Caribbean

Climate Vulnerability
Similar to other parts of the world, the Caribbean has experienced climatic changes over the past few decades, and recent studies project that these changes will continue in the future (Centella, 2010; Christensen et al., 2007; Meehl et al., 2007; Mimura et al., 2007). Centella (2010) estimates that mean annual temperatures in the Caribbean will increase by between 1° and 5°C by the 2080s. Warming is projected to be greater in the northwest Caribbean territories (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica) than in the eastern Caribbean island chain (Taylor et al., 2007, cited in Centella, 2010).

Temperature increases are expected to be much larger over land areas then over the sea (Mimura et al., 2007). In regards to precipitation, climate change projections generally predict that various regions of the Caribbean will become drier (Mimura et al., 2007; Centella, 2010). Most models indicate the greatest decrease in rainfall will occur in the summer, particularly around the Greater Antilles (Mimura et al., 2007). Sea levels are also anticipated to rise due to global warming. Determining the degree to which this increase will occur in the Caribbean is challenging, however, as it is highly influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and volcanic and tectonic crustal motions. When combined with model limitations, the resulting large deviations between simulations make estimating the rate of sea level rise across the entire Caribbean region uncertain (Mimura et al., 2007).

Uncertainty also remains regarding potential changes in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, with few models having been developed that simulate hurricanes in the context of climate change.
These changes in the region’s climatic conditions are anticipated to adversely affect a number of its key resources and economic sectors. Of particular concern to countries in the region are the projected impacts of climate change on coastal zones, the quantity and quality of freshwater resources, and agricultural systems. These concerns include:

  • Coastal Zone Management: Most of the population of the Caribbean lives within the coastal zone, which is also the location of most of the region’s tourism infrastructure—a main source of employment and foreign exchange earnings. Climate change is projected to lead to: coastal erosion; risk of displacement for coastal communities; loss in touristic attractions; eutrophication and sedimentation of coastal waters; and coral bleaching.
  • Freshwater resources: Water resources are already stressed in many states as a result of forest and wetland depletion and degradation (which also compromises water quality), coupled with high water consumption to meet tourist needs. Climate change is anticipated to lead to: contamination of water supplies through salt water intrusion; further forest and wetland depletion and degradation; and decrease in water quality.
  • Agriculture: Generally, the second most important source of employment and foreign exchange earnings in the Caribbean, agricultural production is also critical to meetingsubsistence needs and ensuring the food security of island nation. Climate change could lead to a reduction on agricultural productivity, resulting in: a loss of employment and foreign exchange earnings; loss in local food production; and increased risk of food insecurity.

 Identified adaptation needs and priorities
Through their National Communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Haiti’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) and other national reports and strategies, Caribbean countries have identified priority sectors for adaptation as being coastal zones, freshwater resources and agriculture. Other important overlapping sectors that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change are tourism, human health, biodiversity and fisheries. A wide range of measures to reduce the vulnerability of Caribbean countries to the impacts of climate change have been identified, including the following:

  • Coastal Zone Management: Restoration and conservation of coastal ecosystems (mangroves and coral reefs); investments in infrastructure development (i.e., artificial breakwaters, erosion control) and coastal zone planning.
  • Freshwater Resources: Integrated watershed management; revision of water pricing; water harvesting and storage infrastructure; use of advanced technology to increase water supply in response to climate induced drought; energy-intensive technologies for water purification (such as reverse osmosis); and water production (such as desalinization).
  • Agriculture: Research into the impacts on key export crops; cultivation of drought-, heat- and salt-resistant cultivars; agricultural diversification; planting of short-cycle crop varieties; recuperating degraded lands; wider application of integrated pest management; ensuring greater efficiency in water use for crops; and installing water storage facilities .

Related Content

Japan Caribbean Climate Change Partnership

The Challenge

Climate change is recognized as one of the challenges which compounds inherent vulnerabilities in the Caribbean; it could significantly increase the risk of hurricanes and storms and threaten the region’s development. Increasing coastal erosion and severe coral reef bleaching events in 2005 and 2010 bear witness to this. Tourism and agriculture will be among the sectors most negatively impacted by these climatic changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms that small islands are highly vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stressors, with sea level rise and temperature rise among the most insidious threats for coastal flooding and erosion, ecosystem degradation and loss of livelihoods. Further, inadequate awareness, information, technical and policy capacity, and limited funding availability for informing and formulating a low-emissions development strategy are among the reasons that it has been difficult to direct and guide climate change mitigation investments in the Caribbean. In sum, climate change threatens to undermine decades of progress and effort. As a result, it is a focal area for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), being explicitly identied in goal 13 but also encompassing other goals.

The Solution

Recognising that persistent climate-related liabilities will continue to undermine their potential for sustainable development, Caribbean countries are focusing their post-2015 long-term sustainable development strategies on the principles of climate risk management and resilience building – understood as market transformations based on “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their eects or impacts.” Studies have shown that cost-effective adaptation and risk mitigation solutions can help to avoid up to 90% of expected losses. The Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP) brings together policy makers, experts and representatives of communities to encourage policy innovation for climate technology incubation and diffusion. By doing so, the initiative aims to ensure that barriers to the implementation of climate-resilient technologies are addressed and overcome in a participatory and efficient manner. Policy instruments such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) provide tailored frameworks to expand access to clean energy and to prioritise adaptation measures. As a result, concrete mitigation and adaptation will be implemented on the ground, in line with countries' long-term strategies.

Building upon and supported by the NAMAs and NAPs, the partnership will support the incubation of climate technology into targeted public sectors, private industries, and community groups and enterprises so that green, low-emission climate-resilient technologies can be tested, refined, adopted, and sustained as a practical measure to enhance national, sub-national and community level resilience. These technologies will help reduce the dependence on fossil fuel imports, setting the region on a low emission development path; as well as improve the region’s ability to respond to climate risks and opportunities in the long-run, through resilient development approaches that go beyond disaster response to extreme events. The Partnership will include the following eight Caribbean countries: the Belize, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, the republic of Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the Republic of Suriname. The Government of Japan has provided financial and technical support for this project, with UNDP acting in the capacity of implementing partner.


 

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Monitoring & Evaluation: 

 

Indicator

Baseline

Targets

End of Project

Source of verification

Risks and Assumptions

Project Objective

To support countries in advancing the process of low-emission risk-resilient development by improving energy security and integrating medium to long-term planning for adaptation to climate change

Number of plans and programmes that are informed by multi-hazard national and sub-national disaster and climate risk assessments, taking into account differentiated impacts on women and men

Few countries have a systematic process for incorporating disaster and climate risk into national planning and budgeting processes. Often “mainstreaming” of these issues is left with the key ministry and is not sufficiently integrated across sectors.

6 countries have completed NAPs, which explicitly address disaster and climate risk resilience and gender impacts

 

NAP roadmaps

 

Stocktaking/gap assessment reports 

 

Workshop reports

 

 

Evolving UNFCCC, Adaptation Committee and LEG guidance continues to support the medium to long-term adaptation planning process.

 

Key Government representatives and stakeholders recognise the value engaging in regular debate about the medium to long-term implication of climate risks and adaptation.

 

Senior planners and decision-makers continue to recognise the importance of climate change adaptation and are committed to support necessary policy changes.

Number of national/sub-national development and key sectorial plans that explicitly address disaster and/or climate risk management being implemented, disaggregated by those which are gender responsive (e.g. include the collection of disaggregated data, gender analysis and targeted actions)

 

 

Gender responsiveness and even mainstreaming of CCA and DRR are limited

 

 

 

All implemented demonstration activities are based on community-level risk and vulnerability assessment, which include gender analysis

 

 

 

 

Community capacity assessment reports (or supplemental analysis where capacity assessment previously completed)

 

Demonstration projects assessment criteria and selection justification

 

Engineer monitoring reports

 

Field visit reports

Gender inequalities and imbalances may affect the implementation efficiency of community activities as well as their sustainability. It is assumed that these imbalances can be identified early in order to adjust the project’s strategy.

 

Key community stakeholders will be open and receptive to government’s initiatives at community level, and that political considerations will not infer negatively in the implementation of the project, if for instance the communities have strong expectation on a topic unrelated to CC, disaster management, or even resilience.

Number of new jobs and other livelihoods generated, disaggregated by sex

Youth unemployment is high in the region, and women tend to have higher unemployment and less access to employment opportunities than men

50 persons develop new/enhanced skills with which they generate livelihoods, disaggregated by sex, age and sector

Training reports

 

Field visit reports

 

Mid-term evaluation

 

Final evaluation

Tools and approaches developed by the project are considered practical, locally appropriate, innovative, sustainable and cost effective.

 

Key Government representatives and stakeholders recognise the value of project-related training initiatives.

 

Low capacities of committees to support the implementation of appropriate climate resilient technologies.

Outcome 1

NAMAs and NAPs to promote alternative low-emission and climate-resilient technologies that can support energy transformation and adaptation in economic sectors are formulated and institutionalised

Number of countries where implementation of comprehensive measures - plans, strategies, policies, programmes and budgets - to achieve low-emission and climate-resilient development objectives have improved

Number of countries with disaster reduction and/or integrated disaster reduction and adaptation plans (disaggregated by gender responsiveness), and dedicated institutional frameworks and multi-stakeholder coordination mechanisms.

 

Number of national/sub-national development and key sectorial plans that explicitly address disaster and/or climate risk management being implemented, disaggregated by those which are gender responsive

Some Caribbean countries have developed urgent and immediate plans for adaptation and other related climate change strategies and started their implementation, with some having coordination mechanisms in place to integrate them into the development process as well as other elements which could be used for medium to long-term planning.

 

Almost all Caribbean countries report on lack of capacity, data, expertise, institutions and financial resources to undertake medium- to long -term oriented impact assessment and adaptation planning.

 

1 beneficiary country has submitted a NAMA to the UNFCCC (Dominica)

 

At least 3 countries have projects underway to develop NAPs/LEDS/GE Strategy (Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Lucia)

6 countries have completed NAPs, which explicitly address disaster and climate risk resilience and gender impacts

 

6 countries supported under this initiative have submitted NAMAs to UNFCCC

 

NAP roadmaps

 

Stocktaking/gap assessment reports 

 

Workshop reports

 

Coordinating mechanisms for the implementation of LEDS (e.g. NAMA registry, MRV and GHG inventory systems) and certified professionals for MRV, LEDS and NAMA oversight

 

Approved NAPs and NAMAs

Evolving UNFCCC, Adaptation Committee and LEG guidance continues to support the medium to long-term adaptation planning process.

 

Key Government representatives and stakeholders recognise the value engaging in regular debate about the medium to long-term implication of climate risks and adaptation.

 

Senior planners and decision-makers continue to recognise the importance of climate change adaptation and are committed to support necessary policy changes.

 

Tools and approaches developed by the project are considered practical, locally appropriate, innovative, sustainable and cost effective.

 

Key Government representatives and stakeholders recognise the value of project-related training initiatives.

Outputs to deliver Outcome 1:

Output 1.1. Technical support towards national and sub-national institutional and coordination arrangements in Caribbean countries to support the formulation of national roadmaps on the NAP process, including elements for monitoring the progress of their implementation.

Output 1.2. National teams are trained in the use of tools, methods and approaches to advance the NAP process and budgeting. 

Output 1.3. Business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission baselines established, and climate change mitigation options for selected sectors relevant for the Caribbean region identified.

Output 1.4. Design and implementation of NAMAs in the Caribbean with MRV systems and NAMA registries in place to monitor their execution.

Outcome 2

Selected mitigation and adaptation technologies transferred and adopted for low emission and climate resilient development in the Caribbean

 

Number of people with improved access to energy

 

Number people with improved access to energy as a result of UNDP-supported interventions

 

% of households benefitting from improved access to energy which are female-headed households

 

Number of schemes which expand and diversify the productive base based on the use of sustainable production technologies.

 

Number of communities where sector-specific risk reduction measures  are being implemented, disaggregated by urban and rural areas

Few positive measures exist (water harvesting, micro-dams, water saving incentives) but are limited in reach and need up-scaling

 

Some countries have incentives and mechanisms to encourage sustainable practices within various sectors.

20% increase in kWh of RE capacity installed in vulnerable communities

 

20% increase in kWh of RE capacity installed in agricultural operations

 

150 people with improved access to energy

 

55% of households benefitting from improved access to energy are female-headed households

 

5% decrease in or avoided tCO2 emissions

 

10 agricultural sites implementing climate adaptation and sustainable production methods

 

12 communities implementing risk reduction measures, disaggregated by urban/rural area

APR

 

Local level assessments at demonstration sites

 

Physical inspections

 

Field visit reports

 

Infrastructure designs and plans

 

Official country documents such as national reports

Target population do not see the benefit of new practices.

 

Low capacities of committees to support the implementation of appropriate climate resilient technologies.

 

Insufficient awareness of climate change by farmers.

 

Availability of technical expertise and equipment locally

Outputs to deliver Outcome 2:

Output 2.1 Affordable climate-resilient community-based water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in selected target areas (e.g. communal reservoirs, rooftop catchment, rainwater storage tanks and conveyance systems)

Output 2.2 Crop diversification practices tested for their ability to improve resilience of farmers to climate change impacts.

Output 2.3 Community-based water capacity and irrigation systems improved or developed to test their ability to raise agricultural productivity. 

Output 2.4 Climate-resilient agro-pastoral practices and technologies (e.g. water management and soil fertility) demonstrated in selected target areas.

Output 2.5 Small-scale infrastructure implemented to reduce climate change and disaster-induced losses

Output 2.6 Energy pilot demonstrations applied to selected adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk management interventions to catalyse low-emission climate-resilient technology transfer, development and investments in the Caribbean

Outcome 3

Knowledge networks strengthened in Caribbean to foster South-South and North-South cooperation through sharing of experiences surrounding climate change, natural hazard risk and resilience

 

Number of new partnership mechanisms with funding for sustainable management solutions of natural resources, ecosystem services, chemicals and waste

 at national and/or sub-national level

Several formal and informal relationships exist within the region, and opportunities for cooperation originate in many forms, including through regional bodies as well as projects

3 partnership mechanisms agreed

Reports from workshops/policy dialogues

 

MOUs, partnership agreements, letters of agreement

 

Mid-term evaluation

 

Final evaluation

Experience and lessons sharing among beneficiary countries will lead to formal partnership for sharing of technical capacity, data and other resources.

Number of case studies disseminated and available on regional knowledge platforms

Often project results can be lost after project ends or only confined to a small number of users

10 case studies shared on at least 2 regional platforms

e.g. CCCCC, CIMH, CDEMA websites

 

UNDP website, ALM

It is assumed that all institutions will collaborate in information sharing

 

Outputs to deliver Outcome 3:

Output 3.1 Capacity building within the region to sustain and enhance approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation

Output 3.2 Communication campaign on the benefits of mitigation and adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk management interventions to catalyse low emission technologies for sustainable cities in island towns and communities

Output 3.3 Japan-Caribbean transfer of technical and process-oriented information on experiences, good practice, lessons and examples of relevance to medium to long-term national, sector and local planning and budgeting processes


 

Contacts: 
Yoko Ebisawa
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Project Manager
Neisha Manickchand
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Technical Specialist
Donna Gittens
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Technical Specialist
Sherri Frederick
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Monitoring & Evaluation Analyst
Penny Bowen
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Communications Associate
Wilfred Tate
JCCCP National Focal Point - Belize
Claudine Roberts
JCCCP National Focal Point - Dominica
Astrid Lynch
JCCCP National Focal Point - Guyana
Annlyn Mc Phie
JCCCP National Focal Point - Grenada
Eltha Brown
JCCCP National Focal Point - Jamaica
Kurt Prospere
JCCCP National Focal Point - Saint Lucia
Ruthvin Harper
JCCCP National Focal Point - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sharon Legiman
JCCCP National Focal Point - Suriname
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre's Internation Conference on Climate Change for the Caribbean

More than 100 climate scientists, researchers and negotiators from across the Caribbean and the world gathered at the Hilton Hotel in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad from October 9 to 12, 2017, to highlight the region’s climate change adaptation successes at the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) International Conference on Climate Change for the Caribbean.

Youth Climate Change Conference 2017

Caribbean and Japanese youth have put forward their recommendations for climate-smart actions for the region following two days of intense dialogue between October 10-11, 2017 at the third staging of the Youth Climate Change Conference at the Jamaica Conference Centre.

National Adaptation Plan Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean

Representatives from twenty-six countries in the Latin America and Caribbean countries attended the regional workshop on national adaptation plans (NAPs), held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from 4 to 7 September, 2017.

Capacity Development for Media Practitioners

J-CCCP provided climate change training to more than 30 journalists from across the region. The two-day training seminar enabled media practitioners to learn and share best practices on climate change issues including, climate change science, economics and policy as well as the role of media entities in communicating on climate change.

Consultation for the Development of a Transportation NAMA in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

As St. Vincent and the Grenadines pursues the development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) in the transportation sector, stakeholders gathered to consult on the process.

Presentation of KAP Study Results and Campaign Brainstorming in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Stakeholders, some of whom took part in data collection for the study, gathered to hear the results of a knowledge, attitudes and practices study conducted in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in December, 2016. Participants also assisted with the development of campaign approaches and committed to supporting campaign implementation.

Development of Belize's National Communication Strategy for Climate Change

J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a national communications plan for climate change. This support was in the form of a workshop where stakeholders from key sectors across the country fed into the development of the plan. 

Caribbean Climate Change Coordination Seminar

In April 2016, representatives from regional organisations gathered in St. Lucia to map synergies and actions between development partners and the Project relating to NAPs, NAMAs and knowledge management and communications. Organisations in attendance included: CARDI, CARICOM, CEDMA, CCCCC, CYEN, CIMH, CARPHA, and PANOS, among others. For NAP and NAMA development and pilot projects, organisations were asked to identify stages at which each organisation may be able to lend support based on their expertise, the specific nature of the assistance and how additional funding could be leveraged. Participants also contributed to plans under outcome 3, including policy events, study tours and campaigns and noted that the exercise was useful in order to break a trend of working in silos.-NAMA training

Training Seminar on the Development and Implementation of Climate Mitigation Actions

J-CCCP partnered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Regional Collaboration Centre (UNFCCC RCC), the UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme and local Ministries in the months of June and September to conduct two-day training seminars in Belize, Grenada, Guyana, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname. The seminars were designed to support the development of climate mitigation actions, including Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Approximately two hundred persons were trained in total. 

National Adaptation Plans Regional Workshop for the Caribbean

Representatives from 10 Caribbean countries, including J-CCCP’s 8 beneficiary countries, met in Grenada’s capital of St. Georges to discuss strategies to prepare for the impact of climate change. Following Grenada’s final consultation on its National Adaptation Plan (NAP), they were able to share lessons from their experience of national adaptation planning, including some key topics such as political buy-in, coordination, integration of the sectoral plan, climate finance with peers through this two-day event.  The NAP Assembly was co-hosted by Grenada’s Ministry of Education, Human Resource Development and the Environment; the UNDP Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP); and the NAP Global Network.

National Communication Strategy Development Workshop - Belize

J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a country-wide communications strategy. This workshop saw Communications Professionals from Belizean Ministries, CBOs, NGOs and the media gather to have inputs into the strategy. The Project will focus its efforts on implementing the initial stage of the strategy with support from other local stakeholders.  

News and Updates: 
November, 2017
 
 
October, 2017
 
 
October, 2017
 
September, 2017
 
September, 2017
 
 
 
July, 2017
 
April, 2017
 
 
 
February, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
November, 2016

June, 2016

UNDP and UNFCCC Initiates Training Seminars for Climate Mitigation Actions in the Caribbean

 

January, 2016

Japan and UNDP kick start US$15 million Caribbean Climate Change Project

 

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Civil Society Engagement: