Tajikistan

 

Tajikistan is a landlocked country situated in the mountainous part of Central Asia. It covers an area of 143,100 square kilometres and has a maximum width of about 700 km and a maximum length of about 350 km. Tajikistan is considered a low-income country; over two-thirds of the population lives on less than US$2.15 a day. Tajikistan's economy was seriously weakened by the civil war lasting from 1992 to 1997, but is now making a slow recovery. The main sectors of the economy are non-ferrous metallurgy (lead, zinc and aluminum), light industry and agriculture, with cotton being its most important export commodity (World Bank, 2010). Access to energy, especially in rural areas, is a significant challenge for Tajikistan (UNDP, 2009). Many rural communities use wood from forests for heating houses and cooking, which is negatively impacting biodiversity, increasing erosion and potentially augmenting vulnerability to the impacts of climate change (World Bank, 2011).

There is an abundance and diversity of natural resources in Tajikistan, including glaciers, lakes, flora, fauna and forests. Some of Tajikistan's adaptation projects include: improvements to the transportation network, modernization of industries to reduce greenhouse gas production, development of water saving technologies, construction of additional renewable energy sources, shore protection activities to better manage natural disaster risks and reforestation.  93% of Tajikistan’s terrain is comprised of mountains, to the east there is Pamir the most harsh and mountainous region and in the central region there are the Kuhiston mountain ranges. The west of Tajikistan is covered by low hills and irrigational plantations and in the north there is the Ferghana valley and the Kuramin range. The climate is characterised by aridity and extreme differences in temperature between seasons and amongst regions. There is also considerable inter-annual variability in the climate. Forests are considered to play an important role in Tajikistan because they regulate the climate and serve as a source of raw materials.

Tajikistan is considered the main glacial centre of Central Asia and glaciers occupy about 6% of the total country area. These glaciers form an important function by retaining water, controlling flows and regulating the climate. Glaciers and permafrost are the main source of water recharging the Aral Sea river basins. In Tajikistan’s Second National Communication of 31 December 2008 it is noted that the snow and glaciers contribute several cubic kilometres of freshwater to the main river basins in Tajikistan. In general, Tajikistan’s current climate is continental, subtropical and semiarid, with some desert areas. However, the climate changes drastically according to elevation. Already, the country has lost more than 20 billion cubic meters of the glaciers’ ice volume (i.e., about 2.5 percent, mostly affecting small glaciers) during the twentieth century; a further increase in temperature will accelerate glacial retreat. Rainfall tends to be sporadic and in recent years (e.g., from 1999 to 2002) most precipitation has occurred in the winter and spring, causing droughts during main agricultural seasons (Kayumov et al, 2008). On the other hand, in 2007/2008, the area experienced extreme cold winter (the coldest since 1969) with increasing demand for electricity. This, coupled with high prices for food and fuel, led to the so-called 2008 Central Asia energy crisis (UNDP, 2009).

Related Content

Supporting Tajikistan to advance their NAP process

  • Tajikistan is developing a NAP focused on integrating adaptation and disaster risk reduction (DRR) planning and activities.
  • At this point in the NAP process, the main gaps are in determining institutional coordination arrangements; understanding technical components to be operationalized, particularly around data requirements; and identifying how adaptation can be mainstreamed into an upcoming DRR strategy development process.
  • The Committee for Environmental Protection of Tajikistan hosted an initial workshop in November 2015 with stakeholders from Government and non-governmental organizations, to discuss the NAP process focused on disaster risk reduction. 
  • NAP GSP is currently working with the Committee for Environmental Protection to define next steps, which would include validation of a roadmap.  
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Community Learning and Institutional Capacity Building for Global Environmental Management and Poverty Reduction in Tajikistan - Project Document (2008)

The project aims to expand Tajikistan’s capacity to generate global environmental benefits through educating and involving diverse stakeholders in addressing Rio Convention themes at national and local levels. The project will build capacity to use two key environmental management tools to implement the Rio Conventions and to reduce poverty. The first is “environmental learning” (EL) which, according to the Tajik Government’s approach, includes both formal environmental education (EE) in schools and informal environmental learning (EL) for all sectors of society.

Community Learning & Capacity Building for Global Environmental Management & Poverty Reduction in Tajikistan

The project aims to expand Tajikistan’s capacity to generate global environmental benefits through educating and involving diverse stakeholders in addressing Rio Convention themes at national and local levels. The project will build capacity to use two key environmental management tools to implement the Rio Conventions and to reduce poverty. The first is “environmental learning” (EL) which, according to the Tajik Government’s approach, includes both formal environmental education (EE) in schools and informal environmental learning (EL) for all sectors of society. The second is “stakeholder involvement” (SI) which includes public awareness, consultation and participation.

The project strategy has three components: (1) Enhance the enabling environment for using EE/EL and SI through modifying legal, policy, institutional and strategic frameworks; (2) Improve organisational and individual capacity to implement EE/EL and SI programmes and to integrate environmental learning and involvement activities into other programmes and projects; and (3) Enhance local capacity to link local and global issues, and natural resources management (NRM) and poverty reduction, through action projects based on a model and techniques for “Community Environmental Learning” (CEL). 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (68.7813037995 38.5352699604)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
470,000
Co-Financing Total: 
470,000
Project Details: 

Tajikistan is a landlocked country in South-East Central Asia, with mountain systems covering about 93% of the land area and almost half the country above 3,000 m. Because of the varied topography and climatic regimes, the country has diverse natural environments and rich biodiversity, including 25 types of terrestrial and inland waters ecosystems and many unique local biotopes.

The country has a population of 6,438,000, with 40% under the age of 14 and over 70% of the population still rural. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and independence in 1991, the country experienced civil war through to 1996. The war, economic contraction, and the loss of social services led to a dramatic deterioration in living conditions, especially in rural areas. The country began recovery after a peace agreement in 1998 and has achieved considerable economic success. GDP growth has been steady over the last seven years, with an average rate of 10 percent for the past four years. Despite this, the country remains among the poorest and most fragile of the CIS1 countries.

Tajikistan was one of the poorest of the Soviet republics and is still considered “low-income”, with widespread poverty, especially in rural areas. It ranks 103rd among 174 states, using the UN Human Development Index. Gross national income per person is US$280, the lowest in Eastern Europe and the CIS and one of the lowest globally. An increase in natural disasters, often exacerbated by human factors (deforestation, poor land management, building on slopes), has further impaired the country's infrastructure and productive capacity. Local people are highly dependent on natural resources for food, fuel and construction, imposing increasing pressure on forests, land, water and biological diversity for their livelihoods.

The project strategy is three-fold:

  • Improve the enabling environment to support the use of environmental learning and stakeholder involvement as tools to improve environmental and natural resource management: Any well-designed capacity development should aim to strengthen the “weak links” in this system that are creating barriers to a fully functioning system. This intervention involves strengthening the national legislative, policy, institutional and strategic frameworks to promote the use of EE/EL and SI as tools for convention implementation, the linking of global and local issues, and the integration of natural resource management and poverty issues. This will enable government, academia and non- government organisations to more effectively implement the numerous existing commitments and programmes on EE/EL and SI, which have been only weakly operationalised until now. 
  • Enhance the capacity of diverse government and non-government organisations to integrate state- of-the-art environmental learning and involvement programs into environmental and natural resource initiatives: Tajikistan is still in a transition period when the heavily subsidized Soviet system of education is no longer functioning and the new system is still being developed. This strategy involves diversifying the delivery mechanisms for EE/EL and SI in different sectors and involving multiple stakeholders in this delivery. This intervention will strengthen the institutional and individual capacity of national and local government agencies, academia, the media and civil society (NGOs, CBOs, local communities) to design and deliver EE/EL and SI. ENGOs, with their commitment and experience in the EE/EL field, will play an important role, while CBOs, including Jamoat Resource Centers, youth and women’s organizations, with their local knowledge and networks, will also be involved. There will be a small component to build capacity of secondary school teachers to implement EE/EL programmes which will complement the Community Environmental Learning activities under Outcome 3. Global- local linkages will be integrated into all activities in order to broaden the base of support for Rio Convention implementation in the Tajik context.
  • Enhance the capacity of local communities to improve environmental and natural resource management practices as part of sustainable development, for both global and local benefits: In recent years, there has been considerable activity in the Tajikistan related to the Rio Convention themes of biodiversity conservation, land degradation and climate change, including public education and involvement components. However, much of this has taken place in the capital of Dushanbe, involved the central government bodies and city-based NGOs. This strategy will bring convention implementation activities to the local community level, which is crucial in a country where 70% of the people live in rural areas, most in very small settlements. Institutional and policy arrangements will be reformed, as needed to enable greater community involvement in environmental and natural resources management. Materials and training/learning activities community-based natural resource management will be designed based on a model of “Community Environmental Learning”.

The project strategy will also draw on lessons learned in a review of the effectiveness of capacity-building activities done under the UNFCC (Note by the Secretariat, UNFCC Subsidiary Body for Implementation, 2004. FCCC/SBI/2004/9), as follows:

  • Long-term learning by doing approaches that favour the development of partnership and networks and that integrate capacity building into wider sustainable development efforts have more chances of success.
  • Ensuring national ownership and leadership as well as multi-stakeholder consultations at all stages of implementation creates a favourable environment for achieving results.
  • The practice of adaptive management2 and consideration of the dynamic nature of capacity- building considerably increases the likelihood of an initiative achieving its intended results.

During the project preparation it was also identified that there is a need to build capacity in “raising public awareness, incorporating climate change into national education systems” and the need to build the capacity of a wide range of stakeholders from government, NGOs, private sector, academia and local communities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Goal: To expand Tajikistan’s capacity to generate global environmental benefits through educating and involving diverse national and local stakeholders in addressing Rio Convention themes

Objective: To strengthen capacity to use environmental learning5 and stakeholder involvement as tools to address natural resource management issues as part of poverty reduction

  • Outcome 1: Enhanced legal, policy, institutional and strategic frameworks to strengthen environmental education/learning and stakeholder involvement as natural resource management tools
    • Output 1.1: The State Programme for Environmental Education and Learning 2000-2010 in all sectors is updated and extended, integrating Rio Conventions themes, and an Implementation and Evaluation Plan is prepared
    • Output 1.2: Legal, policy, institutional and strategic frameworks are established to implement the State Programmes on (1) Environmental Education and Learning and (2) Ecology
    • Output 1.3: Legal, policy, institutional and strategic frameworks are established to implement commitments to stakeholder involvement and access to information, as outlined in the Rio and Aarhus Conventions
  • Outcome 2: Improved capacity of government and civil society to integrate environmental learning and stakeholder involvement into programmes and projects
    • Output 2.1: Enhanced technical and managerial capacity of key Ministries and State Committees7 to implement the State Programmes on (1) Environmental Education and Learning and (2) Ecology and to conduct stakeholder involvement
    • Output 2.2: Models, guidelines, codes of good practice and checklists for environmental learning and stakeholder involvement are developed and disseminated through train-the-trainer, training and peer learning programmes
    • Output 2.3: Training and materials on environmental learning and stakeholder involvement are integrated into civil service training and refresher courses
    • Output 2.4: Training and materials on environmental education are integrated into teacher training and refresher courses for secondary school teachers
  • Outcome 3: Enhanced capacity of local government and community organisations to use community environmental learning and involvement as tools for natural resource management and poverty reduction
    • Output 3.1: Enhanced institutional arrangements and strategies for community environmental learning and involvement in natural resource management at the Jamoat (sub-district) level
    • Output 3.2: Training/learning activities on community environmental learning and involvement are delivered to local government and community organisations, with follow-up support
    • Output 3.3: A Community Environmental Learning Action Kit8, with thematic modules linking global and local issues, is designed, tested in six pilot sub-districts (Jamoats) and disseminated to other communities
    • Output 3.4: The network of Jamoat Resource and Advocacy Centres integrates community environmental learning and involvement into on-going community capacity-building, offering resources, training, peer learning and networking with partner organizations
  • Outcome 4: Effective, efficient, and adaptive project management, monitoring and evaluation
    • Output 4.1: The project office is established and staff are hired
    • Output 4.2: Project management processes are established and progress, evaluation and monitoring reports are produced according to GEF and UNDP standards
    • Output 4.3: Lessons learned from the project are documented and disseminated within the country and region (Central Asia and CEE)
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Sukhrob Khoshmukhamedov
Country Officer
UNDP
Kiomidin Davlatov
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Tajikistan's Second National Communication - Official Document - 2008

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.

Tajikistan's Second National Communication - 2008

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Tajikistan is considered the main glacial centre of Central Asia and glaciers occupy about 6% of the total country. These glaciers form an important function by retaining water, controlling flows and regulating the climate. Glaciers and permafrost are the main source of water recharging the Aral Sea river basins. In Tajikistan’s Second National Communication it is noted snow and glaciers contribute several cubic kilometres of freshwater to the main river basins in Tajikistan. Already, the country has lost more than 20 billion cubic meters of the glaciers’ ice volume (i.e., about 2.5 percent, mostly affecting small glaciers) during the twentieth century; a further increase in temperature will accelerate glacial retreat. Rainfall tends to be sporadic and in recent years (e.g., from 1999 to 2002) most precipitation has occurred in the winter and spring, causing droughts during main agricultural seasons. On the other hand, in 2007-2008, the area experienced extreme cold winter (the coldest since 1969) with increasing demand for electricity. This, coupled with high prices for food and fuel, led to the so-called 2008 Central Asia energy crisis.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (68.7802933091 38.5349739076)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Tajikistan is a landlocked country situated in the mountainous part of Central Asia. It covers an area of 143,100 square kilometres and has a maximum width of about 700 km and a maximum length of about 350 km. Tajikistan is considered a low-income country; over two-thirds of the population lives on less than US$2.15 a day. Tajikistan's economy was seriously weakened by the civil war lasting from 1992 to 1997, but is now making a slow recovery. The main sectors of the economy are non-ferrous metallurgy (lead, zinc and aluminum), light industry and agriculture, with cotton being its most important export commodity (World Bank, 2010). Access to energy, especially in rural areas, is a significant challenge for Tajikistan (UNDP, 2009). Many rural communities use wood from forests for heating houses and cooking, which is negatively impacting biodiversity, increasing erosion and potentially augmenting vulnerability to the impacts of climate change (World Bank, 2011).

There is an abundance and diversity of natural resources in Tajikistan, including glaciers, lakes, flora, fauna and forests. Some of Tajikistan's adaptation projects include: improvements to the transportation network, modernization of industries to reduce greenhouse gas production, development of water saving technologies, construction of additional renewable energy sources, shore protection activities to better manage natural disaster risks and reforestation.  93% of Tajikistan’s terrain is comprised of mountains, to the east there is Pamir the most harsh and mountainous region and in the central region there are the Kuhiston mountain ranges. The west of Tajikistan is covered by low hills and irrigational plantations and in the north there is the Ferghana valley and the Kuramin range. The climate is characterised by aridity and extreme differences in temperature between seasons and amongst regions. There is also considerable inter-annual variability in the climate. Forests are considered to play an important role in Tajikistan because they regulate the climate and serve as a source of raw materials.

Tajikistan is considered the main glacial centre of Central Asia and glaciers occupy about 6% of the total country area. These glaciers form an important function by retaining water, controlling flows and regulating the climate. Glaciers and permafrost are the main source of water recharging the Aral Sea river basins. In Tajikistan’s Second National Communication of 31 December 2008 it is noted that the snow and glaciers contribute several cubic kilometres of freshwater to the main river basins in Tajikistan. In general, Tajikistan’s current climate is continental, subtropical and semiarid, with some desert areas. However, the climate changes drastically according to elevation. Already, the country has lost more than 20 billion cubic meters of the glaciers’ ice volume (i.e., about 2.5 percent, mostly affecting small glaciers) during the twentieth century; a further increase in temperature will accelerate glacial retreat. Rainfall tends to be sporadic and in recent years (e.g., from 1999 to 2002) most precipitation has occurred in the winter and spring, causing droughts during main agricultural seasons (Kayumov et al, 2008). On the other hand, in 2007/2008, the area experienced extreme cold winter (the coldest since 1969) with increasing demand for electricity. This, coupled with high prices for food and fuel, led to the so-called 2008 Central Asia energy crisis (UNDP, 2009).

Adaptation Needs and Priorities:

Tajikistan’s Second National Communication (2008) projects that the country will experience increased temperatures of 0.2 to 0.4°C by 2030 compared to 1961 to 1990 temperature averages. Changes in precipitation, however, appear uncertain and depend greatly on the topographic characteristics of the country’s various regions. Future climate change induced threats include increased aridity, seasonal and inter-seasonal alterations of droughts and floods. The effects of warmer temperatures on the country’s water supply are of considerable concern given the importance of glaciers to replenishment of the country’s waterways (Kayumov et al., 2008). Results of the current and potential future vulnerability to climate driven impacts include threats to the stability of the agro-ecosystems, crop failures and increased food insecurity.

Tajikistan is experiencing significant, on-going economic and institutional changes at the same time as it experiences the impacts of climate variability and climate change. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on adaptation responses that directly address the consequences of climate change, while also mainstreaming adaptation to climate change into on-going development programs. These programs include those focused on hydropower development, institution building, and improving community-based support of public infrastructure and services. The latter support should be directed to schools, health facilities and other services that most affect the lives of the poor and aim to reduce poverty (World Bank, 2010).

National Level Policies:

Policy development in the country is centered on climate change mitigation, water and energy efficiency. However, the developed National Plan on Climate Change Mitigation is also focused on exploring opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the forestry and, potentially, agriculture sectors. There are also water tariffs being introduced with the aim of promoting efficient irrigation systems, thereby reducing the amount of water used for irrigation of agricultural land. None of these policies and plans were designed with a specific focus on adaptation to climate change; however, the consequences of such policies and the aforementioned CDM projects should account for the impacts of climate change and could also provide adaptation co-benefits.

Current Adaptation Action:

Relative to other countries in Central Asia, Tajikistan (like Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) has a very high level of engagement in projects related adaptation. A number of initiatives are underway in the country at both the national and regional levels. At the national level, the projects are focused on water resource management, agriculture and disaster management. Funders of these projects include the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Asian Development Bank, with implementing agencies including the World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

At the regional level, the country is participating in projects on water resource management, human health and agriculture. Of these sectors, the most significant attention is devoted to water management. These activities seem to be better integrated with local communities compared to some other countries in the region; especially in the area of water management there is a higher number of projects that are involving local people and communities.81 However, there remains considerable room for enhanced linkages between local and regional adaptation efforts, especially in the following areas: increasing involvement of agricultural producers; collaboration with local water managers; and involving remote and less developed areas in adaptation needs assessments and planning. In addition, Tajikistan is the only Central Asian country participating in the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, an initiative aiming to reduce vulnerability and build capacity to address climate change, especially through policy mainstreaming and integration. Funders of these regional projects include the Asian Development Bank, European Commission, Germany, the Special Climate Change Fund, and the World Bank.

Assessment:

The Second National Communication submitted by Tajikistan in 2008 provides a detailed review of potential impacts of climate change, their consequences and needed adaptation actions. Some of these actions, especially those focused on water management and agriculture, are being addressed through diverse projects supported mostly by international organizations. Parallel to these initiatives, there are number of development projects also focused on infrastructure development, water management and institutional development implemented by international organizations such as World Bank and UNDP that might also support vulnerability reduction efforts.

Major gaps in the country’s adaptation activities could be listed as follows:

  1. There is limited integration of adaptation into public infrastructure development and capacity building conducted through development assistance (transportation, energy).
  2. There is a lack of risk assessments and identification of needed adaptation actions at major industrial infrastructure facilities. For instance, tailings’ ponds and the chemical industry’s ageing storage facilities could be severely affected by climate change, potentially causing major damage to natural and human environments.
  3. There are a limited number of programs aiming to mainstream adaptation into ongoing institutional reforms, especially in industry and natural resource management. The Pilot Program on Climate Resilience is one exception.
  4. There is limited emphasis on exploring linkages between poverty and the environment in the context of the need to identify adaptation measures that could improve the well-being of people while managing their ecosystems in a more resilient manner.
  5. Managing land is a strong priority in the country’s recent National Communication; the focus includes both agricultural production and forestry. While potential adaptation measures related to agricultural production are increasingly being addressed by national actions and participation in regional initiatives, climate change impacts on the forestry sector and required adaptation actions have not yet been addressed to a larger extent.
  6. Consider improving access to energy especially in rural areas as an important precondition in increasing adaptive capacities at the household level and thus adaptive actions need to account for the lack of energy in these areas.
  7. Assessments of the gender dimensions of climate change impacts appears to be limited, reflected in the absence of any current or planned adaptation projects in Tajikistan that specifically seek to address gender issues. This understanding would promote the design of adaptation options that could be more effectively implement as they better reflect the needs and circumstances of communities.
  8. Finally, Tajikistan is a major storehouse of globally important agro-biodiversity and represents one of the centers of origin for cultivated plants worldwide. The richness of the agro-ecosystems is complemented by a large concentration of wild relatives of agricultural plants present in Tajikistan’s mountain ecosystems (including barley, almonds, pomegranates, grapes, apples, pears, cherries and plums) (GEF, 2009). International donors are engaged in supporting projects that protect agro-biodiversity, but perhaps further efforts are needed, including policy frameworks and options that could address biodiversity conservation in the context of other activities such as agriculture, ranging and reforestation.

References:

  • Bizikova, Livia; Hove, Hilary; Parry, Jo-Ellen. (2011) “Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: Central Asia.” Adaptation Partnership / International Institute for Sustainable Development.
  • Kayumov A., Makhmadaliev B., Novikov V., Mustaeva, N. and Rajabov I. (2008). The Second National Communication of the Republic of Tajikistan under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Dushanbe: State Agency for Hydrometeorology of the Committee for Environmental Protection. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/tainc2.pdf.
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP] (2009). Central Asia Regional Risk Assessment: Responding to water, energy, and food insecurity. New York: United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Europe and CIS.
  • World Bank (2010). Country Profile – Tajikistan. Retrieved from www.worldbank.org/tj.
  • World Bank (2011) Tajikistan: Economic and Distributional Impact of Climate Change. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region, Report No. 62211-TJ. Washington DC: World Bank.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Natural Resources

  • Support and expand the network of protected areas, develop transborder ecological corridors and cooperate with neighboring countries in Central Asia;
  • Regulation of alien fish species in water reservoirs;
  • Integrated system of plant protection and pest control; and
  • Forest fire management and protection of new plantations.

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Breeding of crops resistant to drought and salinity;
  • Soil protection by plowing across slopes;
  • Introduce efficient irrigation systems (drip irrigation); and
  • Increase use of organic fertilizers.

Public Health

  • Raise awareness of the implications of heat waves for people’s health;
  • Conduct vulnerability assessments and identify indicators to measure impacts on health to improve existing programs on diseases prevention; and
  • Possible establishment of a specialized area for medical check-ups of the state of health among mothers and children after pathological pregnancies and deliveries.

Freshwater Resources

  • Regulate river flow through the construction of dams and diametrical dikes;
  • Channel dredging and flow straightening works; and
  • Protection of settlements, agricultural lands and communication infrastructure from washouts and floods.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Tajikistan
Begmurod Mahmadaliev
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Agrobiodiversity and Adaptation Prodoc - 22 April 2009 - Tajikistan

The Project Document, from April 2009, gives detailed information on the GEF-SPA project: "Sustaining agricultural biodiversity in the face of climate change in Tajikistan". The ProDoc includes a Situation Analysis, with the Global, National and Regional Context, Climate Change Context, Past and Ongoing Activities in the country, Related Donor Assistance, and a Barrier Analysis.

Sustaining agricultural biodiversity in the face of climate change in Tajikistan

According to the Russian botanist and geneticist, Nikolai Vavilov, Tajikistan is a storehouse of globally important agro-biodiversity. Tajikistan’s agricultural biodiversity is not only of importance to the livelihoods of rural communities, to the local economy, and to local long-term food security, but also to global food security particularly in light of the future challenges of global climate change.

The project will, through local pilot activities based on the Homologue Approach, covering approximately 1.5 million hectares, test and demonstrate replicable ways in which rural farmers and communities can benefit from agro-biodiversity conservation in ways that also build their capacities to adapt to climate change.

The project, in partnership with the National Biodiversity and Biosafety Centre, the UNDP Communities Programme, and the GEF Small Grants Programme, will feature three inter-linked complementary processes. The first focuses on strengthening existing policy and regulatory frameworks in support of agro-biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change, with emphasis on local level implementation. The second focuses on developing community, institutional, and system capacity to enable farmers and agencies to better adapt to climate risks through the conservation and use of agro-biodiversity. The third focuses on the development of agro-enterprises that support the conservation and production of agro-biodiversity friendly products, with a view to providing farmers and communities with alternative sources of income to offset the negative impacts and shocks related to climate change.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (68.7731292476 38.5233797192)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Local communities (jamoats), NGOs, farmers and local authorities.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$950,000 USD
Co-Financing Total: 
$2,100,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of the project is “Globally significant agro-biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change are embedded in agricultural and rural development policies and practices at national and local levels in Tajikistan.”

The country is one of the centers of origin for cultivated plants worldwide. Diverse climatic, geological, and environmental conditions gave rise to this rich biodiversity, best indicated by almost 9,800 plant accessions recorded in Tajikistan. Many of the landraces and their wild relatives potentially house resistances and tolerances to pests, diseases, and to abiotic stresses. As such, they constitute a valuable source of genetic material for future germplasm enhancement programmes around the world.

The project seeks to remove the barriers to conservation and adaptation of the globally significant agro-biodiversity of Tajikistan by a combination of interventions targeting capacity development (at systemic, institutional and individual level), in situ and ex situ agro-biodiversity conservation measures and market development in support of socio-ecological adaptation to climate change. Managing for socio-ecological resilience recognizes the opportunities provide by effectively managed agricultural ecosystems in supporting the environment and dependent communities to absorb shocks, regenerate and reorganize so as to maintain key functions, economic prosperity, social wellbeing and political stability. Strengthening the capacity of farmers to anticipate and plan for climate related changes while buying time for ecological recovery through effective local ecosystem management creates powerful and cost-effective opportunities for meaningful action to cope with unavoidable climate change impacts.

Ex situ conservation of the Poaceae family is relatively straightforward and has already been the objective of collections made by various research organizations (e.g., CGIAR Centers and national bodies such as the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and US Department of Agriculture) concerned with the improvement of major food crops such as wheat, barley, forages and legumes. Seeds of wild relatives of these crops are straightforward to collect and conserve in gene banks at low temperature, with periodic growing out to ensure their viability. A much more intractable problem is in situ conservation of recalcitrant species, i.e., species that cannot be conserved as seeds at low temperature. The in situ conservation proposed in this project is therefore a modification of the specialized nursery methodology, making use of the locally adapted germplasm currently grown in home gardens throughout the country.

The project will concentrate on the conservation in situ of perennial germplasm and understanding the impact of climate variability by using the Homologue Approach, where the climates that will be encountered in 2050 already exist at lower altitudes. The project will select sites using an environmental agro-climatic model such that sites will be paired with their year 2050 homologues. For each village selected, another village will be chosen to represent its year 2050 climatic homologue. For example, by interpolation on the data of the 18 global circulation models, the temperatures of Khishkat, in the Zeravshan Valley in central-west Tajikistan, will increase by about 3 degrees by 2050.

The adiabatic lapse rate is 6°C per 1000 m, so a site 500 m lower than Khishkat today has a temperature climate the same that Khishkat will have in 2050. That is, Khishkat at 1440 m altitude will have roughly the same temperature regime that Pendzhikent, at 990 m altitude, has today. A census on varieties growing at Pendzhikent will show what adaptation will be required at Khishkat over the next 40 years. Homologue approach can be applied to determine which present day communities will be like our selected communities in 50 years time in the face of climate change. Those identified communities and farmers would then also get to see and gradually prepare for their futures in terms of agro-biodiversity. Germplasm maintenance and exchange will allow farmers to gradually adapt to new conditions via the introduction of cultivars from homologous sites. People from, for example, site 1a will be able to visit and learn from site 1b, which will represent conditions at site 1a in the year 2050. The 18 GCMs provide best bet estimates of how climate will change at the selected sites. The visitors will see their own futures; they will learn what they will and will not be able to grow; they will be able to see if conditions are the same, worse, or better, and in which ways, and establish what they will have as options in terms of agro-biodiversity.

Over the next decades, they will be able to obtain the germplasm that they will gradually need more and more. Forewarned through the project use of Homologue approach, farmers and communities will be forearmed. Under the Homologue Approach, the initially selected communities can also “donate” to the future; and in so doing conserve their present agro-biodiversity by improving the futures of their own as well as other communities. As a result of the application of the Homologue Approach, it is anticipated that long-term adaptive measures will include effective policy implementation for the conservation of agro-biodiversity, capacity building for improved resources and agricultural management, and for management, largely in situ, of genetic resources. A project emphasis on agro-enterprise development (both nationally and internationally and perhaps in the area of certified organic fair-trade fruit and nut products) will seek to increase farmers’ financial returns and ensure meaningful community based participation.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Agro-biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change through supportive policy, regulatory and institutional frameworks.

  • Output 1.1: Agrobiodiversity conservation and adaptation principles are mainstreamed into local and national agricultural, trade and industry policies and programmes.
  • Output 1.2: Extension package for promoting climate resilient farmer varieties developed and integrated into the national extension service package and delivery system.
  • Output 1.3: Capacity and accountability of local government to enforce policies, sectoral guidelines and spatial plans in support of agro-biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change increased in 4 pilot areas.
  • Output 1.4: CSOs and local government in pilot areas have skills to actively support communities to integrate ABD conservation into farming systems, build adaptive capacity, and link such production to private sector markets.
  • Output 1.5: Capacity building programme implemented to ensure institutions charged with responsibility for managing the ex and in-situ gene banks are effective.
  • Output 1.6: ABD policies applied in four pilot areas & adopted in a minimum of 40 home gardens/farms supporting implementation.
  • Output 1.7: Local level producer societies for specific crops (such as fig, pistachio, walnut, pomegranate, apricot, almond, mulberry) promoted as a mechanism of incentives for adoption (linking farmers to markets, and credit).
  • Output 1.8: Development of long-term strategy for conservation and sustainable use of ABD and adaptation to climate change.

Component 2: Improved capacity for sustaining agro-biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  • Output 2.1: Farmers/communities in the 4 pilot areas provided with skills and knowledge to increase farm productivity (and food security) using climate resilient agro-biodiversity friendly practices.
  • Output 2.2: Community-based participatory methods (building on traditional knowledge) developed and implemented for ex situ conservation especially of recalcitrant materials (seed that cannot be stored ex situ).
  • Output 2.3: Tajik ABD germplasm made available to national, regional and global crop improvement programmes.
  • Output 2.4: In-situ gene banks established in 40 home gardens/farms in 4 pilot sites, including collection, geo-referencing, identification, characterization, and/or germplasm-banking of prioritized ABD (largely fruit and nuts).
  • Output 2.5: Climate change modeling and crop modeling in order to deliberately select appropriate homologue sites that represent present and future conditions. Project activities will be implemented together with farmers, farm households, and local communities.
  • Output 2.6: Sustainable management strategies for the 4 project areas and areas certified as sources of climate resilient wild crop relatives.
  • Output 2.7: A network of databases established on materials maintained in situ and ex situ.
  • Output 2.8: Awareness campaigns (partnership with JRCs and GEF SGP) address conservation of ABD and build adaptive capacity to climate change.

Component 3: Enabling environment for market development for agro-biodiversity products developed.

  • Output 3.1: Capacity building programme to ensure institutions charged with responsibility for supporting development of agro-biodiversity based agro-enterprises are effective.
  • Output 3.2: Identification, differentiation and marketing programs for certified products from 4 pilot areas and non-certified ABD climate resilient products grown, developed and implemented through a supply chain approach.
  • Output 3.3: International marketing campaign (trade fairs, online) to establish Tajikistan as an international source of ABD-friendly climate resilient products for consumers concerned about the point of origin, sustainability and genetic heritage (i.e. the importance of crop wild relatives in the face of climate change) of food.
  • Output 3.4: Crop certification established for products increasing farmer’s ability to sell products and services at a premium, verified and monitored by Protocol to verify and monitor compliance of certification.
  • Output 3.5: Seed grants (through partnership with GEF Small Grants Programme) support development of agro-biodiversity based agro-enterprises at each site.
  • Output 3.6: Increased funding available for start-up initiatives and SMEs, provided by existing MFIs (supported by JRCs/UNDP Communities Programme) to ABD agro-enterprises.
  • Output 3.7: Enhanced business advisory centers and JRCs support efforts to bring climate resilient ABD-friendly products to markets.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
Project Inception Phase
  1. A Project Inception Workshop will be conducted with the full project team, government counterparts, co-financing partners, the UNDP-CO, and representatives from the UNDP-GEF Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-GEF (HQ). A fundamental objective of the Inception Workshop will be to help the project team to understand and take ownership of the project’s goal and objective, and to prepare the project's first annual work plan based on the logframe matrix. Work will include reviewing the logframe (indicators, means of verification, assumptions and expected outcomes), providing additional detail as needed, and then finalizing the Annual Work Plan (AWP) with measurable performance indicators. The Inception Workshop (IW) will also: (i) introduce project staff to the UNDP-GEF team (the CO and responsible Regional Coordinating Unit staff) that will support project implementation; (ii) detail the responsibilities of UNDP-CO and RCU staff vis-à-vis the project team; (iii) detail the UNDP-GEF reporting and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements, with particular emphasis on the Annual Project Implementation Reviews (PIRs), the Annual Review Report (ARR), and mid-term and final evaluations. The IW will also inform the project team regarding UNDP project related budgetary planning, budget reviews, and mandatory budget re-phasing. An overall objective of the IW is that all parties understand their roles, functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures; and that reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms are clear to all. Terms of Reference for project staff and decision-making structures will be again discussed to clarify each party’s responsibilities during project implementation.
Monitoring responsibilities and events
  1. The project management, in consultation with project implementation partners and stakeholder representatives will develop a detailed schedule of project review meetings to be included in the Project Inception Report. The schedule will include: (i) tentative time frames for Project Board Meetings and (ii) project related Monitoring and Evaluation activities. The Project Manager will be responsible for day-to-day project monitoring based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators. The Project Manager will inform the UNDP-CO of delays or difficulties so that appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely fashion. At the Inception Workshop, the Project Manager, the project team, UNDP-CO and the UNDP-GEF Regional Coordinating Unit will work together to fine-tune project progress and performance/impact indicators, specific targets for the first year of implementation, and means of verification. Targets and indicators for subsequent years will be defined annually by the project team as part of the internal evaluation and planning processes. The project will use the relevant Tracking Tool for additional monitoring of progress. Periodic monitoring of implementation progress will be undertaken by the UNDP-CO through quarterly meetings with the Implementing Partner, or more frequently as deemed necessary, allowing partners to troubleshoot project problems in a timely fashion.
Project Inception Phase
  1. The project team, relevant government counterparts, co-financing partners, the UNDP-CO, representatives from the UNDP-GEF Regional Coordinating Unit, and the UNDP-GEF (HQs) will conduct a Project Inception Workshop (IW). Fundamental objectives of the IW will be to help the project team understand and take ownership of project goals and objectives, finalize the first annual work plan based on the logframe matrix, review the logframe (indicators, means of verification, assumptions, performance indicators, and expected outcomes), and finalize the Annual Work Plan (AWP). The IW will also: (i) introduce project staff to the UNDP-GEF team (the CO and responsible Regional Coordinating Unit staff) that will support project implementation; (ii) detail the responsibilities of UNDP-CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team; (iii) provide a detailed overview of UNDP-GEF reporting and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements, with particular emphasis on the Annual Project Implementation Reviews (PIRs), the Annual Review Report (ARR), and mid-term and final evaluations. The IW will also inform the project team regarding UNDP project related budgetary planning, budget reviews, mandatory budget re-phasing, and project decision-making structures, reporting and communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms. Partners will be able to gain an understanding of their project roles, functions, and responsibilities. Terms of Reference for project staff and decision-making structures will be discussed to clarify each party’s responsibilities in project implementation.
Monitoring responsibilities and events
  1. Project management, project partners and stakeholder representatives will collaborate on the development of a detailed schedule of project review meetings to be incorporated in the Project Inception Report. The schedule will include: (i) tentative time frames for Project Board Meetings and (ii) project related Monitoring and Evaluation activities. The Project Manager will be responsible for day-to-day monitoring of implementation progress based on the Annual Work Plan and indicators. The Project Manager will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties so that appropriate and timely corrective measures can be implemented. At the IW, the Project Manager, project team, UNDP-CO, and UNDP-GEF Regional Coordinating Unit will fine-tune the project’s progress and performance/impact indicators and will develop specific targets and their means of verification for the first year’s progress indicators. Every year the project team will define targets and indicators as part of the internal evaluation and planning processes.
  2. The Project Board Meetings (PBM) will be responsible for twice a year project monitoring. The PBM will be the highest policy-level meeting of the partners involved in project implementation. The first such meeting will be held within the first six months of the start of full implementation.
  3. The Project Manager in consultation with UNDP-CO and UNDP-GEF RCU will prepare a UNDP/GEF PIR/APR for submission to PBM members and the Project Board for review and comments and for discussion at the PB meeting. The Project Manager will highlight policy issues and recommendations and will inform participants of agreements reached by stakeholders during the PIR/ARR preparation on how to resolve operational issues. Separate reviews of each project component will be conducted as necessary. Benchmarks will be developed at the Inception Workshop, based on delivery rates and on qualitative assessments of achievements of outputs. A terminal PBM will be held in the last month of project operations. The Project Manager will prepare a Terminal Report for submission to UNDP-CO and UNDP-GEF RCU at least two months in advance of the terminal PBM to allow for review and to serve as the basis for discussions in the PBM.The terminal meeting will consider project implementation, achievement of project objectives, contribution to broader environmental objectives, actions needed to sustain project results, and ways that lessons learnt can feed into other projects being developed or implemented. 
  1. UNDP Country Office, UNDP-GEF RCU, and any other members of the Project Board will annually assess (with detailed scheduling agreed upon at the project Inception Report/Annual Work Plan) progress at the project sites. No less than one month after the visit, the CO and UNDP-GEF RCU will prepare a Field Visit Report/BTOR to be circulated to the project team, all Project Board members, and UNDP-GEF.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Sukhrob Khoshmukhamedov
Country Office Focal Point
UNDP
Neimatullo Safarov
Project Manager
UNDP
Johan Robinson
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
spa
Project Status: