China

The People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as China) is located in the eastern hemisphere and the west coast of the Pacific, and in East Asia. As a country covering 9,596,961 square kilometers containing over 1.3 billion people, China is by far the largest country in the region in terms of both geography and population (CIA, 2011). With a human development index ranking of 89 out of 169, China’s ranking is average for the region, although inequality within the country gives rise to varying levels of development along regional and rural-urban lines (UNDP, 2010). As a result of its rapidly growing economy, China is in a unique position of being one of the major international contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, but is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its economy, society and natural environment.  China advocates joint and coordinated efforts of the international community to tackle climate change, and has made positive efforts in this regard. China has participated in the international talks on implementing the “Bali Road Map” and reinforcing the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. In its position paper on the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, China expresses its willingness to make the most sincere and greatest efforts to make the meeting a success. China’s climate is characterized by the distinct continental monsoon climate and the complex climate types, which provides complex and multiple natural background and different environments for various human activities. In the meantime, it also frequently gives rise to natural disasters, threatening social and economic activities. East China is one of the regions in the world with typical monsoon climate. The warm and humid airflow, which the summer monsoon brings from the sea, carries abundant rainfalls and provides a desirable natural environment. However, a concentrated rainfall also tends to cause disasters such as floods, storms and storm tides. Located deep in the hinterland, Northwest China lacks surface water owing to its inactive water circulation, and has a typical continental dry climate, which results in a fairly fragile natural and ecological environment. Because of its high elevation, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a special plateau climate with annual average temperature below 0 degrees Celsius in most part. The seasonal change of temperature in China is quite prominent. In most regions, there are 4 distinct seasons, with cold winter and hot summer. According to the temperature indicator, the country is divided into 5 zones from south to north, i.e. tropical, subtropical, warm temperate, temperate and frigid zones. The seasonal changes of temperature in most regions of China are fiercer than that of other regions in the world with the same latitude (China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change - The Progress Report 2009, November, 2009; China's Initial National Communication, 10 December 2004).

Related Content

China's National Climate Change Programme - June 2007

In compliance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s requirement for parties, China prepared its National Climate Change Programme in 2007. Prepared by the National Development and Reform Commission, this report outlines objectives, policies and key areas of actions to address climate change for the period up to 2010.  One such key area details adaptation actions to address climate change impacts in the sectors of – agriculture, forests and natural ecosystems, water resources and coastal regions. 

China's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

The People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as China) is located in the eastern hemisphere and the west coast of the Pacific, and in East Asia.  With a human development index ranking of 89 out of 169, China’s ranking is average for the region, although inequality within the country gives rise to varying levels of development along regional and rural-urban lines (UNDP, 2010). As a result of its rapidly growing economy, China is in a unique position of being one of the major international contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, but is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its economy, society and natural environment.  

To view progress on China's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (116.390635953 39.9081845224)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
5,350,000
Co-Financing Total: 
5,000,000
Project Details: 

The People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as China) is located in the eastern hemisphere and the west coast of the Pacific, and in East Asia. As a country covering 9,596,961 square kilometers containing over 1.3 billion people, China is by far the largest country in the region in terms of both geography and population (CIA, 2011). With a human development index ranking of 89 out of 169, China’s ranking is average for the region, although inequality within the country gives rise to varying levels of development along regional and rural-urban lines (UNDP, 2010). As a result of its rapidly growing economy, China is in a unique position of being one of the major international contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, but is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its economy, society and natural environment. 

China advocates joint and coordinated efforts of the international community to tackle climate change, and has made positive efforts in this regard. China has participated in the international talks on implementing the “Bali Road Map” and reinforcing the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. In its position paper on the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, China expresses its willingness to make the most sincere and greatest efforts to make the meeting a success. China’s climate is characterized by the distinct continental monsoon climate and the complex climate types, which provides complex and multiple natural background and different environments for various human activities. In the meantime, it also frequently gives rise to natural disasters, threatening social and economic activities. East China is one of the regions in the world with typical monsoon climate. The warm and humid airflow, which the summer monsoon brings from the sea, carries abundant rainfalls and provides a desirable natural environment. However, a concentrated rainfall also tends to cause disasters such as floods, storms and storm tides.

Located deep in the hinterland, Northwest China lacks surface water owing to its inactive water circulation, and has a typical continental dry climate, which results in a fairly fragile natural and ecological environment. Because of its high elevation, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a special plateau climate with annual average temperature below 0 degrees Celsius in most part. The seasonal change of temperature in China is quite prominent. In most regions, there are 4 distinct seasons, with cold winter and hot summer. According to the temperature indicator, the country is divided into 5 zones from south to north, i.e. tropical, subtropical, warm temperate, temperate and frigid zones. The seasonal changes of temperature in most regions of China are fiercer than that of other regions in the world with the same latitude (China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change - The Progress Report 2009, November, 2009; China's Initial National Communication, 10 December 2004).

Adaptation Needs and Priorites: 

The process of climate change has begun in China, with average temperatures in winter time having already shown an increase of about 0.5oC between the 1970s and the early 2000s (PRC, 2004). Chinese scenarios predict this trend will continue, with a mid-century rise of 2 to 3oC. Although China’s internal modeling and forecasting capacity is likely one of the most advanced in the region, uncertainties remain within studies conducted to date, (PRC, 2004).

Given China’s great expanses of inland areas as well as shorelines and islands with vulnerable ecosystems, China faces a large variety of potential climate change impacts and requires an adaptation response that an address an extremely wide variety of potential impacts. Some of these needs were identified in China’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) submitted in December 2004 (PRC, 2004). Within it, the sectors identified as having priority adaptation needs are water resources, agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems and coastal zones. Climate change effects are projected to have a significant impact on water resources, with the intensity of both drought and floods expected to increase. In the agricultural sector, warmer temperatures are expected to extend growing seasons, but this potential benefit could more than be offset by decreases in crop output and fertility, leading to an overall decline in agriculture production (PRC, 2004). In addition, the increased likelihood of extreme weather events could have a very negative impact on the agricultural sector. Threats to biodiversity are also expected. Sea level rise is expected to be significant, particularly in the southern areas, rising as much as 23 centimeters by 2050. This change could lead to significant erosion and intrusion on deltas.

China has identified a number of priorities for adaptation in its initial National Communication in the sectors of water and agriculture, including:

Freshwater Resources:

  • Establishing a modern water conservancy management system and strengthening the unified management and protection of water resources;
  • Building up water-saving agriculture and industry, vigorously popularizing water-saving irrigation, developing sprinkle irrigation and dripping irrigation, extending the use of water-saving facilities so as to increase water use efficiency;
  • Increasing the capacity of reservoirs and river dams to prevent floods, tapping water sources to increase water-supply capacity, planning and building the trans-valley water converting project and achieving optimized allocation and utilization of water resource cross valleys;
  • Enhancing the protection and building of ecosystems, restoring vegetation cover, preventing and controlling soil erosion and loss; and
  • Protecting the water environment, preventing and controlling the water pollution, increasing the rate of treating sewage, improving the renewal and utilization of sewage, achieving the benign cycle of the ecology and environment.

Agriculture:

  • Adjusting the agricultural structure and the cropping system, such as through expansion of the area of paddy-rice fields in the areas of northeast China, and a shift from the dual structure in the traditional farm production in some areas in China to a ternary structure of coordinated development of food crop, fodder crop and cash crop, etc.;
  • Raising multiple cropping indexes;
  • Selecting, cultivating and popularizing stress-resistant varieties;
  • Improving management measures, such as through active popularization of water-saving agricultural measures, technologies of optimized fertilization and deep fertilization, and technologies of comprehensive prevention and control of soil erosion; and
  • Constructing and improving agricultural infrastructures, such as through fundamental construction of farmland, fundamental construction of water conservancy, building the agricultural ecosystem, construction of farmland with high and stable yields, conversion of unduly reclaimed land to pasture.

China stresses that it faces a “dual pressure” on climate change by having both economic development and environmental protection barriers to overcome, particularly in relation to technology development. Despite its recent economic prowess, China remains a developing country and faces barriers to adaptation implementation. China stresses a need for funding, technology and capacity building to meet its climate change goals.

National Level Policies:

China has a long list of environmental and sustainable development policy plans that it has implemented over the years. Its National Communication to the UNFCCC also highlights a long list of sectoral policies it has put in place to support adaptation action. As part of its 12th Five-Year Development Plan, China is expected to develop a national Climate Change Plan to address climate change issues along with economic development. How much focus this plan will have on adaptation will be seen when the plan is published in March 2011. China has taken on a number of policies and actions that have adaptation benefits nationally. Since 2008, China has been issuing an annual report, China’s Policies and Actions for addressing Climate Change, which summarizes progress on internal policies.

Current Adaptation Action:

Over the past several years, China has attracted a considerable amount of climate change funding; however, a large majority of this funding has been directed to mitigation and the energy sector. For example, China has secured nearly half of a billion dollars for climate change projects through the GEF but only a small percentage is funding is for adaptation initiatives. Nonetheless there are a number of ongoing adaptation activities within the country supported through international partners—the majority of which are regionally-focused projects—that address China’s adaptation priorities.
Current nationally focused adaptation projects within China are focused most prominently on adaptation within the agriculture and water sectors, as well as land use management and meteorology. Project activities include capacity building, policy formulation, pilot project implementation, vulnerability assessment and community based adaptation. China is participating in a considerably larger number of regionally-focused projects. These regional projects are primarily focused on water, agriculture, and policy formulation and implementation, with one or two active projects addressing adaptation in the areas of health, nature, urban areas, risk reduction and meteorology. Gender is not a prominent component of either national or multi-country projects in China at present. Leading funders of adaptation action in China include: the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and the governments of Norway and Switzerland.

Assessment:

China is making considerable strides in addressing climate change through its various policies as well as participation in a number of projects that address its priority adaptation needs. Given the importance placed on climate change mitigation within the country, it is possible that adaptation is receiving less focus than is warranted. Nonetheless, China has the scientific and technical capacity needed to address its adaptation goals, and has demonstrated that it is cognizant of its adaptation priorities. At the same time it has shown the ability to enact large-scale policy reforms to achieve climate change goals.
China does have significant adaptation issues that need to be addressed and is making progress to meeting these goals. For example, it appears that the country has made considerable advancements in addressing climate change in the agriculture and water sector, two of its key adaptation priorities. However gaps persist in other areas, including in the priority areas of coastal zones and terrestrial ecosystems.

Primary Source: 

Additional References:

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resources

  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
  • Improve or develop water management

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
Major Tasks: 
  • Data investigation/collection/analysis, and database establishment and improvement; 
  • Field investigations and sampling analysis; 
  • Development and improvement of model for quantifying volume of municipal solid waste; 
  • Evaluation of the CO2 emission factors of waste incineration systems, the CH4 emission factors and N2O emission factors of industrial wastewater treatment systems and residential wastewater treatment systems; 
  • Estimation and compilation of GHG emissions inventory in each category of waste treatment; 
  • Summary analysis and finalization of China’s 2005 GHG inventory from waste treatment. 
1) Progressive Outputs: 
  • Activity data collection and quantification methods, and activity data for for each source category of wastewater / sewage treatment; 
  • Emission factors for each source category of wastewater / sewage treatment. 
2) Final Outputs:
  • China’s GHG inventory in waste treatment; 
  • Report of the inventory compiling methodology for GHG emission inventory of waste treatment sector
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Manuel Soriano
Regional Technical Advisor
People's Republic of China
Yang Hong Wei
Project Affiliate
People's Republic of China
Wei Xiong
Project Affiliate
Yinpeng Li
Project Affiliate
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in China

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in China" is working to strengthen the national capacity to respond to the increased health risks due to heat waves in China.

The project will focus on reducing the impacts of climate change on cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the three project cities through the implementation of heat wave forecasting and early warning systems designed to protect human health.

China is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (126.645272745 45.7532092901)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Local governments, including health, meteorological, education, transportation, finance departments and the individuals in the pilot communities (i.e. three large cities in China, each with a population over 6 million: Harbin, Nanjing, Guangzhou).
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

China's Project Objective

To strengthen the national capacity to respond to the increased health risks due to heat waves in China.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

China, with its fragile ecological environment, is vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. In recent years, China has experienced more frequent and higher intensity extreme weather events. Floods, heat waves, freezing rain, snow weather etc which were once rare now happen on a regular basis causing great harm to health and society. The largest impact on health from climate change in China is heat; particularly in urban environments which can change the incidence and mortality of heat or cold related disease.

China experienced extremely hot summers in 1988, 1990, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2002 to 2008, resulting in thousands of excessive deaths. Mortality was particularly high among those 60 years of age and older, and heat waves present serious risks to infants. It is estimated that the number of deaths caused by the recorded heat waves is 2-3 times above normal summer periods. These deaths could be greatly reduced with an early warning system in place.  Heat waves can also increase the morbidity and mortality due to cerebro-cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases.

Cerebro-cardiovascular diseases already have a huge impact in China, with the country having the highest morbidity of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the world. 45% of all deaths in China, is due to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. The health care cost and labour force loss from cerebro-cardiovascular diseases is more than US$2,500 million per year.  This burden will only increase with climate change and rising temperatures.

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit of implementing effective adaptive measures will be the reduction of the incidence and mortality of the cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people's quality of life and greatly reducing the social-economic burden.
Other benefits include:

  • Facilitating the harmonization of health issues with economic development.
  • Strengthening health education and training on the impacts of climatic change on the environment and human health.
  • Increase awareness of the potential impacts climatic change across various media.

Results and Learning:

The project will focus on reducing the impacts of climate change on cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the three project cities through the implementation of heat wave forecasting and early warning systems designed to protect human health. The project will do this with a focus on the following capacity development:

  • Data collection - Additional data collection and research is needed to quantify the health risks of climate change and to identify effective and efficient adaptation options.
  • Data sharing - There are still some gaps in data sharing among environmental, meteorological and health agencies. Therefore a scientific research database will be created using national and international meteorological and disease data; this database will provide accurate, prompt, and authoritative disease monitoring and will produce products relevant for disease prevention.
  • Communication and Cooperation - The project will strengthen communication between decision-makers and the public health system. It also will encourage and support Chinese scientists to participate in the international activities to reduce the health impacts of climate change.
  • Public awareness - There is limited public knowledge of the health impacts of climate change and the actions individuals should take to protect themselves, particularly during heat waves.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: An early warning system is established for impending heat waves to protect people at risk of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases.

  • Establishment of a multi-sectoral cooperation mechanism of health sector, meteorological bureau and environmental protection bureau.
  • Collection and analysis of information on the relationship between meteorological and health data to establish a model to forecast health risks for vulnerable groups.
  • Design of a system for “early forecast, early prevention and early treatment”, providing graded forecasts of the severity of health risks in the project community.

Outcome 2: Systemic and institutional capacity of health sector will be improved to respond to climate-sensitive health risks.

  • Setting up a steering committee for actions during heat waves, and implementing resource sharing, information and skill exchange.
  • Community medical consulting personnel trained with respect to health risks during climate extremes, necessary health consultations and services, and self-protection measures.

Outcome 3: Improve the adaptation capacities and emergency medical plans implemented for cases of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases during heat waves.

  • Emergency plan and support system established for high risk people in the project sites.
  • Public awareness raised through a coordinated media campaign, including videocasts with health education lectures, and regular update of health education and consulting services in communities and schools.
  • Communication and education provided to Government and other decision makers on health risks associated with extreme heat, and effective behavioural responses.
  • Strengthened bilateral and multilateral cooperation through the participation and communication of decision-makers, government officers and researchers in international exchange.

 

Contacts: 
WHO
Mr Mao Jixiang
WHO Country Contact
Ministry of Health P.R. China
Mr. Zhao Yuechao
Deputy Director Division of Environmental Health
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department WHO
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 

China's Initial National Communication, 2004

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities identified in China's Initial National Communication (2004):

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Land Resources
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (111.79686583718 31.901181122215)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$3,500,00
Project Details: 

Potential Adaptation Measures identified in China's Initial National Communication (2004):

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resources

  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
  • Improve or develop water management

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Edo Stork
CO Focal Point
Energy Research Institute
Mr. Yang Hong Wei
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

China NAMA

Under the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme, financed by the EU, Germany, and AusAID, participating countries are primarily focusing on capacity building activities at the national level.  This includes formulating Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and/or Nationally appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), as well as establishing the underlying data collection systems (i.e. national GHG inventory systems, and monitoring, reporting and verification systems).

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, policies, and/or programmes that shift a technology or sector in a country onto a low-carbon development trajectory.  A LEDS, on the other hand, outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify entry points for policy intervention (including identifying and prioritizing NAMAs and ensuring coherence between NAMAs and national development goals).

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (115.26855163323 40.589481911215)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
The four-year Low Emission Capacity Building Programme is being implemented with €8,000,000 of funding from the European Union and €5,000,000 from the Federal Republic of Germany.
Project Details: 

Supporting Mitigation Actions

As a country driven process, each country determines, develops and executes its own project with a clear focus on one of the two areas. From the inception phase of each project, however, and for the life of the project, countries will receive guidance and support from UNDP. Guidance and technical backstopping for all national-level projects will be coordinated, delivered and supported through an over-arching component of the programme: the Global Support Unit.

Programme-supported projects fall into one of several categories:

  • Identifying opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and designing low emission development strategies (LEDS) in context of national priorities
  • Design ofsystems for measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme promotes essential cooperation between relevant institutions, engaging the public sector and industry in a concerted effort to address climate change consistent with national development priorities around the world.

The overall objectives are to strengthen capacities in participating countries in the following ways:

  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems;
  • Identify opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA);
  • Design low emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national priorities
  • Design systems for measuring, reporting, and verification of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any LEDS, NAMAs, or Mitigation Action Plans (MAPs) prepared by developing countries – particularly if a developing country is seeking external financial, technical or capacity-building support, and will therefore be subject to international MRV as described in the Cancun Accords. However, MRV needs will differ depending on whether a country is undertaking a REDD+ type NAMA, for example, versus improving an urban mass transit system. (It is worth noting that the international political arena also refers to the MRV of public finance; this is not being addressed under this project.)

Methodological approach

New methodologies are being developed by different organizations for the development and adoption of MRVs. Although there are still no adopted guidelines on MRV, we can assume that there will be some overarching principles of good practice, such as using the GHG estimation and reporting processes described in the IPCC guidance materials for GHG inventories.

Institutional and political context

As with the GHG national inventory system, it will be important to raise awareness of all key stakeholders on the necessity for MRV to ensure full engagement. It may be useful to consider developing a strategy to engage key providers of data and ensure they are adequately trained.

Linkages to other relevant initiatives

Clearly, the work undertaken under this component has a direct linkage to the National Communications process. Some countries may also be undertaking GHG inventories at the sub-national level and will need to consider how to incorporate this work, as appropriate. Indicators being used in mitigation projects financed by the GEF or other sources may also provide insights for the MRV strategy for NAMAs, LEDS, and/or MAPs.

Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
bf
Project Status: