systems for coordination with coastal zone analysts/modelers who will use the data generated.
Sub-Activity 2.4.3: Design and implementation of a quality control/assurance programme amongst the participating institutions and agencies for the collection, evaluation, and distribution of data generated from the various components of the national observation system.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
News and Updates: 

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

Dredging Today
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) 18th Board meeting, convened in Cairo, has approved the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Project entitled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” to be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. With a total budget of $31.4 million over seven years, the project aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25% of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea-Level Rise (SLR). The SLR will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands.

Green fund approves $31.4 mln UNDP project to protect Egypt's Delta from climate change

Ahram Online
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved on Sunday a $31.4 million United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project to protect Egypt's Nile Delta from rising sea levels due to climate change, the UNDP said in a press statement. The project titled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” will be implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation over seven years. The GCF is a global fund that offers support to developing countries to deal with the challenge of climate change. The approval for the project came during the GCF's 18th board meeting in Cairo from Saturday to Monday.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia

The "Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia" aims to benefit more than 400,000 people, who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by the Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk. These pressures induced by climate change are weakening the already threatened water sources in the region, according to the Government of Colombia, affecting both the supply and quality of water that communities need to drink and water crops.

The project puts sustainable ecosystem management at the leading edge of disaster risk reduction by promoting healthier watersheds, protecting communities from floods and supporting poor rural populations to overcome water scarcity during the prolonged dry seasons. This ecosystem-based approach will also work towards achieving Colombia's Nationally Determined Contributions and a low-emission future, and will serve as a model to implement the first comprehensive climate-adaptive regional development plan. This includes the adoption of a long-term risk reduction strategy based not only on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management and the direct empowerment of vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage projected climate risks.

The project will also share new tools and technologies, such as the use of solar power and rain-water harvesting to address long-term water supply problems. This project was built with the support of local institutions, in particular from the Governor of Sucre, the municipalities of Guaranda, Majagual, Caimito, San Marcos, San Benito and Sucre-Sucre in the department of Sucre; Achí in the department of Bolivar, and Ayapel in the department of Cordoba. The universities of Cordoba and Sucre and the Regional Autonomous Corporation of the valleys of Sinú and San Jorge, CVS and Corpomojana, also participated. The most vulnerable communities in La Mojana also participated actively in the formulation of the project, including consultations with peasant and women associations, as well as the Zenues councils and the community councils of Afro-descendants.

The project scales up results that have been achieved in Colombia through other initiatives of the National Environmental System supported by UNDP, such as the Reducing risk and vulnerability to climate change in Colombia project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-75.810791105825 8.7157029633837)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
203,918 people residing in Colombia’s La Mojana region will be direct beneficiaries, with a further 201,707 people benefitting indirectly
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$38.4 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities.
Project Details: 

The Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia project supports the Government of Colombia in scaling up climate resilient integrated water resource management practices in La Mojana - one of the poorest and most climate vulnerable regions in Colombia.

Extreme events, such as intense flooding and prolonged dry seasons have caused significant impacts to the population with climate projections expecting these to become more frequent and intense. Loss of agricultural crops that sustain livelihoods, significant changes to ecosystems that have previously provided a buffer to flooding, and adverse impacts from prolonged dry periods are common and worsening with time. In addition, climate change induced pressures are straining already stressed water sources in the region, affecting both supply and quality.

The government of Colombia has formulated the Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan for La Mojana (La Mojana Action Plan). This action plan differs from past approaches in the region which were reactive and focused on infrastructure solutions that failed to address comprehensive risk. The La Mojana Action Plan in turn promotes a comprehensive approach combining structural and ecosystem-based measures tailored to the environmental and socio-economic conditions of the local population, in order to adapt to projected floods.

The Action Plan, which is being implemented by the  Adaptation Fund  of Colombia (AF), was formulated based on studies, assessments and hydrological models of the La Mojana region including flooding dynamics as well planning processes that include national, regional and local stakeholders. The plan is innovative in that it prioritizes investment in adaptive and sustainable infrastructure, sanitation, socio-economic development, environmental dynamics recovery and strengthening of governance and local capacities It does this however mostly focusing flood mitigation aimed at protecting large economic drivers and investing in infrastructure such as housing, public works, and wetland canal restoration.

This project will tackle barriers derived from climate change related to lack of access of water sources directed at local populations, loss of resilience of natural ecosystems, limited access of early warning services and products, unsustainable management practices affecting household resilience, non-adapted local livelihoods to climate variability and limited knowledge on relevant issues related to integrated water management resources.

The project will have the objective to enhance climate resilience of vulnerable communities in the La Mojana by focusing on four outputs aimed at: (1) Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes, (2) Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration (3) Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency and (4) Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems.

Activities will focus on developing technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning, systemizing existing and new knowledge on water management in projected climate scenarios, investing in individual and community alternative water solutions, wetland restoration to recover its valuable water management services, developing climate adapted rural productive practices through technologies and scientific research and collection of traditional best practices, enhancing early warning systems monitoring and products, investing in climate resilient home gardens for crop diversification, and rural extension services.

The first comprehensive climate adaptive regional development plan will serve as a model for the rest of Colombia. This includes adopting a long-term climate change risk informed disaster risk reduction strategy that is based not solely on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management. Hence it will revolve around restoring the original hydrology of the wetlands, adapting the local economy and livelihoods to the natural variation in the level of water in the wetlands through the seasons by directly empowering vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage climate risks. It will also allow the implementation of new technologies to overcome threats posed by climate change impacts on the availability of water supply. 

The project scales up results that have already been tried and tested in Colombia while promoting a paradigm shift in the adoption of technology for water supply. The project is designed with significant community involvement to promote their long term resiliency and foster project ownership, with a gender-balanced focus.

The project is aligned with the development goals on climate change adaptation plan of the GoC, including Colombia’s 2015 Nationally Determined Contributions. The project design was informed by significant local and national consultations and has been endorsed by the National Designated Authority (NDA).

Climate change in Colombia

Colombia is among a list of most vulnerable countries in the world to extreme weather impacts due the high recurrence and magnitude of disasters associated with changing climate conditions. Between 1970 and 1999, Colombia experienced an average of 2.97 disasters per year. Both La Niña and El Niño have had, and continues to have, a significant impact in Colombia. The Seismic and Geophysical Observatory of Southwestern Colombia and the Office for Disaster Attention and Prevention state that between the years 1950-2007 rainfall related disasters increased by 16.1% especially during periods of La Niña. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the occurrence of disasters related to changing climate conditions in Colombia during 2000-2005 increased by 2.4 times when compared with the period from 1970 to 1999.

Climate change has exacerbated Colombia’s vulnerability as the impacts of La Niña and El Niño have become more frequent and more intense. The most recent La Niña phenomenon (between 2010-2011) was particularly destructive causing sustained damage to much of the country’s infrastructure, economy and human lives. Colombia has, in the last decades, recorded an increased incidence of flooding and prolonged dry periods. These impacts are likely to be magnified as projected changes in precipitation and temperature unfold. National climate change projections suggest that regions across Colombia will be affected differently. Some areas will receive more precipitation. Other regions are expected to face a reduction of rainfall, which coupled with higher temperatures, threaten the availability of water in those regions. For example, projected average precipitation between 2071 and 2100 is expected to decrease by between 10-30% in a third of the total national territory. Municipalities in 14% of the national territory are projected to experience an increase of 10-30% in precipitation during the same period.

With the prevalence of six very different climatic zones in Colombia, anticipated climate change projections call for adaptive solutions that are appropriate for each region. 27.8% of the total population and 47.8% of the rural population in Colombia is classified as poor, when measured under the GoC’s Multidimensional Poverty Index. While important gains have been made at poverty reductions, economic development has not spread evenly throughout the country.

The 60-year-old internal conflict that ended recently isolated certain regions. The lack of continuous access of the government and associated public services to these regions produced development deficiencies in comparison to the national average. The result is pockets of highly vulnerable population to climate change impacts. The La Mojana region, the focus of this project, is one such area.

The GoC is aware of the impact that climate change will have on its economy and in the wellbeing of its population. Colombia’s National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (PNACC) highlights key steps that the country must make as part of its long term planning and budgeting strategy. The strategy is to be followed by all levels of government to ensure that local action is based on regional priorities (informed by climate projections and vulnerabilities at a local level) and with a focus on protecting the most climate vulnerable, such as those in the region of La Mojana.

While Colombia has made great strides in poverty reduction, positive impacts have not been evenly spread among all regions. This is the case in La Mojana, where poverty levels exceed 1.5 times the median poverty levels in the country. According to the last municipal measurement to the Multidimensional Poverty Index, La Mojana it is one of the poorest regions of the country. In 2005, 83.8% of the population of La Mojana was classified as poor (as measured by GoC’s multidimensional poverty index) when compared with 49.6% of the national average. This situation is a result of highly climate vulnerable work (agriculture and livestock based) that has been recurrently affected by extreme climate (flooding and extended dry periods), rural isolation, lack of basic services (water, sanitation and health) and low education achievement.

Access to reliable sources of safe drinking water is one of the most critical issues in La Mojana. Over 42% of the population has no access to drinking water, and where water is available, the access is extremely unequal. 20% of the population in Magangué lack access to water. In contrast, more than 80% of the population in Achi and Ayapel do not have access to safe water. This situation is only going to be compounded and exacerbated by the projected reduction in precipitation and the higher incidence of more intense and frequent extreme events such as floods and prolonged dry periods. These extreme events, which are already observed today, will not only affect water supply (particularly during prolonged dry periods), but also water quality. During floods, polluted water infiltrates wells and results in contamination of groundwater. The impact on increased morbidity among the population is a concern. For example, in Achi, the second leading cause of death for children under 5 is acute diarrheal diseases (ADD) related to poor drinking water quality.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Activity 1.1. Develop technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning for La Mojana

The project will develop a groundwater flow and quality model to ascertain the long-term dependability of groundwater solutions (a solution that has been implemented in the past through both legal and illegal ground water wells at a household and productive level and has become more common as water has become more scarce).

Activity 1.2 Management of adaptation knowledge on water management

The project will implement a knowledge management program that will create a data bank on adaptive water management, systematize lessons learned and implement training and capacity building programs targeted to relevant stakeholders at the national, regional and local level. The data bank will systematize the lessons learned from the GCF Project and will serve to develop knowledge management tools created to target stakeholders in the region such as municipal authorities, community councils, community leaders, extension workers, productive associations and national authorities. This will include the development of training material (web courses, workbooks, planning guides, etc.) and targeted workshops.

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Activities through this output are focused on diffusing regionally appropriate climate change risk sensitive water management solutions among rural communities in La Mojana (among both rural disperse and rural nuclei). Through this output, the project will procure goods and services to put in place flood resilient water infrastructure and undertake wetland restoration works. These solutions will advance climate resilient, sustainable and safe water access to La Mojana’s most water vulnerable communities and be congruent to regional climate projections. Sub activities are adapted and differentiated to address the different access needs based on the level of dispersion and water vulnerability of the population

Activity 2.1 Establish Climate Resilient Water Solutions
Activity 2.1.1. Provide household water solutions for the most water vulnerable populations in rural disperse areas.
Activity 2.1.2 Provide community water solutions for water vulnerable populations
Activity 2.1.3. Adaptation of existing water infrastructure solutions in the region.

Activity 2.2. Increase the adaptive capacity of natural ecosystems and ecosystems-based livelihoods

GCF funds will be used to prepare and implement community restorations plans for 41,532 ha of the wetlands (lentic ecosystems) as well as to address the main underlying causes of wetland degradation- livestock use and over grazing. GoC co-financing funds will restore 50 km of wetland channels to reestablish the natural water flow of the three rivers in La Mojana. Restoration will ensure community participation and ownership through strategies aimed at reincorporating wetlands to their livelihoods.

Activity 2.2.1. Establish an integrated wetland restoration plan and monitoring system.
Activity 2.2.2 Implementing community restoration plans for integrated wetland restoration plan.
Activity 2.2.3 Create ecosystem compatible livelihoods.
Activity 2.2.4 Enhance women’s leadership in ecosystem restoration informed by climate change risks.
Activity 2.2.5 will use GCF funds to address a key driver of wetland degradation and support the long term sustainability of community wetland restoration plans by developing a code of good practices for cattle livestock in wetlands.

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 3 will enhance the current early warning system through improved monitoring and forecasting capacity, increased hydrological coverage, and the dissemination of regional and productive relevant alerts that are tailored to users’ needs and communication channels. Management arrangements for the implementation process will include national government agencies such as IDEAM, the local environmental authorities (Corporaciones Autonomas), and the Regional Forecasting Center that is being created with co-financing from the GoC.

Activity 3.1. Enhancement of EWS

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

Output 4 is focused on the promotion of agro-diverse and climate resilient crops in the region and the implementation of climate adapted productive practices to enhance rural livelihoods and enable resiliency to future climate outlooks for La Mojana. GCF funds under output will be used for research and implementation of adaptive local agriculture and livestock practices to favor correct water management at a household, productive and landscape level. The output will enable water resiliency in the region to ensure that livelihoods are adapted to climate projections.

Ativity 4.1. Conduct Agro-ecosystems based livelihood diversification research
Activity 4.2 Improve rural extension for climate resilient adaptation and production.
Activity 4.3 Improve water resource management in vulnerable households for food production systems

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Gabor Vereczi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Campesinos colombianos reciben espaldarazo de US$35 millones del Fondo Verde del Clima

La cancillería de Colombia anunciño que en la 18ª reunión de la Junta del Fondo Verde para el Clima – FVC, Colombia logró que esa entidad le aprobara el proyecto “Scaling up climate resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in La Mojana”, un proyecto que viene ejecutando el Ministerio de Ambiente con el PNUD Colombia desde 2010, que busca mejorar la adaptación al cambio climático de las comunidades en la Depresión Momposina. El proyecto, que se centrará en que las comunidades mejoren su gestión del agua, tiene un costo de US$117 millones, de los cuales, $38,5 millones son recursos no reembolsables del FVC. La forma como el dinero llegará a las comunidades será a través del Fondo de Adaptación y de las diversas entidades territoriales donde tiene presencia el proyecto. El proyecto es bastate ambicioso. De acuerdo con la cancillería, se ejecutará en los próximos ocho años, y cerca de 400.000 personas de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena, Cauca y San Jorge se verán beneficiadas por el mismo. El Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) será el encargado de ejecutar los recursos. Hasta el momento, el proyecto ya ha creado 1.300 huertas comunitarias que, a su vez, son resilientes al cambio climático. Las comunidades locales en los municipios de Ayapel, San Marcos y San Benito Abad han implementado prácticas agroecológicas resilientes al cambio climático.

El Espectador Colombia
Monday 23 October 2017

Green Climate Fund approves project to strengthen climate-resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in Colombia

ReliefWeb
Tuesday 3 October 2017

US$117 million from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, including a US$38 million grant from the Green Climate Fund will benefit more than 400,000 people vulnerable to climate change Colombia, October 2, 2017 - The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved a project to “Scale Up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia.“ The project's actions are aimed at benefiting more than 400,000 people who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The project adds a US$38.4 million grant from the Green Climate Fund to US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities. "The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk," said the Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development Luis Gilberto Murillo.

ONU dona US$38,5 millones para mitigar efectos del cambio climático en La Mojana

RCN Radio
Monday 2 October 2017

El Fondo Verde del Clima, creado por las Naciones Unidas para apoyar a los países en desarrollo en la adaptación y mitigación del cambio climático, aprobó una donación de US$38,5 millones (aproximadamente $113.000 millones) para fortalecer la capacidad de adaptación de las comunidades de La Mojana, en Sucre, Córdoba y Bolívar, ante inundaciones y sequías. Dicho aval se dio durante la edición 18 de la Junta Directiva del Fondo Verde del Clima, realizada en el Cairo (Egipto). Los recursos se ejecutarán durante los próximos ocho años, es decir, hasta el año 2025. “El valor total del proyecto asciende a US$117,2 millones, por lo que los recursos restantes se financiarán así: US$61,7 millones del provendrán del Fondo de Adaptación y US$17 millones de entidades locales”, señalaron voceros de Planeación Nacional.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

GCF Readiness Programme

The Green Climate Fund Readiness Programme builds countries' capacity to access the Green Climate Fund, through preparing countries to plan for, manage, disburse and monitor climate financing. By offering results-oriented support, the Programme helps strengthen national climate finance institutional frameworks, assist in identifying climate change activities with high funding priority for the countries, and facilitate increased investment of the private sector in climate relevant areas.

Learn more at www.gcfreadinessprogramme.org.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Claudia Ortiz
Location: 
Project Status: 
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Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal

The"Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal" project supports ecosystem-based adaptation and builds the enabling environments required for long-term climate resilience. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. According to Senegal’s NAPA, the country is experiencing repeated droughts that have severely changed the water regime and vegetation cover. In addition, periodic flooding is also experienced. Targeted project areas (Niayes and Casamance) are being impacted by climate change and variability that can be summarized as: reduced rainfall (200-400 mm from north to south); high rainfall variability within and between years; increased rainfall pauses; shortening of the rainy season (the country has one rainy season with an average duration of 3 months); and an increase in temperature.

The impacts of climate change combined with human activities in the project areas, as in the rest of the country, result in a dramatic degradation of ecosystems that are the only means of survival for poor people in rural areas, which account for the vast majority. There are serious threats to agricultural production in eco-geographical areas of Niayes and Casamance due to climate change impacts such as water shortage, land degradation, salinization, siltation of valleys linked to soil erosion in highlands, and degradation of habitats among the most productive and sensitive such as mangroves and coastal areas.

Almost all social, economic, and environmental aspects in the two project areas are already seriously affected negatively by observed climate change impacts. It is also clear that these impacts will worsen in the short term and perhaps medium to long term as well, unless appropriate solutions are implemented. The desired alternative situation would be to promote the adoption by local communities of systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability. The implementation of this alternative requires the removal of several barriers including: inadequate production systems to cope with climate variability and change; weak institutional capacities for the production and use of climate information; insufficient capacity of local communities, technical services and local governing bodies to develop and implement climate change adaptation practices; and, limited technical and financial capacities of producers and households. This project, classified as a priority in Senegal’s NAPA, is designed to contribute to the desired solution through its main objective to strengthen the enabling environment for the implementation of appropriate adaptation measures based on ecosystem management in Niayes and Casamance.

The project is implemented through the Senegal Directorate of Water, Forests, Hunting and Soil Conservation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.424316410316 14.725304271151)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.1 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$12.2 million
Project Details: 

Despite various strategies, policies and measures that were undertaken, the current socio-economic situation in the Niayes and in Casamance is characterized by low resilience to climate change and variability. The weakness of the physical environment (low and erratic rainfall, low groundwater levels, salinization and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, regression of mangrove and forest) under high human pressure and degradation of systems and production tools have led to falling incomes of local people. The sources of income for local communities mainly based on the services and products from these ecosystems will be increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change and variability. Unless appropriate solutions are implemented, these effects will have negative impacts on productivity in all sectors, resulting in difficult socio-economic conditions, including increased poverty and an impediment to national development efforts.

The long-term solution promoted through this project would be to promote the adoption of integrated agro-sylvo-pastoral systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability, that will improve horticulture and rice production, strengthen the protective and production function of the band of casuarinas and ensure sound management of water resources, forests and mangroves for the benefit of local communities in the project target areas of Niayes and Casamance.

The long-term solution for local communities’ sustainable resilience to climate change will necessarily involve an understanding of climate information with the implementation of adequate financial, institutional and technical measures for a better adaptation of the socio-economic activities to climate change. Therefore, these challenges, sources of population vulnerability must be overcome by the producers to adapt to climate change in order to increase the resilience of the production systems in the intervention sites identified in the Niayes and Casamance.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Output 1.1: The climate, meteorological and hydrological network for the target areas and the capacities are strengthened in order to produce reliable data needed to monitor and analyze hydro-climatic phenomena.

Output 1.2: An integrated information system producing climate information and generating the products needed to identify risks related to climate change (e.g., maps for risk, vulnerability, etc.) is developed to help identify efficient adaptation options and develop actors’ capacities in adaptation.

Output 1.3: A platform for sharing information is established to support the management of climate risks and long-term planning for adaptation.

 

 

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Output 2.1: At least 100 hectares of mangrove plantations are managed sustainably to restore this important ecosystem as a means of support (oyster farming, for example) and reduce the impact of swell and coastal erosion.

Output 2.2: Multi-purpose community forests resilient to climate change tested in the vegetable gardens of Niayes to protect crops from wind erosion and prevent encroachment by sand dunes.

Output 2.3: At least 10 community groups, particularly women’s groups, will be supported in Casamance to improve climate resilience through agro-pastoral and agro-forestry activities and sustainable water management practices in rice paddies.

 

 

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Output 3.1: Local governments and decentralized technical services have the necessary capacities to support communities in implementing adaptation activities.

Output 3.2: The benefits from implemented adaptation solutions are monitored and shared with government officials, target communities and partners to inform them about project results replication opportunities.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Ndeye Fatou Diaw Guene
Oumar Diaw
Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods, Sub-National to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin

The "Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods and Sub-National Government System to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin" project will work to ensure that climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgetary processes, improve agricultural infrastructure and human capacity to cope with changing rainfall patterns, and diversify income-generating activities on the community level.

From an economic perspective, the implementation of the project will generate agricultural revenues. Moreover, the construction phase will generate direct, indirect and temporary jobs in the five selected communes. Furthermore, this project targets sectors (agriculture in particular) that contribute greatly to the economy in Benin in terms of GDP and employment, and by supporting these sectors and improving their resilience, the project will make a clear and direct contribution to the economy. It will create opportunities for rural livelihood diversification leading to increased economic security and less reliance on climate-sensitive rural activities. It is expected that the introduction of new adaptive practices and appropriate technological packages into crop production will increase productivity in the long run. This will help rural communities and farmers to improve their overall production and better manage risks from droughts or floods. The project will improve the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable community members and most disadvantaged groups.

The social benefits from this project are therefore manifold, since, with the acquired greater economic power, the concerned beneficiaries and communities will be able to invest in healthcare and education. Enhanced nutrition will be experienced by beneficiaries – through improved food supplies and a greater diversity of available food. With stronger health, beneficiaries will be able to engage more fully in livelihood activities. Regarding security threats in the country, the project aims at increasing cohesion between different local groups, through new infrastructure making essential resources such as water more accessible to all.

This project will have several environmental benefits, notably by improving land, soil and water management, mitigating land erosion and introducing improved agro-sylvo-pastoral practices and techniques. In all, 6237 hectares of land will be protected and improved through sustainable land management practices.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (2.2521972508485 9.0015580242753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.4 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$30 million
Project Details: 

Benin is vulnerable to climate change. Medium-term climate projections for its territory indicate important risks of insufficient levels of rain, increased evapotranspiration and more rainfall variability from one year to another. Therefore, droughts are more likely to become more and more intensive. This will impose significant challenges – most notably on growing rain-fed crops, natural tree regeneration and grazing animals. The National Land Planning scheme further describes droughts, floods and late rains as three major climatic risks. Projects aiming at preserving these areas are therefore a clear priority at the Government level.

Climate change has important impact on the agricultural sector. Agro-climatic parameters are constraining for the agricultural and forestry sector, especially in the South-West and in the Far-North that suffer frequent droughts. Academic work from Boko (1988), Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999) et de Ogouwalé (2004), are showing that rainfall decrease, reduction in the length of the agricultural season, persistence of negative anomalies, minimal temperature increase is now typical for Benin’s climate. Rainfall regimes and agricultural production systems are therefore modified.

Direct impacts of climate change on agriculture concern crop behavior, pedological modifications and yield reduction. At the crop level, phenomenon of shortening of growth cycle and premature bloom are happening, due to the increase of temperature. Besides, agricultural yield will be seriously affected by the repeated effect of rainfall deficiencies and perturbations. Hence, integration of adaptation into the agricultural sector would be crucial for reducing vulnerability of the sector.

Available evidence suggests that the most certain manifestation of climate change on precipitation is an increase in variability while the directions of changes are much more uncertain. These predicted changes in climate, despite uncertainties, are likely to have an impact on farmers who engage in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, the landless who are usually dependent on on-farm labor opportunities, and women-headed households.

Many environmental and adaptation benefits are expected to be delivered by the project at the national and local levels, among which:

  • Improved living conditions of agro-pastoral communities (through diversifying and increasing production and income).
  • Ensuring food security in concerned communes and villages
  • Better linkages between disaster risk management and climate change, by addressing existing vulnerabilities through development and operational planning, policy processes, and incentive systems.
  • Creating a virtuous circle by reducing risks induced by flooding.  
  • Emphasis on a multi-level, integrated approach to pastoral and agriculture development through support and funding for a range of initiatives to help communities and households undertake income generating activities, accompanied by awareness raising, diversification of income sources, information and capacity building.
  • Mainstreaming gender issues into pastoral development namely by: (i) addressing in all initiatives the specific needs of women and men (for instance, through well-tailored training programs, gender-sensitive income generation activities, etc.); and (ii) by identifying interventions that specifically target women as main beneficiaries (for instance, to better address households’ subsistence priority needs, cash transfers will be provided directly to women).
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Output 1.1. The capacity of the five targeted departments and municipalities and all relevant ministries to integrate gender responsive climate change adaptation in their planning and budgeting work is improved 

Output 1.2. The technical capacity of agricultural extension agents and local NGOs concerning resilience to climate change is improved

Output 1.3. The coordination and communication between actors is improved

 

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Output 2.1. Small scale climate resilient water harvesting infrastructures are designed and implemented in the five targeted municipalities

Output 2.2. Risks of floods and riverbanks erosion are reduced through the stabilization of slopes of critical riverbanks using bamboo plantation

Output 2.3. Resilient practices, such as drip irrigation techniques or short cycle improved seeds, are adopted in the five targeted municipalities

 

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Output 3.1. Targeted population’s dependency and vulnerability to climate change effects is reduced through the introduction of alternative livelihoods

Output 3.2. All women of target population (3,281 women) are trained on alternative livelihoods to agriculture to better cope with climate change impacts

Output 3.3. The capacities of 300 rural entrepreneurs and 50 SMEs (aiming at 50% women) to develop business plans in the field of sustainable craft and small-scale manufacture are strengthened in order to stimulate employment and growth

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is working with the Government of Guinea-Bissau to ensure a new tranche of US$6 milion from the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund is used to improve climate services and early warning systems in this West African nation. The "Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau" project will work to enhance the capacity of the National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) in Guinea-Bissau, ensure the effective use of weather and water information to make early warnings, mainstream climate change information into long-term development plans, and work toward ensuring the sustainability of investments in new climate services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-15.018310587294 11.978606370702, -15.029296915418 11.946363139781, -14.996337931048 11.935614542432, -15.018310587294 11.978606370702)), POINT (-14.974365274802 11.935614542432))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million (proposed GEF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$63 million (Government of Guinea Bissau proposed co-financing)
Project Details: 

Guinea-Bissau consistently ranks among the most vulnerable countries in West Africa to climate change. The primary drivers of Guinea-Bissau’s climate vulnerability are physical exposure, dependence on agriculture and fishing. Guinea-Bissau is a rural country in which agriculture, forestry, fishing and livestock farming accounted for 49.1% of GDP in 2013. The economic wealth of Guinea-Bissau bases essentially in its natural capital.

Even by African standards, little industry exists in Guinea-Bissau. Most of the population (about 82 %) work as subsistence farmers in an agriculture sector that is undeveloped and is largely based on rudimentary technology. Furthermore, the agriculture sector is dominated by the cashew nut monoculture. Over the past three years, cashew nuts have dominated Guinea-Bissau’s agriculture and national exports. In 2013, cashew nut production generated 11.9% of the country’s GDP and cashew sales accounted for 87.7% of total exports. According to the World Food Programme, 80% of those living outside the city of Bissau currently make their living from cashew nuts, which they use to trade for rice and other staple products. This can lead to a crippling dependence on a single crop for entire communities, putting their livelihoods and even their ability to feed themselves at the mercy of the harvest and international cashew prices.

The fisheries also play a vital role for Guinea-Bissau’s government, with fees for fishing licenses providing 35% of government revenue. Climate change is predicted to have adverse effects on fisheries and fishing. Rising sea temperatures, changes in circulation, acidification and loss of nursery areas, are predicted to reduce fish populations. Meanwhile, in places with rich fisheries like Guinea-Bissau, the destruction of coral reefs and mangroves destroys fish spawning grounds, decreasing the availability of fish, limiting the livelihoods of fishermen, and leading to precarious food security.

Additionally, low-elevation coastal zones stand out as Guinea-Bissau’s indicator of physical vulnerability. Most of Guinea-Bissau’s terrain consists of coastal swamps and mangroves, and over 19% of its land area lies in areas less than 10 meters above sea level. Increased flooding and saltwater intrusion due to global sea level rise could potentially affect these areas. Climate change has already begun to affect coastal farmers through saltwater intrusion into their rice paddies. Because of this, farmers who can no longer grow rice have shifted into cashew production.

Like many of its West African neighbors, Guinea-Bissau faces rainy seasons and long dry seasons, with abrupt transitions. The West African monsoon that characterizes the region’s climate is less stable than its eastern counterpart, and long droughts such as those that affected the area during the 1970s and 1980s are possible. Northern Guinea-Bissau borders the Sahel region. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the long droughts that characterize the Sahel may be spreading to this region.

Guinea-Bissau is also subject to climate related disasters risk, such as floods, storms, droughts grasshopper blights, disease epidemics (cholera, meningitis, and malaria), and sea accidents due to increasing sea surges.

The cost of climate change and disasters is high in Guinea-Bissau. The cholera epidemic in 2008 affected 105,380 people with 3032 dead, the drought between 1987 and 2009 affected 132,000 people, floods affected 1,750 people in 2007, and tropical cyclones caused 2712 victims in 2009.

To allow Guinea-Bissau to better manage climate related challenges undermining economic growth and development, it is essential to address a number of pressing challenges. These include the needs to: enhance capacity of hydro-meteorological services and networks for predicting climatic events and associated risks; develop a more effective, efficient and targeted delivery of climate information including early warnings to both planners as well as communities living on the fringes of climate induced pressures; and support improved and timely preparedness and response to forecast climate-related risks and vulnerabilities.

These objectives require developing in-country robust weather and climate observation capability, including now-casting and forecasting infrastructure which can be rapidly deployed, is relatively easy to maintain, and simple to use. Such a weather and climate monitoring system can provide Guinea-Bissau with the capacity necessary to develop: (i) an early warning system for severe weather; (ii) real-time weather and hydrological monitoring; (iii) weather forecasting capabilities (Numerical Weather Prediction); (iv) agro-meteorological information and services (including integrated crop and pest management); (v) applications related to building and management of infrastructure; (vi) tailored products for the mining planning and management; (vii) risk informed land, air and maritime transport management; (viii) integrated water resources management; (ix) adaptive coastal zone and land management; and (x) adaptation planning and policy making processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Output 1.1. Installation or rehabilitation (as appropriate) of 08 Tide Gauge Stations and 17 Limnigraphic stations with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.2. Procurement and installation and/or rehabilitation of 40 meteorological monitoring stations, with telemetry, archiving and data processing facilities

Output 1.3. Procurement and installation of technology using lightning data for monitoring severe weather events

Output 1.4. Procurement and installation of maritime weather stations (AWS430), maritime observation console (MCC401), MetCast observation console (MCC301) in the 6 ports of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.5. Procurement and installation of 10-day site specific weather forecasting systems in the 12 major towns of Guinea Bissau

Output 1.6. Procurement and installation of satellite monitoring equipment to receive real time climate and environmental information

Output 1.7. Development and implementation of a capacity building program to provide Guinea-Bissau with the required capacity to operate and maintain the purchased equipment

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into long-term development plans.  

Output 2.1. Development of a capacity building and institutional strengthening program to run hydrometeorological models and provide forecast and EW information

Output 2.2. Development of national capacity for integrating climate risk information into existing development planning and disaster management systems

Output 2.3. Development of a sustainable financing mechanism for the climate information production and dissemination system

Output 2.4. Development of new tailored climate information products for the users in the priority vulnerable sectors and locations (protected Areas, biodiversity hotspots, cash and areas agriculture, fisheries and natural capital), identified in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.5. Integration of climate risks into the GB 2025 development strategy and related operational programs in coordination with the NAP process

Output 2.6. Development of an efficient and sustainable mechanism for sharing climate products and early warning information

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Output 3.1. Project activities and impacts on global, national and local environmental benefits of MPA assessed and monitored.

Output 3.2. Project lessons and knowledge codified and disseminated nationally and internationally.

Output 3.3. Wider public awareness of climate services available and the benefits of their use achieved through comprehensive multimedia outreach and education campaigns

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced capacity of National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change. 

Outcome 2 - Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming climate change into  long-term development plans. 

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned by the project through participatory monitoring and evaluation, with special attention to gender mainstreaming, are made available to support the financial sustainability of the strategy.

Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone

The coastal zone of Sierra Leone is highly vulnerable to the increased frequency and severity of coastal erosion, flooding and storm surges which severely impact social wellbeing, livelihood security, water resources and major economic sectors such as fishing, tourism and agriculture. Coastal communities are already experiencing considerable repercussions of these impacts, notably on their livelihoods with reduced fishing productivity, ecosystem degradation and low farming outputs. The limited accessibility of climate-related data – in particular marine and sea parameters databases such as wave height, wave period, wind speed and direction – affects the ability of decision-makers to make informed planning and policy decisions for the coast and to take any clear strategic actions to remedy these negative effects. This inadequate lack of knowledge is contributing towards undermining social and economic development, particularly under a changing climate.

The "Adapting to Climate Change Induced Coastal Risks Management in Sierra Leone" project will strengthen the ability of coastal communities to systematically manage climate change risks and impacts on physical infrastructure and economic livelihoods. The project will work along the coastal zone in six pilot sites (Conakry Dee, Lakka, Hamilton, Tombo, Shenge and Turtle Island).

Barriers need to be overcome in order to achieve the project objective. These include: (i) the limited accessibility and use of data and information relevant to understanding coastal related climate risks, (ii) inadequate institutional and policy capacities for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), (iii) limited awareness programmes on coastal related climate risk and human activities along the coast; (iv) inadequate resources and financial constraints, and (v) the need to introduce climate resilient livelihood options and approaches to address the climate risk facing coastal communities. The project’s approach to be adopted will deliver three complimentary outcomes to address these barriers in a coherent and holistic manner. It shall also contribute to the improvement of Sierra Leone’s ability to systematically manage coastal risks in the face of a changing climate.

Key national partners include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA SL), the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR), the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceanography (IMBO) and the National Tourist Board (NTB).

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-12.782592799886 8.3405037764018)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
116,000 people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9.9 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$ 31.6 million (anticipated cofinancing)
Project Details: 

Studies and results relating to climate change impacts from Sierra Leone’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, 2007) revealed that rainfall and temperature patterns experienced in Sierra Leone are changing. Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged from different climate model predictions show a wide range of changes in precipitation, though all indicate a trend towards overall precipitation increase, particularly from July to December. Regional trends, indicated by the IPCC AR4, also anticipate that climate change will result in increased rainfall variability and frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including Sea Level Rise and higher storm surge risks within West African Coastal regions. Further, results from recent studies carried out as part of the second national communication (GEF-UNDP, 2012) confirm these climate change trends with records of extreme rainfall events, extensive coastal flooding throughout the country, and severe and extensive coastal erosion as result of both heavy rainfall and tidal activity.

The continued vulnerability of coastal communities in Sierra Leone to climate induced risks and related hazards are deemed a key problem. This is further exacerbated by the limited access to accurate and timely climate data and information that can be used to inform decision-making on the coast. In addition to this key problem, weak institutional regulatory capacity coupled with the absence of a national “coastal specific” community-based information system that focuses on supporting the management of climate-related risks continue to hamper long-term coastal planning, management and early warning activities. This thereby affects the ability of coastal communities to effectively and efficiently adapt to the pressures of climate change. The introduction of innovative and resilient livelihood options to address the issue of sand mining along the coast of Sierra Leone shall provide a sustainable and economically viable solution that may be embraced by the GoSL and the construction sector.

Aligning with the SDGs

  • SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere - This project aims to improve flood and marine forecasting within the coastal zone of Sierra Leone, providing useful climate information such as daily and seasonal forecasts, particularly for coastal fishing communities. By 2030 the project will seek to improve the resilience of the poor, reducing their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
  • SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security – The project will contribute towards ensuring that sustainable food production systems are initiated and that climate resilient agricultural practices are implemented within vulnerable coastal communities so as to increase productivity and production. The project will work with local Women’s Associations and develop resilient coastal small-scale farming including the provision of small scale water sources and irrigation systems to withstand droughts.
  • SDG 5 Achieve gender equality – Women account for over 90% of the people engaged in fish marketing, over 80% of retailers of food products and vegetables, and over 90% of operators involved in the artisanal processing of agricultural and fishery products. The project shall seek to ensure that women will be better empowered by enabling them to have access to financial services through a newly established Community Grant Facility, encouraging them to take action to get involved in local coastal adaptation projects that invest in sustainable livelihood activities.
  • SDG 11: Resilient cities and human settlements - The project will effectively develop national capabilities to better predict future climate scenarios of sea level rise and its related impacts on coastal communities. It will also work to create systematic processes for packaging, translating and disseminating climate information and warnings.
  • SDG 13: Fighting climate change and its impacts - The project will undertake a detailed topographic analyse along the coastline to develop coastal erosion profiles. This will allow for better detailed setback values and the development of a national coastal zone vulnerability and risk mapping programme. The new knowledge base generated on future climate risks will be integrated into national policies, strategies and planning processes. The project will also improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity strengthening on topics such as climate change adaptation, impact reduction and early warning systems.
  • SDG 15: Protect, restore and reverse land degradation – In an attempt to restore degraded mangrove forests, the project will support ecosystem-based interventions (including mangrove afforestation and reforestation programmes) as well as promoting the implementation of sustainable community based alternative income generation activities to help address deforestation.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Output 1.1:  Climate and oceanographic monitoring network (with 6 automated oceanographic monitoring systems) and related data processing systems installed along the coastal zone to improve the knowledge base for measuring future climate induced risks.

Output 1.2: Institutional capacity of MFMR, EPA-SL, SLMD, ONS, SLMQ and IMBO for assessing coastal hazard risk and vulnerability to climate change through probabilistic modelling is strengthened.

Output 1.3: A systematical link between the collected data and the existing CIDMEWS (web based GIS) is established.

Output 1.4: The human capacity of the MFMR, EPA-SL, MLGRD is strengthened and trained on CVA techniques.

 

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Output 2.1: Sea Level Rise and coastal erosion profiles developed for the six target pilot sites to support the strengthening of Coastal Zone Management Plans at both urban and district levels.

Output 2.2: Ecosystem-based adaptation design guidance to support future climate resilient planning and development in place.

Output 2.3: Marine spatial plan framework to compliment with ICZM is developed.

Output 2.4:  Sierra Leone ICZM is strengthened with the establishment of SL-ICZM-WG and sustainability mechanisms.

 

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Output 3.1: An outreach communication, information and awareness strategy designed and implemented to enhance decision-making and foster public awareness and safety about the potential impacts of climate change;

Output 3.2:  Adaptation strategies for alternative livelihoods are designed to strengthen women and sand miner youth association’s resilience to CC impact on the coastal zone so as to reduce pressure on natural resources.

Output 3.3: CSEB practices are introduced to mitigate the risk of unregulated sand mining in Sierra Leone.

Output 3.4: Participatory implementation of urgent and priority medium-scale soft (non-structural) and hard (structural) coastal adaptation works undertaken to protect coastal community at risks.

Output 3.5: Early Warning Systems are extended to target sites in the coastal zone to protect fishing and farming communities.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
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Information in French / Informations en français: 


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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enhanced availability of high quality climate risk information that is critical for development decision-making in the coastal zone.

Outcome 2 - Appropriate protection measures, policy, budgeting and legal tools and integrated coordination mechanisms developed to improve and support policy design and implementation in dealing with current and long-term coastal challenges.

Outcome 3 - Public awareness enhanced and climate resilient alternatives to sand mining promoted for better adhesion of policy makers and communities on adaptation.

Civil Society Engagement: 

 

     

    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: The Gambia

    The agriculture sectors in the Gambia heavily feature subsistence farming, mostly of cereals, and the farming of cash crops, such as groundnuts and cotton. Crop production employs roughly 70 percent of the population and generates 33 percent of GDP. The country is highly susceptible to sea-level rise, which could cause major damage to the country’s important coastal economic development assets. The Gambia has been working to formulate a comprehensive transformational adaptation plan. The country’s long-term adaptation priorities are being included in a NAP while short to medium-term priorities are being added to the Low Emissions Climate Resilient Development Strategy (LECRDS) and National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP). In addition, climate change adaptation priorities will be mainstreamed into national agriculture and livestock policies, plans and programmes.

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    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Guatemala

    Guatemala is vulnerable to frequent natural disasters. It’s not just the country’s geographical location that leaves it susceptible. Poor housing, high malnutrition and unemployment also compound the situation to make the country’s inhabitants more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with indigenous communities and farmers being among the most affected. In an effort to increase resilience, Guatemala developed a National Climate Change Action Plan (Plan de Acción Nacional de Cambio Climático, PANCC) that incorporates mitigation and adaptation priority actions. Some the activities that the country is looking to implement include: increase the production of grains, strengthen early warning systems for food and nutrition insecurity, and provide technical assistance to farmers on phytosanitary and zoosanitary measures.

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    Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Colombia

    Colombia launched its National Adaptation Plan (Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PNACC) in 2012. This milestone document was followed in 2013 by a Road Map for the country’s National Adaptation Plan (Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC). The specifics of the country’s adaptation actions are being elaborated in additional territorial and sectorial adaptation plans – one of which is a plan for the agriculture sectors. Colombia is also developing a set of adaptation indicators to monitor and evaluate impacts in selected territories. These will be incorporated into a national monitoring system and protocol.

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    GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (14.062499990295 29.697596503683), POINT (38.671874985886 25.334096687047))
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    MinAgricultura oficializa programa para preparar al campo frente al cambio climático en Colombia

    El Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, en alianza con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO) y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), formalizaron el Programa de Integración de la Agricultura en los Planes Nacionales de Adaptación. El objetivo de este programa es que al término del próximo año el país cuente con una herramienta que le permita adelantar acciones de adaptación al cambio climático, tal y como confirmó el Ministro de Agricultura, Aurelio Iragorri. "El cambio climático es una realidad que todavía muchos no están dispuestos a asumir, pero desde que trazamos los lineamientos de la política Colombia Siembra, fue una obligación vincular la actividad agropecuaria con la protección del medio ambiente y la adaptación ante los efectos, en veces devastadores, de fenómenos climáticos que determinan la productividad rural", indicó Iragorri.

    Related Publications and Documents

     

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