Kenya

 

Kenya is located in east Africa, at latitudes of 6°S to 6°N. Located on the Indian Ocean, its climate is tropical, but moderated by diverse topography in the west. Kenya’s topography rises from the coastal plains to the eastern edge of the East African Plateau, and the Great Rift Valley. The central highland regions are substantially cooler than the coast, with the coolest (highest altitude) regions at 15°C compared with 29°C at the coast. Temperatures vary little throughout the year, but drop by around 2 degree in the coolest season. Seasonal rainfall in Kenya is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), relatively narrow belt of very low pressure and heavy precipitation that forms near the earth’s equator. The exact position of the ITCZ changes over the course of the year, migrating southwards through Kenya in October to December, and returning northwards in March, April and May. This causes Kenya to experience two distinct wet periods – the ‘short’ rains in October to December and the ‘long’ rains in March to May. The amount of rainfall received in these seasons is generally 50‐200mm per month but varies greatly, exceeding 300mm per month in some localities. Kenya’s geographic location makes it inherently prone to cyclical droughts and floods. However, according to the First National Communication (INC), such types of cyclical climate-driven events will increase in intensity and frequency due to global climate change. Livelihoods and economic activities in Kenya’s are highly vulnerable to climatic fluctuations in space and time. The country’s inland areas are largely arid with two thirds of the country receiving less than 500 mm of rainfall per year, limiting the potential for agriculture. In general inter-annual climate variability is high. The arid and semi-arid regions cover about 83 per cent of the country; only around 17 per cent of Kenya’s land is arable (MENR, 2010). Land degradation is a key issue in Kenya, driven partly by overgrazing and deforestation; biomass accounts for 78 per cent of the energy consumed in the country (MENR, 2010). Indeed, high population growth, deforestation, shifting climate patterns and overgrazing have significantly degraded the country’s environment (USDS, 2010). Rainy seasons can be extremely wet and associated with floods and landslides, but can also arrive late or fail, introducing considerable uncertainty in agricultural practices. The rural poor are the most vulnerable to the impacts of Kenya’s current climate variability.

Kenya has the largest economy in East Africa, and serves as a finance and transport hub for the region (USDS, 2010). Rain-fed agriculture, tourism and the services industry are major drivers of its economy (MENR, 2010). Additional key industries include livestock/pastoralism, horticulture, fisheries and forest products (MENR, 2010). Approximately 75 per cent of Kenyans derive their livelihoods from the agricultural sector (CIA, 2010). With many Kenyans living abroad, remittances also contribute greatly to Kenya’s economy; they constitute the single largest source of foreign exchange and act as a social safety net (USDS, 2010). Despite the relative regional strength of Kenya’s economy, a large number of Kenyans live in extreme poverty; mean annual income per capita is approximately US$700 (USDS, 2010).

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Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya" is working to strengthen national focus and adaptive capacity to prevent epidemic highland malaria.

The Kenya project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas.

Kenya is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.2868011226 -0.367682342201)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large. Specifically, the beneficiaries of this project are the communities in the highlands of Kenya: Kericho zone, Nandi zone, Trans-nzoia zone and Kisii zone.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Project scope

The pilot project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas. A model for predicting highland malaria was developed in 2006 and validated with previously observed malaria epidemics. It indicated a very high utility in predicting malaria epidemics three months in advance at areas higher than 1800 m. This project aims to take the model to the next step by operationally validating it and developing better tools for malaria forecasting to support decision-making on public health interventions that help prevent epidemics. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity development will the specifically targeted in the project:

  • Improved use of weather forecasting - Forecasting through global weather networks can provide the data needed to predict malaria epidemics. Currently there is limited access to short-term and long-term health specific weather information at the community, district and national levels.
  • Improved disease prediction capacity - The development of an Early Warning System will significantly improve preparedness for malaria epidemics, despite current deficiencies in the quality of routinely collected health data.
  • Improved epidemic preparedness, and disease detection - Districts have the capacity to develop plans for epidemic preparedness and response, however timely availability of the required resources has been a challenge. Most districts have adequate data to calculate threshold levels for existing epidemic detection only.
  • Improved outbreak response - Many barriers to effective response currently exist and will be addressed in the project.

Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Malaria has always existed in Kenya, however in the past, the higher altitudes of the highlands region limited highland malaria transmission to seasonal outbreaks, with considerable year-to-year variation.

Climate change is projected to make malaria control more difficult in many areas of Kenya.  In areas where malaria already occurs, transmission intensity is expected to increase along with the length of the transmission season. It is also expected that malaria will spread into new locations, particularly the higher altitudes of the highlands, where its prevalence is not currently actively monitored or forecasted. Communities living at altitudes above 1,100 meters are more vulnerable to malaria epidemics due to lack of immunity, lack of preparedness, climate variability and other factors.

Approximately 13 to 20 million Kenyans are at risk of malaria, with the percentage at risk increasing as climate change facilitates the movement of the malaria vector up the highlands.

Studies into the affect of climate change on health in Kenya also reported increases in acute respiratory infections for ASAL areas; emergence and re-emergence of Rift Valley fever; leishmaniasis and malnutrition.  Floods, occasional outbreaks of waterborne diseases e.g. cholera, dysentery and typhoid have been reported in lowland areas.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit envisioned to arise from this project is the reduction in the burden of highland malaria epidemics. Additional benefits include:

  • Increased capacity of health actors to climate sensitive diseases.
  • Harmonized management structures across all provisions provided by the Annual Operational Plans (AOPs)
  • Additional Implementation of malaria epidemic prevention measures through the National Malaria Strategy.
  • Strengthening partnerships, including: meteorological department provision of forecasting data to the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI).
  • Improved interactions between health officers and stakeholders and sharing of resources and reduction in duplication of tasks within a district.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: Climate-sensitive health risks are identified with sufficient lead-time for effective response

  1. Climate-sensitive health risk data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  2. Climate data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  3. Climate change-induced changes and drivers of health-risks are determined.

Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate-sensitive health risks will be improved

  1. Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public health.
  2. Training syllabus and long-term support mechanisms for community and national level health  protection from climate change developed.

Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change

  1. Advance planning of responses for pilot regions.
  2. Preventative interventions applied on the basis of plan, in response to warning system information.

 

 

Contacts: 
WHO
Solomon Nzioka
WHO Country Contact
WHO
Wilfred Ndegwa
WHO Country Contact
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
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Kenya NAMA

Under the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme, financed by the EU, Germany, and AusAID, participating countries are primarily focusing on capacity building activities at the national level.  This includes formulating Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and/or Nationally appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), as well as establishing the underlying data collection systems (i.e. national GHG inventory systems, and monitoring, reporting and verification systems).

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, policies, and/or programmes that shift a technology or sector in a country onto a low-carbon development trajectory.  A LEDS, on the other hand, outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify entry points for policy intervention (including identifying and prioritizing NAMAs and ensuring coherence between NAMAs and national development goals).

In Kenya national stakeholders will work to build a policy and regulatory environment, investigate financing options, and improve knowledge sharing. Additionally, the government has identified the development of a GHG national inventory system as the highest priority under the Programme, since this will provide the foundation for identifying NAMAs and supporting MRV actions.
A transport NAMA for reducing vehicle emissions will be fast-tracked to gain experience and capacity for investigating NAMAs in the energy (household demand/biomass use) and industrial (energy demand) sub-sectors.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (38.562014773022 0.97259894384475)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
The four-year Low Emission Capacity Building Programme is being implemented with €8,000,000 of funding from the European Union and €5,000,000 from the Federal Republic of Germany.
Project Details: 

Supporting Mitigation Actions

As a country driven process, each country determines, develops and executes its own project with a clear focus on one of the two areas. From the inception phase of each project, however, and for the life of the project, countries will receive guidance and support from UNDP. Guidance and technical backstopping for all national-level projects will be coordinated, delivered and supported through an over-arching component of the programme: the Global Support Unit.

Programme-supported projects fall into one of several categories:

  • Identifying opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and designing low emission development strategies (LEDS) in context of national priorities
  • Design ofsystems for measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme promotes essential cooperation between relevant institutions, engaging the public sector and industry in a concerted effort to address climate change consistent with national development priorities around the world.

The overall objectives are to strengthen capacities in participating countries in the following ways:

  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems;
  • Identify opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA);
  • Design low emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national priorities
  • Design systems for measuring, reporting, and verification of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any LEDS, NAMAs, or Mitigation Action Plans (MAPs) prepared by developing countries – particularly if a developing country is seeking external financial, technical or capacity-building support, and will therefore be subject to international MRV as described in the Cancun Accords. However, MRV needs will differ depending on whether a country is undertaking a REDD+ type NAMA, for example, versus improving an urban mass transit system. (It is worth noting that the international political arena also refers to the MRV of public finance; this is not being addressed under this project.)

Methodological approach

New methodologies are being developed by different organizations for the development and adoption of MRVs. Although there are still no adopted guidelines on MRV, we can assume that there will be some overarching principles of good practice, such as using the GHG estimation and reporting processes described in the IPCC guidance materials for GHG inventories.

Institutional and political context

As with the GHG national inventory system, it will be important to raise awareness of all key stakeholders on the necessity for MRV to ensure full engagement. It may be useful to consider developing a strategy to engage key providers of data and ensure they are adequately trained.

Linkages to other relevant initiatives

Clearly, the work undertaken under this component has a direct linkage to the National Communications process. Some countries may also be undertaking GHG inventories at the sub-national level and will need to consider how to incorporate this work, as appropriate. Indicators being used in mitigation projects financed by the GEF or other sources may also provide insights for the MRV strategy for NAMAs, LEDS, and/or MAPs.

Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
bf
Project Status: 
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Kenya Project Information Questionnaire

Title: Reducing Disaster Risks from Wildland Fire Hazards Associated with Climate Change in South Africa

Project Objective:  To develop and implement integrated disaster risk management strategies to address climate change-induced fire hazards and risks

UNDP-ALM Kenya Case Study (January 2013)

Abstract: Kenya's geographic location makes it inherently prone to cyclical droughts and floods. Moreover, according to the Intitial National Communication (INC), such types of cyclical climate-driven events will increase in intensity and frequence due to global climate change. Livelihoods and economic activities in Kenya are highly vulnerable to climate fluctuations, with the districts of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) being among the most vulnerable to recurrent droughts, and to long-term cliamte change.

UNDP Kenya Project Document PIMS: 3792 (June 2008)

This Project Document focuses on the UNDP-managed component of the joint UNDP-World Bank KACCAL project.  Project activities are aligned with UNDP's comparative advantage in aspects of capacity building, and support for MDG-based planning, as well as experience in designing and implementing climate change adaptation and sustainable land management projects.  The UNDP component focuses primarily on enhancing adaptive capacity of key stakeholders in the District of Mwingi, complementing the support given by the World Bank in four other districts: Garissa, Turkana, Marsabit and Malindi.  

Adapting to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (KACCAL) in Kenya

The rural poor are the most vulnerable to the impacts of Kenya’s current climate variability. In response this project is supporting poor and vulnerable communities in the Mwingi District of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) to enhance their adaptive capacity to drought (and flood). Working in the pilot areas, this is being achieved through enhanced access to and management of water for irrigation, promotion of indigenous crops that more resilient to anticipated climate (and improved access to markets for these crops),  and promoting livestock varieties that are more suited to the climate, development and promotion of alternative livelihood opportunities (such as beekeeping activities). The project is also strengthening climate risk management planning and capacity of District level planners to mainstream climate change into District-level sectoral development plans.  Extension workers will be supported to improve their adaptation extension advice to farmers based on best available climate forecast information. 

According to Kenya’s First National Communication (2002), the incidence of droughts is anticipated to increase both in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. In response, UNDP and the World Bank have initiated a joint project on Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (KACCAL) aimed at facilitating adaptation of the key stakeholders in arid and semi-arid lands to long-term climate change. The joint project seeks to develop and pilot a range of coping mechanisms for reducing the vulnerability of small-holder farmers and pastoralists in rural Kenya to long-term climate change, including variability.

Project activities are aligned with UNDP‟s comparative advantage in aspects of capacity building, and support for MDG-based planning, as well as experience in designing and implementing climate change adaptation and sustainable land management projects. The UNDP component focuses primarily on enhancing adaptive capacity of key stakeholders in the District of Mwingi, complementing the support given by the World Bank in four other districts: Garissa, Turkana, Marsabit and Malindi.

Source: UNDP Kenya Project Document (PIMS 3792)

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (38.066610829 -0.933290855656)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the selected districts of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs). This joint project seeks to develop and pilot a range of coping mechanisms for reducing the vulnerability of small-holder farmers and pastoralists in rural Kenya to long-term climate change, including variability.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
Project Cost US$2,350,000 (as of January 2013)
Co-Financing Total: 
1,350,000 (as of January 2013)
Project Details: 

Kenya's geographic location makes it inherently prone to cyclical droughts and floods.  According to the First National Communication (INC), such types of cyclical climate-driven events will increase in intensity and frequency due to global climate change.  Serious repercussions are anticipated thereby not only on agricultural productivity but also the achievement of poverty reduction and other Millennium Development Goals.  In response, UNDP and the World Bank, with funding from the Special Climate Change Fund through Global Environment Facility (GEF), have designed a four-year (2008-2012) project for implementation entitled "Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands" (KACCAL). 

The project seeks to facilitate adaptation of key national and local level stakeholders to long-term climate change by developing capacity to manage climate risks, adjusting relevant national policies and programmes to better reflect impending concerns, and piloting a range of priority coping mechanisms for reducing vulnerability of small-holder farmers and pastoralists in rural Kenya. The project builds on an existing development baseline in Kenya _largely activities led by the Arid Lands Resource Management Programme and the Ministry of Agriculture), with SCCF resources earmarked for specific activities that increase adaptive capacity to cope with droughts and floods under changing long-term climate conditions. 

Activities focus primarily (although not exclusively) on interventions in the Mwingi district.  The district, which is in the semi-arid Ukambani region, has a 66% chance of climate induced-crop failure each year.  The UNDP component is anchored around three global level outcomes which underpin the joint UNDP/World Bank project:

  • Strengthened knowledge base, coordination and information sharing towards action on management of climatic risk at the National and Regional levels,
  • Capacity developed and investments made to integrate CRM into local/district planning, and for engaging the private sector, and
  • Support for community driven initiatives to enhance the resilience of livelihoods and ecosystems to climatic risk. 

UNDP-led activities will enhance adaptive capacity in this pilot area in terms of (a) strengthening drought mitigation skills of extension workers whose role is to support household and community based projects; (b) improve the flow and use of early warning information in drought/flood mitigation practices in community services and programmes; and (c) identify and remove barriers impeding adaptive capacity of community level stakeholders to overcome long-term climate change risks.  The World Bank's activities will focus on interventions in another four districts within Kenya. 

The design of UNDP's planned interventions within the KACCAL project has been guided by UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) approach in that it took into consideration current vulnerabilities (to climate and non-climatic factors), future climate change and anticipated risks, and adaptive capacity requirements and barriers.  The project design phase benefited from a participatory approach where stakeholders from government, communities, donors and other interested parties were consulted and had the opportunity to contribute.

Source: UNDP Kenya Project Document (PIMS 3792)

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity of national and regional stakeholders to plan, manage and implement climate change adaptation measures
    • Output 1.1: Targeted knowledge-based tools developed for effective climate risk management.
    • Output 1.2: National and regional coordination and information sharing improved, for effective climate risk management.
    • Output 1.3: Advocacy and outreach programme prepared and conducted for replication of adaptation measures.
    • Output 1.4: Adaptation learning disseminated through national, regional and international networks.
      • At the end of the project, mechanism for applying climate risk management information will be established and policy needs awareness created within the project sites.
      • By the end of the project, community leaders in the project pilot sites are able to describe at least one lesson in coping with drought learnt from another site (not necessarily in Kenya)
      • By the end of the project, senior officials in relevant sectoral ministries are able to describe strategies to increase adaptive capacity to cope with drought from both Kenya and neighboring countries.
      • By the end of the project, senior officials in relevant sectoral ministries are able to describe strategies to increase adaptive capacity to cope with drought from both Kenya and neighboring countries.
      • By the end of the project, community leaders in the project pilot sites are able to describe at least one lesson in coping with drought learnt from another site (not necessarily in Kenya)
      • At the end of the project, mechanism for applying climate risk management information will be established and policy needs awareness created within the project sites.
  • Outcome 2: Enhanced capacity of district and local level stakeholders to plan, manage and implement climate change adaptation measures
    • Output 2.1: Community-level capacity increased to undertake adaptation measures.
      • By the end of the project, more than 90% of extension staff and, NGOs and private organizations working with the communities have skills in effective climate risk management practices
      • By the end of the project, more than 50% of the community, extension workers and development partners to be using climate information for decision-making
  • Outcome 3: Enhanced communities‟ ability to plan, manage and implement climate-related activities
    • Output 3.1: Community based micro-projects supported
      • By the end of the project, at least 75% of the households are food secure within the UNDP-managed pilot sites
      • By the end of the project, the yields among small-scale farmers will be increased by 10%, and livestock productivity increased by 10%.
      • By the end of the project, at least 50% of the farmers and pastoralist at the UNDP-managed project sites will be aware of the relevant policies and institutions dealing with climate risk management Throughout the project, annual PIRs do not identify access to technical inputs as a constraint to implementation.

Source: UNDP Kenya Project Document (PIMS 3792)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits: 

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Establish a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP Kenya Project Document (PIMS 3792)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Jessica Troni
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
David Githaiga
Country Officer
Kimathi J. Mutungi
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
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