Completed

Taxonomy Term List

Africa Adaptation Programme

The Africa Adaptation Programme was launched in 2008 by the United Nations Development Programme in partnership with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Programme (WFP) and with US$92.1 million support from the Government of Japan. The AAP was established under the Japan-UNDP Joint Framework for Building Partnership to Address Climate Change in Africa, which was founded at the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) in May 2008.

Over a 3 year period, concluding at the end of 2012, AAP instituted transformational changes in the 20 African countries in the areas of 1) long-term planning; 2) leadership and institutional capacity; 3) climate-resilient policies and measures; 4) innovative finance; and 5) knowledge generation and sharing.  AAP’s support helped enhance the adaptive capacity of the AAP countries, promote early adaptation action and lay the foundation for long-term investment to increase resilience to climate change across the African continent.

The 20 AAP countries were: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome Principe, Senegal, Tanzania, and Tunisia.

Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.2265625065 14.8173706265)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$92,100,000
Project Details: 

Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change. It will exacerbate the economic, political and humanitarian stresses that countries in the region already face, and greatly reduce their capacity to eradicate extreme poverty. The poorest segments of society will be the most severely affected because they are also the least able to adapt. Responding to the threat of climate change will require concerted action on an unprecedented scale. Systematic action will be required across all levels of development planning and implementation (regional, national, sub-national, and local) if development in a number of countries is not to be reversed.

Some African countries have identified key vulnerabilities and priority adaptation measures, and others have initiated demonstration adaptation projects. However, countries continue to face a number of challenges including the following: (i) adaptation initiatives are limited in scope and scale, and their impacts are neither cohesive nor sustainable; (ii) institutional capacities, relationships, policies and practices to assess and manage climate change risks are not developed sufficiently to create an enabling environment, with corresponding political and social champions to support the formulation and implementation of efficient solutions to a problem that has complex multi-sectoral effects; (iii) limited knowledge of the most appropriate adaptation policies and measures hinders countries from preparing themselves with the necessary institutional capacities to support climate risk management; (iv) limited financing options to sustain scaled-up adaptation remains a constraint; and (v) it is difficult for countries to learn from each other about their experiences with different approaches to adaptation.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

During the three years of its implementation (2010-2012), AAP laid the groundwork for an ongoing, dynamic adaptation process in harmony with each country’s social, environmental and economic priorities. In all 20 countries, AAP has nourished an environment in which decisions and activities in support of adaptation can be evidence-based, strategic and appropriate to the goals of sustainable development, resulting in long-term investment to increase resilience to climate change.

Strengthening Long-Term Planning Mechanisms

AAP’s Data and Information Management Component (DIMC) assisted countries to develop the infrastructure and capabilities needed to access, analyse and apply climate data and information for decision-making. Overall, over 10,000 people were trained in climate data analysis under AAP’s DIMC.  AAP’s support under DIMC helped increase countries’ capacity to support vulnerability and risk assessments and use climate data and information to integrate adaptation into national development planning.

Building Institutional and Leadership Capacity

AAP assisted in enhancing professional leadership capacity and institutional effectiveness in countries by increasing awareness of climate change issues, developing multi-stakeholder approaches and implementing national adaptation strategies that address the needs of men and women equally.   For example, under AAP, Kenya established a National Climate Change Secretariat to coordinate the different climate change focal points in key government ministries. Through this multi-ministerial coordination, Kenya has facilitated the National Climate Change Response Strategy and ensured adaptation interventions take a multi-sectoral approach.

Implementing Climate-Resilient Policies and Measures

AAP provided assistance to countries to implement policy measures that protect climate sensitive sectors and encourage private sector investment in adaptation, such as adaptation pilot projects and national climate change strategies.  For example, Nigeria, with the support of AAP, adopted a National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy, which will ensure a coordinated approach to addressing climate change.

Innovative Finance

Under AAP, innovative financing options to meet national adaptation costs were expanded at the local, national, sub-regional and regional levels. For example, AAP supported Morocco to expand public-private partnerships to mobilise funds for future climate change projects in local communities.  Through a public-private partnership developed through AAP, a solar lighting project was completed in a rural community.  Additionally, AAP trained stakeholders to undertake cost-benefit analyses of adaptation options.

Generating and Sharing Knowledge

Through AAP, knowledge on adjusting national development processes to fully incorporate climate change risks and opportunity was generated and shared across all levels across all 20 countries. For example, the production and broadcast of television and radio segments (e.g. Burkina Faso, Mauritius, Namibia, and Tunisia) and documentaries (e.g. Cameroon, Kenya, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal and Tanzania) effectively shared information and concerns on climate change adaptation.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Jen Stephens
Climate Specialist
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


 

Integrating Global Environmental Issues into Bulgaria’s Regional Development Process

The project strategy is to promote a proactive integration of global environmental issues into the very process of regional and local development, as well as spatial planning, both of which are managed by the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works. This would be achieved by developing the capacity of MRDPW and MOEW to integrate global environmental objectives into the regional and local development policies and practices, as well as into spatial planning documents.

The project has been identified as a priority for Bulgaria by the NCSA for furthering its commitments under the UNCBD, UNFCCC, and UNCCD (henceforth referred to as “the Rio Conventions”). The NCSA has specifically identified the need to develop national capacity for mainstreaming global environmental objectives into the regional development process, through the integration of these objectives in the formulation and implementation of regional development policies and plans at the national, regional, district and municipal levels.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (23.3313166597 42.6770430958)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
500,000
Co-Financing Total: 
1,300,000
Project Details: 

Bulgaria is on the threshold of EU accession and is aligning its sustainable development policies with EU requirements. The goal of EU accession by 2007 offers some important opportunities for explicitly incorporating the mandates of the UNCBD, UNFCCC, and UNCCD into the regional development and spatial planning processes, which are typically focused on socio-economic issues. Bulgaria is embarking on a different, systematic regional development planning approach. The responsibility for determining the regional development path lies with the Ministry for Regional Development and Public Works (MRDPW), and this development path will be articulated through a series of documents - National Regional Development Strategy, the National Operational Programme for Regional Development (NOPRD), six Regional Development Plans (RDPs), 28 District Development Strategies (DDSs) and 264 Municipal Development Plans (MDPs). It is this evolving regional development planning process that the proposed GEF project is seeking to link in to at an early, upstream stage, so as to ensure that global environmental concerns can be mainstreamed.

Based on the findings of the National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) and subsequent discussions with key stakeholders during the PDF-A, the project strategy is to promote a proactive integration of global environmental issues into the very process of regional and local development, as well as spatial planning, both of which are managed by MRDPW. This would be achieved by developing the capacity of MRDPW to integrate global environmental objectives into the regional and local development policies and practices, as well as into spatial planning documents.

To implement the project strategy, it will be essential to involve and build ownership of the project among the following key stakeholder groups – MRDPW at all levels, MOEW, Municipal Mayors, local NGOs and private enterprises. All of these groups are essential to influencing and changing the current practice in terms of how regional and local development and spatial planning documents are formulated and implemented. A particularly important opportunity that this project is capitalizing on is the interest expressed by MRDPW to pursue such an approach during their involvement in the NCSA process.

The project has been identified as a priority for Bulgaria by the NCSA for furthering its commitments under the UNCBD, UNFCCC, and UNCCD (henceforth referred to as “the Rio Conventions”). The NCSA has specifically identified the need to develop national capacity for mainstreaming global environmental objectives into the regional development process, through the integration of these objectives in the formulation and implementation of regional development policies and plans at the national, regional, district and municipal levels.

In addition, a need for better coordination among the key ministries at the national/ central and local/ regional levels has been stated as a key to due implementation of the conventions. As stated in the NCS A report, “stakeholder coordination is insufficient to mainstream the obligations under the Conventions and to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in implementation”. Two main interconnected areas of support have been identified in this regard: i) support to institutions in the area of cross-sectoral planning, decision-making and information systems; and ii) support for decentralized integrated environmental planning and action-oriented approaches.

The main challenge has been to identify the exact linkages between the Conventions in each of the sectors and match those with the desired economic priorities identified by the Government. National and regional development policies should accommodate such principles in order to reverse the current practice of treating global environmental issues as a stand-alone agenda of limited concern to national or local development priorities. The Ministry of Environment and Water (MOEW) in Bulgaria is assigned the prime responsibility for implementing the Conventions. However, thus far, it has not been able to develop effective cross- sectoral dialogue at a government-wide level to mainstream global environmental issues into sectoral policies.

The NCSA process also assigned importance to strengthening the capacity of state institutions responsible for the management of financial resources. The objective is to improve the efficiency of their disbursement for the purpose of meeting the objectives of national development and those of the Rio Conventions. The final NCSA document of Bulgaria states: “...the strategy aims at a more efficient use of Bulgaria’s limited institutional, human and financial resources based on the following principles: ... the objectives and measures for implementation of the Conventions are mainstreamed into Bulgaria’s regulatory and economic framework in the context of its EU accession priorities”.

More specifically this includes: i) improvement of decision-making within the financial system to honor the country’s obligations under the conventions by revisiting rules and criteria for resource allocation and disbursement; ii) improvement of the workflow and capacity of the existing institutions in order to make funds of international and pre-accession mechanisms available for implementation of the Conventions, especially those that closely match with national development targets; iii) improvement of inter-agency cooperation by introducing appropriate practices into inter-governmental working groups (for example, participation of Convention expert groups and Focal Points in meetings within and among the key economic sectors); iv) building the capacity of the institution/s responsible for regional development, which should play the key role in meaningful coordination of the sectoral policies and their translation into the regional development agenda; v) development of a meaningful indicator system for monitoring and analyzing the progress towards achievement of Conventions’ objectives.

One of the four objectives of the Government Program People are the Wealth of Bulgaria, alongside with economic growth and raising the living standards, is the integration of Bulgaria MSP Integrating GE into Regional Development Planning 10 August 2005 environment into the sectoral policies. The National Economic Development Plan 2000 – 2006 identifies the five priorities of the country’s development as follows:

  • Raising the competitiveness of the Bulgarian economy
  • Human resources development
  • Improvement of the basic infrastructure and environmental protection Development of the agriculture and rural areas
  • Balanced and sustainable regional development

According to the Regional Development Act, adopted in 2004, “Regional development is a process of formation and implementation of a policy aimed at achieving balanced and sustainable development of administrative and territorial units, grouped into planning regions in the Republic of Bulgaria”. The need to create conditions for balanced and sustainable development in the regions of Bulgaria has been put forth as the top priority among the strategic objectives of the country.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: The methodologies, skills, knowledge, and information management system for mainstreaming global environmental considerations into the formulation, implementation and evaluation of regional development and spatial planning policies are in place
    • Output 1.1: Accredited training programme on the integration of UNCBD, UNFCCC, UNCCD objectives into regional development and spatial planning processes is established
    • Output 1.2: Key staff from MRDPW and MOEW is trained to integrate biodiversity, climate change and land degradation objectives into their regular work activities related to regional development planning, implementation and evaluation.
    • Output 1.3: Set of uniform indicators and guidance for application are established for measuring the contribution of regional development policy and spatial planning to meeting global environmental objectives
    • Output 1.4: A portal website dedicated to integration of biodiversity, climate change and land degradation issues into development planning is operational for all stakeholders (government, NGOs, CBOs, businesses, academic and research institutions, public)
    • Output 1.5: Develop knowledge materials from extensive information on good practices from Bulgaria, neighboring countries, EU and other regions for dissemination through the portal website.
  • Outcome 2: Institutional changes that support mainstreaming of global environment into regional development and spatial planning are in place.
    • Output 2.1: Institutional improvements introduced at MRDPW and MOEW (SEA) to sustain the capacities developed through the training programme for the integration of global environmental objectives into regional development and spatial planning
    • Output 2.2: Stakeholders have the capacity to monitor, evaluate, adapt, replicate and learn from project strategy
  • Outcome 3: Regional development plans and municipal-level spatial development plans are revised to integrate global environmental objectives in a pilot region or group of municipalities through application of capacities developed in Outcomes 1 and 2.
    • Output 3.1: The Regional Development Plan for the pilot planning region adequately integrates biodiversity, climate change and land degradation issues
    • Output 3.2: The master plan of 1 pilot municipality adequately integrates biodiversity, climate change and land degradation issues
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures and will be provided by the project team and the UNDP Country Office (UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF.

The PIU will provide regular updates on the progress on PDF A execution to the Steering Committee (via the CEO of the MNRLGE) at least once a month, and more regularly to the CEO MNRLGE and UNDP. PDF A execution will be evaluated on a timely basis by the MNRLGE and UNDP with a view to modifying PDF A activities accordingly.

Monitoring of the PDF A execution will be done by the UNDP country office , with support from the UNDP/GEF Regional Office. Audit of project expenditure will be done in accordance with agreed UNDP and GEF requirements.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP [nid:57]
Emma Mario
Country Officer
UNDP [nid:57]
Nodel Neneiya
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

National Capacity Self-Assessment, Bolivia

The goal of the National Capacity Self-Assessment is to enhance global environmental management by mainstreaming the provisions of the Rio Conventions into enhanced decentralized environmental management.

The project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

  • Enabled central-level framework to enhance decentralized capacity for environmental management and implementation of the provisions of the 3 Rio Conventions
  • Enabled decentralized institutional framework and personnel to enhance local environmental management, which include implementation of the Rio Conventions' provisions.
  • Existing Environmental Information Management System enhanced to backstop national policy and decision making in response to global environmental management needs as per the provisions of the Rio Conventions
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-68.1262008003 -16.4887389602)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
200,000
Co-Financing Total: 
X
Project Details: 

Since 2002, the direction of capacity development work undertaken by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has been guided by the Strategic Approach to Enhance Capacity Building, which was based on a comprehensive review undertaken in 1999 through the Capacity Development Initiative. The first pathway under the Strategic Approach was the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA), which provided support to countries analyze their own capabilities in meeting their commitments under the three Rio Conventions on Biodiversity Conservation, Desertification and Drought, and Climate Change. A unique feature of the NCSAs was to analyze the underlying capacities that cut across these three focal areas, identifying their challenges and needs at the individual, organizational, and systemic levels.

Countries were also to produce a Capacity Development Strategy and Action Plan that lays out a holistic programme of action to build priority capacities to meet global environmental objectives. A Global Support Programme (GSP) was operational between 2005 – 2010 to provide technical backstopping to countries undertaking their NCSAs. The GSP produced a Resource Kit that set out the guidelines and methodologies for the undertaking the NCSAs. The GSP convened 14 sub-regional workshops to support countries through a sharing of lessons learned and best practices. Workshop reports can be viewed here.

UNDP supported 111 countries to undertake their NCSAs, while UNEP supported 34 countries. Each NCSA produced thematic and cross-cutting assessments of capacity development challenges, and a Final Report and Action Plan. 


Bolivia has submitted only one National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in November 2000. The Communication established the National GHG Inventory for the year 1994, it presents the main vulnerability challenges to climate change for the forestry, water and farm sectors, as well as provides mitigation options and a description of the existing projects in the various sectors.

A Second National Communication is currently under preparation with the objectives of establishing strategic relationships with local governments and institutions for a better understanding of the impacts of climate change, to generate a national GHG inventory, to generate vulnerability studies of human systems to climate change, to collaborate with the development of climate change scenarios and to offer support to the development of pilot projects in mitigation of GHG from key sources.

The National Climate Change Program (PNCC, Spanish acronym) was created in 1995 as operational branch of the formerly known Vice Ministry of Biodiversity, Forest Resources and Environment10currently Vice-Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity and Climate Change, which acts as the Ministry of Environment and Waters’s coordinating body. The Vice-Ministry plays the role of a technical advisor to the government on climate change adaptation issues and actions to comply with the UNFCCC. The PNCC initiated research activities related to climate change issues and the first investigations on the national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation of forest, agriculture, livestock and water resources and the analysis of mitigation options for GHG emissions in the energy and not-energy sectors in order to consolidate the National Communications to the UNFCCC. Within the PNCC´s responsibilities also lies the development of National Climate Change Action Plans11 and related strategies as well as the educational dissemination of climate change issues to the Bolivian public.

The Bolivian Strategy on Climate Change will be based on the following four areas, designed to follow action within an economic and social development framework:

  • Promoting clean development in Bolivia by introducing technological changes in the agriculture, forestry, and industrial sectors, aimed to reduce GHG emissions with a positive impact on development.
  • Contributing to carbon management in forests, wetlands and other managed natural ecosystems.
  • Increasing effectiveness in energy supply and use to mitigate effects of GHG emissions and risk of contingencies.
  • Focus on increased and efficient observations, and understanding of environmental changes in Bolivia to develop effective and timely responses.

Bolivia has incorporated cross-cutting policies and programs into the 2006-2010 National Development Program to guarantee adequate and early response to the impacts of climate change. In 2007, the country issued its National Adaptation Plan (MNACC, Spanish acronym) which aims at reducing vulnerability to climate change and promoting planned adaptation within the framework of various sectoral programs. The Plan includes five sectoral programs: 1) water resources, 2) food security, 3) health, 4) human settlements and risks reduction and 5) ecosystems; and three transversal programs: 1) scientific research, 2) education, and 3) social aspects.

The first Climate Change Adaptation Strategy at the Municipal level, covering six municipalities of Titicaca Lake and Crucenos Valleys region, was issued in May 2007. Among the adaptation measures identified in the Strategy are the following priority areas: 1) territorial planning; 2) water security; 3) climate-proofing productive systems; 4) development of adaptation capacity, etc.

Bolivia is located in central South America, between 57° 26’ and 69° 38’ W longitude, and between 09° 38’ and 22° 53’ S latitude covering a geographical area of 1,098,581 km2.

Bolivia experiences a variety of climates determined by the tropical humid influences of the Equatorial Amazonian Current and the Southern Current cold-air masses. Additionally, latitude and altitude gradients between east and west have an influence on the climate.

Sources:

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The goal of the National Capacity Self-Assessment is to enhance global environmental management by mainstreaming the provisions of the Rio Conventions into enhanced decentralized environmental management.

 The project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes:

  • Enabled central-level framework to enhance decentralized capacity for environmental management and implementation of the provisions of the 3 Rio Conventions
  • Enabled decentralized institutional framework and personnel to enhance local environmental management, which include implementation of the Rio Conventions' provisions.
  • Existing Environmental Information Management System enhanced to backstop national policy and decision making in response to global environmental management needs as per the provisions of the Rio Conventions
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures and will be provided by the project team and the UNDP Country Office (UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF.

The PIU will provide regular updates on the progress on PDF A execution to the Steering Committee (via the CEO of the MNRLGE) at least once a month, and more regularly to the CEO MNRLGE and UNDP. PDF A execution will be evaluated on a timely basis by the MNRLGE and UNDP with a view to modifying PDF A activities accordingly.

Monitoring of the PDF A execution will be done by the UNDP country office, with support from the UNDP/GEF Regional Office. Audit of project expenditure will be done in accordance with agreed UNDP and GEF requirements.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Vichit Sayavongkhamdy
Country Officer
Government of Bolivia
Syamphone Sengchandala
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Uruguay- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions

Key vulnarabilities identified in Uruguay's Second National Communication (2004):

  • Agriculture
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-56.2499908372 -34.7909573241)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 

The first research activities and evaluations on vulnerability to climate change and identification of adaptation measures, covering Agriculture and Coastal Resources sectors were conducted within the framework of the Country Study made by the National Commission on Global Change through 1994-1998, with the funding of the United States Country Studies Program (USCSP).

Uruguay is currently participating in the implementation of three regional projects, with the support of the Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC) initiative:

a) Impact of global change on the coastal areas of the Río de la Plata: sea level rise and meteorological effects; b) Building capacity to assess the impact of climate change and climatic variability and to develop adaptive responses for the mixed crop and livestock production systems in the Argentinean, Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas; c) Assessing global change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation strategies for estuarine waters of the Río de la Plata.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Uruguay
Mr. Luis Santos
Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Jamaica- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key vulnarabilities identified in Jamaica's Second National Communication (2011):

  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture and food security
  • Public Health
  • Costal Resources and Human Settlement
  • Tourism
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-76.8163970872 17.9435395969)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 

Water Resources

  • Increasing and maintaining investment in hydrological monitoring and water use through a national database. This will result in improved data collection and storage on a national scale.
  •  Funding research into adopting a water resources and water supply planning method under climate change. With appropriate methods in place, consistent regional and national planning can take place under a changing climate.
  •  Developing appropriate modelling tools to assist strategic planning of water resources. There is an urgent need to develop a consistent set of appropriate modelling approaches and tools.
  •  Investigate shifting focus from ground water to surface water storage for water supply. Reducing the reliance on vulnerable coastal aquifers, in terms of quality and quantity with the increased use of surface water reservoirs to maintain supplies.

Agriculture and food security

  • Raise awareness of the potential impact of climate change on the agricultural sector. Climate change is not mentioned in the Agricultural Development Strategy 2005‐2008.
  •  Develop modelling approaches and tools to allow assessment of impacts of climate change on export and domestic crops and meat production. Detailed crop/country/climate specific assessments are required to inform an adaptation programme and policy development.
  • Develop regional links to fund and promote plant breeding programmes for common crops. Adaptation strategies include the development of crop varieties with increased temperature, drought and pest resistance.
  • Review approaches to integrated pest management under climate change. Existing pest management strategies may require modification under climate change. Care must be taken that any changes to these strategies do not have negative impacts on the environment, for example, from increased pesticide use.

Public Health

Short‐term adaptation strategies for addressing vector‐borne diseases include:

  •  Public education aimed at encouraging individuals to identify and eliminate current breeding sites and the symptoms of dengue;
  •  Surveillance in outbreak communities for the purpose of environmental sanitisation; and
  •  Adult mosquito control through the use of appropriate insecticide.

Priority should be given to:

  •  Better water monitoring and management through improvements at the National Water Commission and Water Resources Authority;
  • Improving the capabilities of ODPEM to warn of hazards;
  •  Improving data gathering ability and technical support staff of the Meteorological Office for monitoring and warning of air‐boned type diseases;
  •  More collaboration between research institutions involved in pollution control;
  •  All available climate data from sources are to be used to validate regional models and calibrate statistical models;
  • Support should be given to research institutions involved in environmental related health risks to run as many regional and statistical downscaling models as possible for calibration and intercomparison purposes

Costal Resources and Human Settlement

  • The most important measure for adapting to sea‐level rise involves a thorough revision of the present published setback guidelines. Instead of being based on slope angles, these should be related to the local risk of inundation from present and future storm events (i.e., site specific).
  • The vulnerability of communities such as Portmore to extreme weather events and the susceptibility of escape roads to flooding require a major effort to re‐engineer the Mandela Highway and other arterial roads at low elevation as all‐weather highways.
  • There will be an increasing need for beach nourishment projects for carbonate beaches.
  • Future research needs include an island‐wide estimation of vulnerability to storms and sea‐level rise (i.e., a modified CVI) to provide the technical background for decision making for coastal development proposals.

Tourism

  • Raise stakeholder awareness of the workings of both tourism and environment;
  • Stakeholder identification of detailed programme and projects;
  • Set up a comprehensive performance framework with targets;
  •  Provide more varied visitor attractions to a) put less pressure on existing natural resources and b) stimulate more visitors;
  •  Reflect social and environmental costs in the price of tourism products;
  •  Improve environmental lobbying;
  •  Implement infrastructural changes to protect the environment, e.g., groynes and levees, reforestation, and coastal zone management;
  •  Implement education and sensitisation programmes;
  •  Intensify community tourism activities; and
  •  Increase urban tourism.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Jamica
Clifford Anthony Mahlung
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Iran- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key vulnerabilites identified in Iran's Second National Communication (2010):

  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture
  • Forests and rangeland
  • Coastal zones
  • Public Health
  • Biodiversity

 

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (51.3281188915 35.7690927678)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology
  • Establish seed banks
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop and introduce policy measures, including taxes, subsidies, facilitation of free market
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
  • Reduce water pollution
  • Improve or develop water management
  • Alter system operating rules, e.g. pricing policies, legislation
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Mohammad Sadegh Ahady Palchghlo
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Indonesia- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key vulnerabilites identified in Indonesia's Second National Communication (2010):

  • Agriculture
  • Water Resources
  • Forestry
  • Coastal zones and marine ecosystems
  • Public Health
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (107.050775141 -6.20027159208)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 

Potential Adaptation Measures identified in Indonesia's Second National Communication (2010):

Agriculture

  •  Improvement of water management, irrigation scheme, soil and fertilization management including organic fertilizer and development of carbon efficient farming
  •  Development of early, drought, salinity and inundation tolerant crop varietes
  • Development of farming risks insurance against adverse climate
  • Cropping pattern adjustment by preparation and dissemination of guidance and tools as dynamic cropping calendar and flood and drought naticipation blue print

Coastal zones and marine ecosystems

  • Development of dike sequipped with polder system to protect area behind the dike
  • Mangrove rehabilitation in an effort to increase soil surface and reduce wave energy destruction so that the rate of erosion can be reduced; and
  • Practicing fish culture using sylvofishery.

Public Health

  • Improvement of the disease ecology surveillance system and development of early warning system for outbreaks;
  •  Enhancement of capacity building for the government, private sectors, civil society institutions related to the prevention and mitigation of public health aspects affected by climate change;
  •  Increasing political awareness of the effects of climate change on public health;
  •  Empowering community health service systems for the prevention and control of diseases;
  •  Conducting research and developing methods for epidemiology and medicine to break the chains of disease transmissions; and
  • Prevention and eradication of contagious and vector-borne diseases affected by climate change.

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Indonesia
Armi Susandi
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Saint Lucia's Second National Communication - December 2011

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Saint Lucia is benefitting from a considerable number of climate change adaptation projects across an array of its identified adaptation priorities, and has made a concerted effort to address climate change through its Climate Change Adaptation Policy and Strategy. The country’s dependence on tourism and vulnerability of its natural biodiversity and coastal resources may help to explain its ability to attract a considerably amount of adaptation funding, especially from projects with a global focus. In the future, adaptation program may need to build upon current efforts related to coastal zone management, agriculture, freshwater supply, and the gender dimensions of climate change impacts. It may also need to focus on areas in which action does not seem to be on-going, such as the impacts of climate change on marine resources, human settlements and human health. More programming could also be directed towards implementation of concrete adaptation measures in the field.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-61.0033200235 14.6469591162)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Agriculture and Food Security

Environmental impacts on agriculture ecosystems are likely to occur under climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to reduced precipitation, extreme events and to a lesser extent sea level rise. This is possible as areas of current microclimatic conditions are lost, and large-scale ecosystem shifts occur either in an acute manner such as in the case of extreme weather events, or though more chronic progression as in the case of annually reducing precipitation. The resultant changes in/replacement or loss of habitats due to either damage or destruction caused by climatic factors are likely to lead to loss in the diversity of habitats and species. While it may be difficult to predict the exact shifts in these areas, some extent of displacement or even loss of these areas to agricultural production is envisaged under the different climate scenarios, causing a dislocation of production and decline in availability of agricultural produce, as well as other attendant issues, such as food scarcity and increased cost of food products.

The various threats posed by climate change, particularly in respect of sea level rise and reduced precipitation are expected to further affect the quality of existing lands that are suitable for agriculture. The impacts of the foregoing include decreased crop yields and overall production levels as a result of decreasing acreages under production arising from land renunciation (abandonment). Given that the island‘s economy is still dependent on agricultural for export earnings, to support employment and to ensure food availability, climate change poses a substantial threat to the economy and to the nation‘s food security. The situation is grave when climate change impacts are combined with existing socio-economic and environmental pressures on our agricultural sector.

Coastal Sector

As the area of most economic activity on Saint Lucia, the coastal sector has been assessed for its vulnerability in the context of agricultural production, water supply, fisheries, tourism and coastal resources. It is expected that there will be impacts of sea level rise, extreme changes in precipitation patterns, storms and increased frequency of El Nino events on the sector. Climate change is likely to have both direct and indirect and largely negative effects on tourism while adding to stresses such as pollution and further compromise the long-term viability of coastal (and near-shore) ecosystems. Significant damage to fish landing sites, fish markets, fishermen‘s locker rooms, and other onshore facilities, could result from any increase in the frequency of intensity of extreme events such as floods, tropical storms and storm surges and while shipping is said to be one of the least affected sectors by climatic change, there is nonetheless need to factor in new/emerging issues such as coastal flooding and restricted access to ports, shifting zones of storminess and potentially stronger hurricanes. It is also suggested that coastal vulnerabilities will increase in light of the realisation of the National Vision Plan.

Critical Infrastructure

Infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly to storm and high rainfall events. This is further exacerbated by Saint Lucia‘s topography and the location of some of the island‘s most critical infrastructure along the coast line. Impacts would include (but not be limited to) greater inundation/erosion/ threat/loss of low-lying/coastal development and communities; loss of recreational value and carrying capacity of beaches; poor operational performance of inundated municipal and household septic systems, contaminating drainage and water supplies; reduced capacity/ performance of drainage infrastructure and bridges, increasing risk of flooding in low-lying coastal areas; interruptions in local, regional and international communication resulting from damage to and/or destruction of critical infrastructure; loss of access (temporary/permanent) to, damage or destruction of, critical infrastructure such as coastal roads and bridges, disruptive to several types of economic, social and cultural activities.

Human Settlements and Population Distribution

Since the study area for the assessment is the entire island system, for the purposes of comparison and other forms of analysis, the Human Settlements Sector Team adopted the quadrant systems approach of the Saint Lucia National Vision Plan. In support of the general approach outlined above, the team: focused on the use of local expertise; engaged in comprehensive research to ensure the production of information that is current, relevant and accurate; consulted within and across sectors; and, sought opportunities for integration in recognition of the fact that climate change is cross-cutting, requiring interdependence amongst sectors and the need for one voice to advance the issues.

Given the broad nature of the terms of reference for the assessment, the Human Settlement Sector Team recognized the need to first define the parameters of the Human Settlements Sector, identify areas of overlap with other sectors and consult with the relevant team leaders to determine and discuss the division of labour and focus for each sector team. The approach recognized that Climate Change is inherently a multi-sectoral issue and as such, the Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment required unreserved collaboration between Sector Teams. The analysis considered existing frameworks / initiatives to address current vulnerability; assessment of future vulnerability; and, proposed adaptations. The team also considered the impact on the main livelihood sectors, namely, agriculture, tourism and the coastal sector.

The impacts on the human settlements sector mirror those seen for the agriculture, coastal, critical infrastructure and tourism sectors as a result of the linkages between and overlap among them.

Forest and Marine Biodiversity

Biological diversity (biodiversity) has been considered in terms of its two main components in Saint Lucia‘s naturally occurring ecosystems – forest and marine.

Saint Lucia has a relatively large and well managed forest cover. Of a total area of 61,500 ha, the island has a forest cover of 48,133.53 ha, of which 9,186 ha is the protected forest reserve and 14,170 ha is private forests. In addition to serving as a significant sink for greenhouse gases, the forest reserve is the primary source for potable water and a source of livelihood for guides and operators who conduct guided tours along the forest trails. However, the forest is under pressure from demands for housing, tourism and agricultural lands which, if not controlled, will reduce the country‘s resilience to the impacts of climate change, particularly in the water sector.

Forest Biodiversity can be easily impact on negatively by unusual temperature variations, droughts, floods, wind damage and landslides associated with extreme weather events. Historical effects of climate variations substantiate this potential climate change impacts. The impacts are expected to be many and varied and in addition to impacts on the flora, will also impact on the fauna which rely on the health and extent of the forest for their survival. These impacts may include drought impact on forest ecosystems and habitats; loss of riparian habitats and impacts on dependent habitat species; significantly reduced stream flow and this specialized habitat would be lost as more drought-resistant species would invade former riparian areas and alteration in the range of species. Additionally, increased intensity of rainfall events leads to increase in land slippage, high erosion, increased sedimentation loads in watersheds, while reduced annual rainfall may lead to ecosystem shifts and increased vulnerability of endangered species as well as reduced water flow in watersheds. Numerous openings in the landscape may cause the forest to be less resistant to strong winds and therefore less resilient to natural disasters. In instances like this, flooding occurs in the major valleys and along the coastal areas when landslides carry tons of soil and debris, thereby affecting river channels and consequently the normal flow of these watercourses. At the same time, with the openings in landscape, wildlife can become exposed to the strong winds, storm surges and geographic displacement of individuals

Saint Lucia also has a rich marine ecosystem, which is beginning to show signs of stress. A total of approximately 250 reef fish species and 50 coral species have been identified for the island. Marine ecosystems include coral reefs, mangals and sea grass beds. Saint Lucia's marine biological resources are part of its capital for development. In addition, the health of the country's fisheries, as well as its tourism sector, is tied to the health of its marine environment whose vulnerability is likely to be exacerbated by the anticipated effects of climate change and, as a consequence, to have a significant impact on the natural, social and economic environment of the country.

Whereas increased storm events are predicted to cause physical damage to coral systems and impact negatively on nursery habitats, there will also be direct biological impacts on marine biodiversity. These include destruction of unique coastal and marine habitats (increase in coral bleaching events, could cause the destruction of major reef tracts and mangroves); increased intensity of rainfall events leads to increase in sedimentation on near-shore coral reefs; reduced reproductive frequency of endangered turtles; photosynthetic groups utilize higher CO2 availability to increase their biomass; reduced profitability of fisheries; inundation of wetlands, beach erosion, intensified flooding, and increased salinity of rivers, bays and near-shore waters; alteration in larval distribution of pelagic fish species. Indirect impacts such as reduction in quantum and variety of catch, and related economic impacts are also predicted; particularly as they relate to habitats impacted by the realisation of the national vision plan.

Tourism

The tourism sector team‘s analysis reflected an examination of impacts and vulnerabilities for existing key tourism hotspots which are identified by the intensity of tourism development and popularity of a tourism product/attraction. The northern region was selected because of the concentration of accommodation plant along the coast line and within the area and it represents a cross section of the tourism product. The assessment has adopted an approach consistent with that which was adopted in the Belize Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (2007), which recognizes that sources of vulnerability can be either supply or demand -based. Supply-based sources focus on the natural resources for tourism (marine and coastal ecosystems, land, and forests) and infrastructure (hotels, natural and man-made attractions, transportation food and beverage, water). Demand-based sources focus largely on visitors‘ perception. Such vulnerabilities include visitors‘ perception of the quality of the natural resources; weather in the host countries and countries of origin; perceptions about health and safety conditions. The team recognized the importance of these two sources and examined the associated vulnerabilities.

Adaptation interventions that seek to reduce vulnerability and increase capacity of communities and institutions to deal with climate change were explored. Measures, however, mainly addressed supply-side vulnerabilities because they are major concerns for the sector, particularly in the short term. Observed changes did not only form the basis of adaptation but potential future changes in climate were considered to ensure sustainable interventions. Temporary solutions were recommended to address climate- change driven impacts while longer term measures were be crafted in response to future climate threats.

Supply side impacts

Saint Lucia‘s tourism industry being environmentally dependent could become more vulnerable with climate change. Like many small island development states, the island is particularly vulnerable because of restricted land area. This is further compounded by the high concentration of tourist population in certain areas and the intensity of tourism activities on coastal areas. Sea-level rise therefore represents the most significant implication for climate change. Observed and potential impacts of climate change indicate an increase in the incidences of drought. Increased droughts exert additional pressure on water demand to service large scale resort particularly those water-intensive facilities and amenities such as golf courses and spas. Changes in rainfall patterns will also exacerbate flooding and slippage and erosion of soil where there are heritage attractions in such as trails and tours, which are so heavily supported by the cruise sector. As a key element of Saint Lucia‘s tourism product, natural assets could also experience greater vulnerability to environmental degradation.

Storm surges are known to cause destruction to tourism plant and their frequency can increase vulnerability of tourism plant and infrastructure to greater damage. Hotel and food and beverage plants would not be the only ones susceptible to such destruction but also marine infrastructure (berthing facilities, piers, and airports). Closure of air and sea ports would be inevitable, adversely affecting arrivals to the destination. Loss of other major components of the tourism sector can result from increased storm surges and temperatures, and reduction in water quality.

Coral reefs, a critical element of the dive tourism product, have been at risk from changes in the climate patterns. As far back as 2004, they were under tremendous threat from rising sea surface temperatures, which caused coral bleaching and reduced storm surge protection, resulting in greater economic losses from marine-based tourism activities.

Without further adaptation the tourism sector could be rated as highly vulnerable to the impacts of floods, heat-waves, storms and extreme rainfalls. Increasing temperatures are therefore expected, which will increase dependency on energy intensive technologies. Current vulnerability is also high for the accommodation sector due to increasing risk from sea level rise and high potential for structural damage particularly those in coastal areas. Increased operating and capital costs will become a predominant feature of hotel and marine-based operations (insurance, auxiliary utility costs, beach replenishment and refurbishments). The risk of droughts has increased, resulting in moderate to high vulnerability since there are few adaptation measures implemented.

Demand side impacts

The seasonality effects of the tourism industry are driven by climate variables, thereby affecting demand for the tourism product. Given the inextricable link between the environment and the destination‘s product, the demand for Saint Lucia‘s tourism product could therefore be easily affected. According to a report by the World Tourism Organization, the Caribbean, whose principal markets include North America, is at serious risk of adverse effects on demand for travel from this region. Saint Lucia‘s largest source market is from this region which, like other major markets move away from the

cold and grey winter climate moving to the warmth, sunshine and coastal pursuits.‖ Tourists will avoid this destination or shift the timing of their travel to avoid unfavorable climate conditions4 .

Strong seasonality can be exacerbated by climate change as the high tourist season coincides with low water regimes in dry season, aggravating water management and environmental issues. The tourism sector‘s vulnerability to climate change now increases as impacts of climate change (damage to coastal beaches, damage infrastructure, and increased temperatures) manifest. Increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events, sea level rise and accelerated beach erosion, degradation of coral reefs, (including bleaching) and the loss of cultural heritage through inundation and flooding are likely to reduce the attractiveness of small island states5. Not only would the change in climate be a deterrent for visitors, but also the resultant decline in quality of the environmental features that often defines the tourism product and lures them to the island.

Additionally, actions to address climate change such as environmental taxes on fuels used in air transportation could adversely affect the demand for travel to Saint Lucia. Already, such policies and their applicability for maritime transportation have been at the centre of the international climate change fora and will undoubtedly undermine the resiliency of our tourism sector.

Financial Services Sector

The role of the financial services sector in supporting all sectors during the development stage as well as the post–disaster recovery and reconstruction phases underscores both its importance and its vulnerability. These vulnerabilities relate to possible over-exposure to risks based on the IPCC predictions. The absence of enforced codes and regulations requiring construction design and practices to adequately factor in these considerations serve to exacerbate the possible impacts, which include risk reduction by adherence to nationally approved setbacks when approving loans and insuring properties and ensuring that these are in conformity with them.

Critical infrastructure and hotel development located near shores will come under direct threat as a result of sea level rise. The sector may increase premiums which will be passed on to consumers. This will be a direct cost impact to the various sectors. As clients become more aware of the impacts of climate change and they attempt to reduce their vulnerability the Financial Services Sector will see increased requests for insurance coverage and bank loans to address adaptation concerns; this will require a broadening of portfolio to cater to new needs of clientele. As a result of government‘s inclination to foster climate resilience at a national level Financial Services Sector will be required to shift their portfolios to cater to those need that this will create. Damage to critical infrastructure, housing and beachfront property can result in increased insurance claims. There is likely to be an adverse impact on farmers. Because of the direct threat which livestock and crops will come under as a result of increased intensity and frequency of hurricanes and droughts, a government response will be required to help the sector in adapting. The Financial Services Sector will therefore most likely be required to scale up financing and over coverage for agriculture infrastructure such as greenhouses to protect crops etc. Insurances will likely see increased payouts to clients; an increase in the number of medical claims filed and a possible increase in the number of clients as people seek redress with increasing health costs

Health

In order to fully assess the impacts of climate change on health, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to: climate related events in Saint Lucia; existing and proposed health facilities; population per health region; the number and type of food borne diseases within the past six years; the number and type of vector borne diseases within the past five years; meteorological data; mortality and morbidity cases related to natural disasters; and, existing legislation which can support abatement of climate change effects. In addition, expert judgment also facilitated the process, information was gathered on previous studies conducted in Saint Lucia, the Caribbean region and internationally. This information was then collated and analyzed to determine current and projected vulnerability from which, proposed adaptations were recommended to minimize the impacts on vulnerable areas. Capacity issues and constraints were also identified and appropriate recommendations were made.

Climate change can have both positive and negative impacts, directly and indirectly on the health sector. An example of how increases in temperature can possibly impact health includes direct physical impacts such as heat exhaustion, are likely to increase, whilst direct physical impacts from cold temperatures such as the incidence of influenza may decrease. Impacts on food production and mosquito breeding patterns are highly likely, but the extent and direction of such impacts is unclear at the moment. Other climatic variables, such as changes in rainfall and extreme weather events, will play a role, as will non-climatic variables such as land cover changes, urbanization and salinity. In turn, the potential health impacts of these factors will also depend on a wide range of other determinants. 

The impacts of climate change would affect the health of human populations via diverse pathways. These would vary in their complexity, scale and directness. The timing of the various impacts would also differ – some would occur soon; others would be deferred. There would be both positive and negative impacts, although expert scientific reviews predict that the latter would clearly predominate. This mainly negative impact reflects the fact that climatic change would alter many natural ecological and physical systems that are integral to earth‘s life-support systems.

The more direct impacts on health include those caused by changes in exposure to weather extremes (heat waves) those due to increases in other extreme weather events (floods, cyclones, storm-surges, droughts), and those due to a rise in production of certain air pollutants and aeroallergens (spores and moulds). In some countries, decreases in winter mortality due to milder winters may compensate for increases in summer mortality due to the increased frequency of heat waves. However, the extent of future change in the frequency, intensity and location of extreme weather events due to climate change remains uncertain.

Climate change will also affect human health via less direct mechanisms. These would include changes in the pattern of transmission of many infectious diseases – especially waterborne, food-borne, vector-borne diseases and food productivity. In the longer term, and with considerable variation between populations because of geography and vulnerability, the indirect impacts may well have greater magnitude than the more direct impacts.

Various integrated modelling studies have forecasted that an increase in ambient temperature would cause, worldwide, net increases in the geographic distribution of particular vector organisms — such as dengue-transmitting mosquitoes — although some localized decreases may also occur. Further, temperature- related changes in the life-cycle dynamics of both the vector species and the pathogenic organisms (flukes, protozoa, bacteria and viruses) would increase the potential transmission of many vector-borne diseases such as malaria (mosquito), dengue fever (mosquito) and leishmaniasis (sand-fly) – although schistosomiasis (water-snail) may undergo a net decrease in response to climate change.

Disaster Management

Hazard analysis and experience have confirmed that Saint Lucia is at risk from numerous hazards, both natural and technological. With the climate studies group projecting a warming up of 1.2oC by the 2030s, 2.1oC by the 2060s and 3.6oC by the end of the century, one can expect sea level rise, increase in the number of storms as well as an increase in the intensity of the storms. Climate related hazards were categorised as shown below: 

Source: Saint Lucia's Second National Communication (December 2011)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Reynold Murray
Country Officer
Government of Saint Lucia
Alma Jean
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Togo's Second National Communication - November 2010

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities:

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Fisheries
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (1.22215199098 6.12712968005)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Togo is located in West Africa on the Guinea Coast. At latitudes of 6‐12°N, the climate of Togo is tropical, and strongly influenced by the West African Monsoon.

The rainfall seasons of Togo are controlled by the movement of the tropical rain belt, which oscillates between the northern and southern tropics over the course of a year. In northern Togo, there is a single wet season occurring between May and November, when the ITCZ is in its northern position and the prevailing wind is south‐westerly, and a dry season between December and March when the ‘Harmattan’ wind blows north‐easterly.

The seasonal rainfall in this region varies considerably on inter‐annual and inter‐decadal timescales, due in part to variations in the movements and intensity of the ITCZ, and variations in timing and intensity of the West African Monsoon.

The most well documented cause of these variations is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). El Niño events are associated with drier conditions in West Africa. Seasonal variations in temperature in Togo are greatest in the north, with highest temperatures in the hot, dry season at 27‐32°C, and lowest at 25‐27°C. Further south, temperatures reach up to 27‐32°C in the warmest season, and 22‐25°C at their lowest.

Source: University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment. Accessed on 23 November 2009 at: http://country-profiles.geog.ox.ac.uk/.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP [nid:57]
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Yawo Jonky Tenou
Project Affiliate
Government of Togo
Koffi Hounkpe
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Guinea-Bissau- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities identified in Guinea-Bissau's Second National Communication (2011):

  • Agriculture and food security
  • Water resources
  • Coastal zones and marine ecosystems
  • Forestry
  • Tourism

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-15.5786071727 11.8526507852)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 

Potential adaptation measures identified in Guinea-Bissau's Second National Communication (2011):

Agriculture and food security

  • Improved water management (through the promotion of irrigation and integrated water resources management). 
  • Sustainable development of agriculture (components: Integrated management and soil fertility, strengthening of support services to producers and dissemination of improved technologies).
  • Improved management of other natural resources (components: organization of transhumance and route planning, sustainable management of forest resources and sustainable management of fisheries’ resources).

Forestry

  • Monitoring of forests, based on research and application of credible technologies;
  • The productive potential of the site, the extent of the growth period and the duration of the dry season should be the determining factors in the choice of species for use in reforestation and drought tolerance;
  • The best places should be reserved for demanding species with regard to soil moisture;
  • Reforestation with advisable orientation may increase the likelihood of survival of trees;
  • In the scenario of temperature increase, which imply an increase of forest fires, we should promote the early warning system for risks of fire;
  • Establishment of a regulatory and effective tax on wood for energy;
  • Plantations of species with high calorific value and high growth

Water Resources

  • Promote studies to evaluate the possibilities of building dams to retain rainwater in order to avoid the loss of these into the rivers, seas and ocean;
  • Conduct a comprehensive study on the capabilities and characteristics of the river system (tributaries and small flowing streams) with the intention of its use for irrigation and construction of small dams to hold water for agriculture and livestock breeding;
  • Construction of small ramps on the banks of the tributaries of the Geba River, in order to allow animals to drink the waters of these rivers;
  • Organization and awareness to change mentality (creation of water user associations), to improve the level of knowledge of water resources (hydrology and hydrogeology) and its operation (training);

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Guinea-Bissau
Alexandre Cabral
Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: