Taxonomy Term List
Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: The Gambia
The agriculture sectors in the Gambia heavily feature subsistence farming, mostly of cereals, and the farming of cash crops, such as groundnuts and cotton. Crop production employs roughly 70 percent of the population and generates 33 percent of GDP. The country is highly susceptible to sea-level rise, which could cause major damage to the country’s important coastal economic development assets. The Gambia has been working to formulate a comprehensive transformational adaptation plan. The country’s long-term adaptation priorities are being included in a NAP while short to medium-term priorities are being added to the Low Emissions Climate Resilient Development Strategy (LECRDS) and National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP). In addition, climate change adaptation priorities will be mainstreamed into national agriculture and livestock policies, plans and programmes.
Related Publications and Documents
Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Guatemala
Guatemala is vulnerable to frequent natural disasters. It’s not just the country’s geographical location that leaves it susceptible. Poor housing, high malnutrition and unemployment also compound the situation to make the country’s inhabitants more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with indigenous communities and farmers being among the most affected. In an effort to increase resilience, Guatemala developed a National Climate Change Action Plan (Plan de Acción Nacional de Cambio Climático, PANCC) that incorporates mitigation and adaptation priority actions. Some the activities that the country is looking to implement include: increase the production of grains, strengthen early warning systems for food and nutrition insecurity, and provide technical assistance to farmers on phytosanitary and zoosanitary measures.
Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Colombia
Colombia launched its National Adaptation Plan (Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PNACC) in 2012. This milestone document was followed in 2013 by a Road Map for the country’s National Adaptation Plan (Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC). The specifics of the country’s adaptation actions are being elaborated in additional territorial and sectorial adaptation plans – one of which is a plan for the agriculture sectors. Colombia is also developing a set of adaptation indicators to monitor and evaluate impacts in selected territories. These will be incorporated into a national monitoring system and protocol.
Related Publications and Documents
- Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático (PNACC)
- Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC
- CONPES 3700 – Estrategia Institucional para la Articulación de Polí¬ticas y Acciones en Materia de Cambio Climático en Colombia
Like other countries in the Sahel, Mali is susceptible to climate variability and is suffering from the impacts of global climate change. According to forecasts, rainfall will fluctuate even more in the future and the frequency of extreme events such as drought or heavy rain will increase. The poorest groups are harder hit by the impacts of climate change because they depend directly on natural resources for their livelihoods.
The "Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali" Project will work to strengthen Mali's National Adaptation Strategy, and works in conjunction with other UNDP-supported projects in Mali, including the Supporting Mali to Advance their NAP Process Project.
The main objective of the project is to ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.
Mali ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and presented its National Adaptation Programme of Action in 2007. The country has had a national climate policy, a climate strategy and an action plan for implementation since July 2011. At the donor conference held in May 2013 in response to the crisis in Mali, a plan was adopted for the country’s economic reconstruction. Core themes in this plan include the environment, private sector development and agriculture.
In January 2012, the Malian Government created a national climate fund designed to mobilise national and international financing from public and private sources. The government plans to use these funds to increase the population's resilience to the impacts of climate change. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) has pledged EUR 4 million to the fund and the Norwegian Government plans to contribute EUR 1.8 million. The Malian Ministry of Environment has asked GIZ to serve on the fund's steering committee as one of five donors.
The project team is working with the Malian partners to integrate climate-related issues into policies and existing planning, strategy development and monitoring instruments. The different levels of decentralisation – central government, regions and municipalities – are taken into account, which ensures that this approach is firmly established throughout the country and that resilience is being increased. Existing processes are being overhauled to take account of adaptation and mitigation potential and, where necessary, new, integrated instruments are being created to promote climate-resistant development.
Municipalities that have successfully integrated climate aspects into their planning instruments are working with the project team to identify and implement activities designed to help them and their residents deal more effectively with the consequences of climate change. This capability is extremely important, particularly when it comes to securing families’ livelihoods. The project team has given women a strong role in this process. Through direct cooperation with the municipalities, both municipal employees and the poor can benefit directly from the measures and pass on the lessons learned to other communities.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is responsible for three other areas of activity. The network of weather stations is being expanded and capabilities for analysing and using weather data developed. In addition, UNDP supports operationalisation of the climate fund so that it can be incorporated into Mali’s structures. In close consultation with the GIZ project team, UNDP also promotes adaptation measures in selected municipalities.
Main Objective - Ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.
Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean
The main objective of the proposed “Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean” project is to upscale the function of local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of the population. The project works in three target countries: Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms. The project will address climate change and disaster risks related to water resources management: in Cuba and Jamaica. The project will also focus on sustainable water management to address drought-related water shortages and coastal erosion related to sea-level rise in Jamaica and Dominican Republic. Finally, the project will address the risks related to river flooding and its effects on environment and livelihoods. The project builds on the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI), a platform launched in 2004 by UNDP, which supported the Cuban model of Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) and its transfer.
Latin America and the Caribbean is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods and landslides, many of which are regularly exacerbated by climate variability. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation regimes, including shifts in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate-related events, will affect population health, livelihoods, economies, the environment and natural resource availability across national borders. Sea level rise, already observed in recent decades, will likely lead to greater inundation, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion and greater susceptibility to storm surges.
Exposure to climate change and extreme climate-related events in the LAC region varies considerably with more than half of Caribbean nations facing ‘extreme’ exposure risks. The Caribbean nations of Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba as facing extreme and high-risk vulnerability to climate change.
The Caribbean possesses inherent geographical, economic and social characteristics which intensify vulnerability and limit ability to respond to catastrophic events. These include geographic isolation, small populations located in hazard prone areas, coastal positioning of critical and economic infrastructures, prevalence of poverty, limited capacity and resources, fragile ecosystems and undiversified economies vulnerable to shocks; weather-dependent economic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, create greater risk of negative impact of climate related events and conditions.
Changes in the rainfall regime and sea level rise are the key risk drivers in the Caribbean. Decreasing rainfall over the Caribbean is likely to be accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of heavy rainfall events, affecting the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts. A high proportion of land area of many Caribbean islands is near sea level, resulting in susceptibility to future sea level rise. Though highly uncertain, climate change may act to decrease the overall number of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) but increase the frequency of the most intense storms in the Caribbean region.
These driving forces affect important ecosystems and ecological processes in the region. Human-induced soil erosion is affecting up to 2.23 million square kilometers of land in LAC, and river networks transport these sediments and other land-based sources of pollution to the oceans, impacting coastal ecosystems. The World’s Water Quality Assessment (2016) states that about one-quarter of all river stretches in LAC fall in the severe pollution class; and the number of rural people coming into contact with polluted surface waters is estimated to be as high as 25 million.
The main objective of the project is to upscale the function of local RRMC in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of population. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms.
Component 1: Local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMCs)
Outcome 1.1.: Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.
Output 1.1.1.: RRMCs established, equipped, functional linked with national EWS. 43
Output 1.1.2.: Vulnerability and hazard studies and risk mapping available at the municipal/community level.
Output 1.1.3.: Local government and population trained on preparedness measures using EWS
Component 2: National climate information and early warning services for disaster risk reduction
Outcome 2.1.: Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.
Ouput 2.1.1: Observation network strengthened with automated weather and flow stations and related data transmission equipment refurbished and installed in disaster-prone areas44
Ouput 2.1.2.:Hydro-met and sectorial databases and information systems and platforms streamlined, software, methodologies and procedures developed for information analysis and prognosis.
Ouput 2.1.3.: Climate information and EWS products complemented and developed with ICT protocols and tailored to sectorial and local entities.
Component 3: Disaster Risk Reduction/Adaptatio n plans and measures
Outcome 3.1: Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.
Output 3.1.1: climate resilient territorial development plans (municipal, parish, provincial) developed with DRR/CCA measures integrated
Output 3.1.2. Selected adaptation measures prioritized in the development plans are implemented
Component 4: Knowledge management and South-South cooperation
Outcome 4.1: Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.
Output 4.1.1.: Technical guides, toolkits, standardized methodologies, experience notes and multimedia experience materials are developed and disseminated
Output 4.1.2.: Exchange site visits organized between participating government and community reps
Output 4.1.3.: Regional training and lessons learnt events held
Outcome 1 - Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.
Outcome 2 - Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.
Outcome 3 - Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.
Outcome 4 - Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.
Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.
By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.
The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.
The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.
The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;
Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;
Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;
Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;
Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:
Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;
Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;
Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;
Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.
Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.
Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.
Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.
Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.
Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.
Enhancing Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Forest and Agricultural Landscape and Community Livelihoods in Bhutan
The proposed "Enhancing Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Forest and Agricultural Landscape and Community Livelihoods in Bhutan" Project will operationalize an integrated landscape approach in Bhutan by strengthening biological corridors, supporting sustainable forest and agricultural systems, and building the climate resilience of community livelihoods.
The project will address concerns regarding the adverse impacts of climate change on rural livelihood security and poverty, and the effects of sector-led development practices on the ecological integrity of biodiversity-rich forested landscapes. Bhutan’s renewable natural resource (RNR) sector, which is made up of agriculture, livestock production and forestry forms a significant part of the national economy, as the largest employer with 58 percent of the working population, and with agriculture contributing 16.7 percent to the national economy in 2015. However, the RNR sector is very vulnerable to climate change impacts, which have been increasing as a result of heavy rainfall, drought, frost, hailstorms, windstorms and related land degradation.
In addition to climate-related losses, damage to crops and livestock from wildlife causes major production losses. Bhutan’s biodiversity resources are of regional and global significance and the preservation of intact, forested landscapes through the protected areas network and associated biological corridors is needed to sustain these values. However, climate change impacts and other anthropogenic threats such as land conversion, forest fires, infrastructure development and unsustainable agriculture are placing increasing pressure on biodiversity and the integrity of ecosystems in the country.
The long-term solution envisaged by the project is to ensure the effective climate resilient management of forest areas including biological corridors and adjoining protected areas, securing ecosystem services that underpin livelihoods, local and national development and climate change adaptation (CCA). However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome: 1) Insufficient institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and CCA; 2) Insufficient capacity to operationalize the biological corridor system; 3) Limited capacity, awareness and support for building livelihood resilience; and 4) Inadequate knowledge on natural resource status, ecosystem services and resilient livelihood options.
The primary rationale for the selection of the project landscapes in the central belt of the country is based on the need to strengthen the ecological network connecting protected areas in the northern third of the country with those in the centre and south of the country – in other words, biological corridors that generally follow the alignment of river valleys and intervening ridges. This is of great importance for key wildlife species such as the tiger, leopard, snow leopard and elephant with large ranges. In particular, Bhutan is regarded as key source population for the tiger across the Himalayan range and this project will be of great significance in supporting national and global tiger recovery plans.
The project landscapes contain some of the finest representational samples of a continuum of ecosystems, connecting the largely subtropical zone of southern Bhutan and the predominantly sub-alpine/ alpine zone of northern Bhutan. These landscapes, with proper conservation management plans in operation and sustainable livelihoods in practice, will cushion the adverse impacts of climate change to key development sectors and local livelihoods and enhance the ecological resilience to changing climate and associated risks.
The primary global environmental benefits that will be delivered include the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation and climate change resilient livelihoods over a landscape of 1,304,958 ha, some 75.3 % of which is under forest cover, 9.7% shrub cover, a mere 1.6% agricultural land (due to the rugged terrain), and the remainder meadows, rocky terrain and snow 13.4%. 176,400 ha lies in the four BCs and 324,405 ha in the three associated PAs, thus totalling 500,805 ha of land within the national protected areas system (including the BCs). This far exceeds the PIF target of 350,000 ha of globally significant landscapes under improved management.
The project’s climate smart agriculture and sustainable land management interventions will target SLM practices in at least 2,000 ha (some 10% of the agricultural land within the project landscapes), and SFM implementation will be supported over at least 100,000 ha of FMUs, LFMP areas and CF areas within the landscapes, in line with the PIF target. Sustainable forest management and forest conservation is anticipated to result in avoided GHG emissions of some 3,578,372tCO2 eq over 10 years, exceeding the PIF target of 3,084,953 tCO2 eq.
The project components can be summarized as follows:
Outcome 1: Enhanced institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and climate change resilience: this component will focus on building institutional capacities for ILM as well enhancing climate resilience across rural communities. Specifically, it will incorporate biodiversity conservation objectives and safeguards and climate change concerns in the land use and natural resource use planning and management process, aiming to catalyse an economically and ecologically optimal land use mix and practices in the biological corridors and neighbouring landscapes.
Outcome 2: Biological corridor (BC) governance and management established and demonstrated with management linkage to adjoining PAs: this component will enable the RGoB to operationalize four BCs in the project landscapes through the development of climate-smart conservation management plans and the development of technical capacity and basic infrastructure, including strengthened biological monitoring and law enforcement systems and human-wildlife conflict management interventions to address threats including encroachment and poaching in conjunction with adjoining PAs in the project landscapes.
Outcome 3: Livelihood options for communities are made climate-resilient through diversification, SLM and climate-smart agriculture and supported by enhanced climate-resilient infrastructure: this component supports communities and service providers to enhance climate resilience of livelihoods by optimizing and diversifying production, adding post-production value and improving sustainable access to markets. In addition, it will demonstrate how climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation as well sustainable forest management objectives can jointly be addressed, creating synergistic impacts for sustainable local development.
Outcome 4: Knowledge management system established to support sustainable management of forest and agricultural landscapes and climate-resilient communities: through this component, the project will ensure that information and knowledge accumulated and produced within the project will be documented and made available for wider communication and dissemination of project lessons and experiences to support the replication and scaling-up of project results.
UN to propose USD 42M from Green Climate Fund Bhutan
UNDP and the government have collaborated to design Bhutan’s first Green Climate Fund (GCF) project worth USD 42 million (M). This project will be submitted to the GCF by next week. UNDP and the government worked for 18 months to prepare this first GCF project. The project is aimed at making the agriculture sector resilient to climate change. While there are many irrigation channels and farm roads across the country they are currently not resilient or adaptive to climate change. The government has identified numerous areas that require attention in such areas, which will now be submitted to the GCF.
Outcome 1: Enhanced institutional capacity for integrated landscape management (ILM) and climate change resilience
Outcome 2: Biological corridor (BC) governance and management established and demonstrated with management linkage to adjoining PAs.
Outcome 3: Livelihood options for communities are made climate-resilient through diversification, SLM and climate-smart agriculture and supported by enhanced climate-resilient infrastructure.
Outcome 4: Knowledge management system established to support sustainable management of forest and agricultural landscapes and climate-resilient communities.
Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica
Based on the climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas. The “Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica” project aims to improve water supply and promote sustainable water practices of end users and productive sectors by advancing community- and ecosystem-based measures in rural aqueduct associations (ASADAS) to address projected climate-related hydrological vulnerability in northern Costa Rica. On the demand side, the project will mainstream climate change knowledge and strategies into public and private sector policy and planning in order to promote adaptation of productive practice to maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
The initial plan will be executed by the UNDP Costa Rica Country Office in close cooperation with Rural Aqueduct Association (ASADAS) and the Institute of Aqueduct and Sewers (AyA) and other relevant stakeholders. The Country Office will recruit a team of national and international consultants to undertake the activities. In the course of implementation UNDP Panama Regional Centre will be consulted for advice and guidance as requested.
This project targets three Socio-Ecological Management Units (SEMU) of Northern Costa Rica. The SEMUs 1, 2 and 3, as they are referred to, comprise the cantons (municipal territories) of Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz (SEMU 1), Liberia and Canas (SEMU 2), and Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha and Carrillo (SEMU 3). It has a total territorial extension of 10,608.9 sq-km and a population of 354,132 inhabitants. This region is targeted for SCCF financing as the supply of water resources is threatened by shortages as a result of climate change impacts.
Based on climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual area rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. In the shorter term, rainfall decreases of 15% (2030) in 2020 and 35% in 2050. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas, s
Currently the National Emergency Comission has declared a yellow alert due to a drought affecting the countys comprising SEMU 3. This will compound pressures as water consumption in the target area and is also expected to increase by at least 20% over the coming decades driven by an expected increase of exports of agro-industry products, while investments in water infrastructure, mainly by AyA (Institute of Aqueducts and Sewers), will be reduced due to fiscal and legislative constraints.
Sustained increased demand of water resources by the agriculture sector and lack of finance investment towards water infrastructure is beginning to create stress on water availability in the area. Actual productive practices, mainly pineapple, livestock and citric crops with a high water footprint index are increasing pressure on irrigation, which according to available data, most are rainfed (83% of the total) while irrigation accounts for 17%.
If climate change driven pressures are not addressed, Costa Rica´s SEMUs of the North region will inevitably experience significant water shortages that will have a severe economic impact on livelihoods and productive sectors. As a result of increased frequency of extreme weather events (particularly drought) local communities and farmers in Northern Costa Rica are currently facing reduction on their means of productions, as access to water and water infrastructure and facilities are critical to their livelihoods. Consequently the communities from the target area (SEMUs 1,2,3) are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability.
Approximately 1,900 ASADAS exist as locally organized groups of men and women from the user communities who are interested in the non-for-profit management of the local aqueduct and sanitation system. In a decentralized manner, municipalities and ASADAS provide services to about 46% of the total Costa Rican population. ASADAS alone administer and operation water systems for over 30% of the population, primarily for those in rural areas and border regions. Existing aqueduct infrastructure is often outdated and overloaded causing inefficient water service delivery, which in turn complicates the collection of fees from end users. Instability in fee-collection leads to financial uncertainty, which impedes the AyA’s ability to plan for and implement targeted improvements and new investments.
Most ASADAS and the local governments of the target area need to develop the necessary skills and have access to knowledge tools and adequate investment, in order to address the scarcity of water supply. AyA’s current investment plan, including capacity development activities directed mainly to ASADAS, rarely incorporate community-based or ecosystem-based measures. In addition, financial institutions lack proven tools capable of providing correct incentives for private sector enterprises to integrate community and water-related adaptation measures. If these entities do not strengthen their capacities to cope with climate change, the vulnerability of rural populations of the Northern region of Costa Rica will increase.
Component 1. Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Outcome 1.1: Infrastructure and technical capacity of ASADAs strengthened to cope with climate change impacts to aquifers in the target area.
Output 1.1.1.: Strengthened metering systems to track water supply to end-users (micro- and macrometers) in the ASADAS network provide updated information on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources.
Output 1.1.2.: Water catchment (well, spring, and/or rain), storage, and distribution systems in rural areas improved and resilient to climate change.
Output 1.1.3.: Water-saving devices installed in homes.
Output 1.1.4.: Pilot sanitation and purification measures (e.g., sludge management and dry composting toilets) and other adaptive technologies for wastewater management to improve water quality.
Output 1.1.5.: Water sources and associated aquifer recharge areas protected and/or rehabilitated through reforestation, natural regeneration, and other protection and conservation measures.
Outcome 1.2: The capacity of ASADA end-users in particular that of women, Maleku indigenous communities and Nicaraguan migrant workers to mainstream climate change adaptation into their livelihoods systems is built.
Output 1.2.1.: Community-based climate change training program with a gender focus and includes minority groups, such as indigenous communities. - Training Toolkit on good practices for water-conscious consumer behavior and biodiversity monitoring in place. - At least 1,500 household members and producers, including women (35%) trained to maintain and improve the use of water and sanitation in a context of increased climate impacts - Extension services (i.e., community outreach) for land use and production practices include course and support material
Outcome 1.3: Meteorological information integrated to sub-regional development plans and strategies to increase resilience of rural communities to address water variability.
Output 1.3.1.: Fifteen (15) new Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and/or Automated Flow Stations (AFS) installed to provide consistent and reliable environmental data in real time in the selected SEMUs.
Output 1.3.2.: Vulnerability Index, Adaptive Capacity Index developed and supporting the climate early warning and information system, and the Risk Management Plan for Potable Water and Sanitation (RMPPS).
Output 1.3.3.: Information monitoring system for the AyA and the ASADAS’ Management System (SAGA) to track the impact of adaptation measures with the aim to reduce the vulnerability of rural communities to address water variability due to climate change, and articulated to national-level information systems (National System of Water Resources and Hydrometeorological National System).
Output 1.3.4.: Climate early warning and information system on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources generated and disseminated to ASADAS, end users, and partners.
Component 2: Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
Outcome 2.1: Ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures are integrated into public and private sector policy, strategies and investments related to rural community water-sourcing infrastructure and services, i.e a national model of EcosystemBased Water Security Plans is developed by the project and formally endorsed by national institutions.
Output 2.1.1.: Four (4) participatory RMPPS implemented within each target canton (SEMU 1: Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz; SEMU 2: Liberia and Cañas; SEMU 3: Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha, and Carrillo).
Output 2.1.2.: The AyA and the CNE investments for the prioritized project area integrate climate change risks.
Output 2.1.3.: Ten (10) livestock and agricultural producing companies adopt a voluntary fee system (Certified Agricultural Products and Voluntary Watershed Payments) to pay for the protection of water resources.
Output 2.1.4.: Valuation modeling of ecosystem-based adaptation measures (UNEP methodology) and economic valuation of ecosystem services (UNDP methodology) support the integration of water-related risks and new ecosystems management practices within productive sectors (agriculture and livestock industry).
Outcome 2.2: The purchasing and credit policies of at least 20 agricultural and livestock trading companies and 5 financial institutions operating in the target region promote adoption of productive practices that help maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
Output 2.2.1.: Farmers incorporate ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures into their production processes, making use of revised purchasing and credit policies of agricultural and livestock trading companies and financial institutions.
Output 2.2.2.: Knowledge management system allows disseminating data, information, and toolkits to foster and mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation practices in other water-intensive productive sectors across the country.
Component 1 - Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Component 2 - Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
The "Senegal National Adaptation Plan" project will strengthen the capacity of sectoral ministries and local governments to better assess the implications of climate change and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures. With US$2.9 in proposed funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the project will develop technical and functional capacities of climate and hydrological monitoring centers, and build the necessary instruments to prioritize climate change adaptation into national and subnational budgets and plans.
As part of an early response to the challenges posed by a variable and changing climate, the Government of Senegal (GoS) formulated and published a National Adaptation Programmes for Action in 2006. The NAPA seeks to facilitate capacity building and in particular address urgent and immediate adaptation needs. However, while a number of development projects are currently being conducted in the agriculture and fisheries sectors , few take into consideration the complexities and multi-sectoral impacts of climate change. Furthermore, few economic assessments in Senegal showcase the economic impacts of climate change (with and without adaptation considered as a factor). As a result there is very little political traction for implementing proactive adaptation responses and climate risk management.
In the absence of systematic action or a strategic framework to guide adaptation over the medium and long term and without the mainstreaming of climate change responses and climate risk management into national development planning and budgeting processes, climate change will continue to pose a serious threat to hard-won development gains.
Given the uncertainties on future climate and economic circumstances and the high risks that need to be accounted for, there is need to start building “country systems” (including capacities, institutions, mandates and information sources) at national and local levels to support medium- and long-term planning and budgeting.
With resources from the GEF-LDCF, the capacity of sectoral Ministries, local governments and communities will be strengthened to better assess the implications of climate change, and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures.
Relevant national policies will be targeted such as: the Strategy Paper on Poverty Reduction III (2013 - 2017), the National Programme for Local Development (PNDL), the IWRM Plan, the Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection’s Multiyear Framework of Sector-based Expenses (DPPD ) and local development plan.
The National Adaptation Plan process offers an opportunity to take a more considered approach, working towards transformational change in the country’s capacity to increase resilience to climate change. By promoting adaptation investment into key development sectors and territorial plans , it will ensure environmental, social and economic development in a long-term, sustainable and resilient manner.
Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers ( LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA ) and decisions makers ( staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.
Output 1.1. The generation and use of climate, geophysical, geotechnical and socio-economic data by c limate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE) and research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) to support the projection of climate risks.
Output 1.2. The establishment of data collection/production, information and communication platforms.
Output 1.3. The design and institutionalization of training kits and programmes to improve decision maker’s skills.
Output 1.4. The identification & categorisation of adaptation options to address priority vulnerabilities in target national and sectoral policies.
Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments
Output 2.1. Relevant national and local development plans reviewed and budgets appropriately adjusted in support of effective adaptation
Output 2.2. A climate readiness strategy developed and implemented to ensure that necessary funds will be in place to support the adaptation options identified.
Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) and decisions makers (staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.
Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments
Promoting Innovative Finance and Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community Natural Reserves in Senegal
The "Promoting Innovative Finance and Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community Natural Reserves (Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, Delta du Saloum) in Senegal" project will work to create financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation and support capacity building for vulnerable households and community groups to build holistic responses to climate change.
With US$5.4 million in proposed funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. In the long term it will empower local institutions to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.
The LDCF-funded initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. Under this approach, in the long term, local institutions will be able to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.
To achieve the project goals, changes in practices are needed, specifically to establish attractive funding mechanisms , linked to existing local financing systems, to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation, and to provide investments and capacities to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes.
The project will complement the existing baseline by promoting long-term planning on climate changes and facilitating budgeting and establishment of innovative financing mechanisms to support climate change governance at communes’ levels. More specifically, the project will review local development plans (including RNC plans) to (i) integrate climate adaptation priorities and resilience, (ii) set up innovative & sustainable financial mechanisms, (iii) improve the capacity of local credit and saving mutuals to finance adaptation projects and also the performance of local leaders in managing adaptations finances.
The response to climate vulnerability and changes will be oriented toward investing on the restoration of key livelihood resources (natural reserves, pastures, water points, etc.), establishing minimum community based early warning systems and sustaining climate-resilient agro pastoral and diversification activities. Target communities, local government leaders and other supporting institutions, will receive support to build capacity on climate change to inform improved decision making. This is critical for informing the design of feasible, credible and useful adaptation options and support.
This innovative approach allows local government to make changes to planning instruments that affect existing local developments by incorporating climate change considerations. Through the project, communities will have access to funding from a number of competitive grants (public & private) to address adaptation issues.
The coordination arrangement, involving policy makers, extension services, private sector and community based organisations, is a major innovation and will help to articulate institutional communication - both educational and social - at different levels.
The overall project will also generate socio-economic benefits at the local level by involving communities in the 203 villages (at least 50,000 households) in a much more transitional approach in the use of natural resources through the dissemination of practices, technologies and techniques, which are expected to improve the productivity and the resilience of agro-sylvo -pastoral activities.
Long-term benefits are also expected with investment aiming at restoring communities' "Natural Capital," and providing relevant climate information. In term of sustainability , the decentralized entities (councils and villages) will be empowered in implementing adaptation investments, strengthening community organizations in order to ensure that physical infrastructure and other investments are well managed and maintained after the project closure.
Capacity-building initiatives and awareness-raising will achieved through the social and environmental sustainability, and stakeholder involvement will be strengthened through adequate social mobilization and sensitization initiatives (workshops, forums, publications, community radios’ programmes, etc.). In addition, the knowledge base will be improved, and the project will define and implement an adequate system for knowledge management and information sharing.
The natural regions of Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, and Delta du Saloum play a key role for livelihoods, as the communities are directly dependent on their natural assets, such as water, pasture, forests and fertile soil for a living.
Recognizing this richness, the communities of 203 villages established about 26 Community Natural Reserves (RNC) as well as nine credit and saving mutuals to improve the living conditions of households, specifically women groups.
However, with the effects climate change, both the natural capital maintained under these RNC and people’s economic assets will reach a tipping point. Indeed, in Senegal, droughts are the result of climate variability that more recently has manifested by a late onset of the rainy season, irregular spatial distribution of rains, and an early end to the rainy season.
Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged over the country show a trend towards decreases, particularly in the wet season. The drastic reductions in water availability at critical times (e.g. in the dry season or in drought years) and at critical locations (e.g. in the more populous areas or where livestock congregates) have direct and catastrophic impact on livelihoods of communities.
Natural grazing grounds in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo will be significantly diminished and livestock watering made difficult under climate change scenarios. This situation leads to localized conflicts between transhumant and sedentary communities, especially during the drought periods, when grazing grounds and water resources are particularly scarce.
Among other predictable impacts, climate change is also expected to result in a marked increase in the incidence and intensity of bushfires in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo. Fire can have catastrophic impacts on livelihoods, notably because of the importance of pastoral resources in target regions .
In Bas Delta Senegal , most of villages are facing a serious coastal erosion problem; the outer row of fisher folk houses has already been destroyed by the sea and thus abandoned by the population
Finally, in Saloum Delta, the reduction of water table leads to the salinization of agricultural lands. Many valleys in Saloum are now affected by salted water intrusion resulting from reduced rainfall and lack of appropriate storage under changed conditions. Under these conditions, the capacity of communities will remain weak to sustain current efforts in preserving natural capital and increasing economical capital.
Outcome 1 - C reate financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation
Output 1.1. Identify and integrate climate resilience related performance measures into local development plans, including community plans
Output 1.2. Set up sustainable financial mechanisms at sub-national level (e.g. Local Resilience budget lines/funds, Eco taxes, etc.) to attract climate finance
Output 1.3. Sustainability & performance of the nine community based credit and saving mutuals improved to attract, manage and finance priority adaptation measures identified by vulnerable communities
Output 1.4. Capacity of communes and villages leaders developed to (i) access incremental funding from non-governmental sour ces, (ii) manage and (iii) monitor adaptation investments
Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes
Output 2.1. Investments for structural adaptation measures channelled trough local budget (e.g. restoration of natural reserves/pastoral areas/water points, research development, Early Warning Systems, management of supply chains, etc.
Output 2.2. Create revolving investment funds, through credit & saving mutuals, for profitable community based climate resilient agro-pastoral investments and other diversification activities
Output 2.3. Community based organisation groups (women, youth and other producers) provided with capacity to (i) understand climate impacts; (ii) identify resilient growth production areas, (ii) manage adaptation initiatives (iii) access to rural finance, and (iv) improve entrepreneurship and organizational skills
Output 2.4. Mechanisms for capturing and dissemination of key experiences and good practices established for replication.
Outcome 1 - Create financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation
Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes