Taxonomy Term List
Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean
The main objective of the proposed “Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean” project is to upscale the function of local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of the population. The project works in three target countries: Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms. The project will address climate change and disaster risks related to water resources management: in Cuba and Jamaica. The project will also focus on sustainable water management to address drought-related water shortages and coastal erosion related to sea-level rise in Jamaica and Dominican Republic. Finally, the project will address the risks related to river flooding and its effects on environment and livelihoods. The project builds on the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI), a platform launched in 2004 by UNDP, which supported the Cuban model of Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) and its transfer.
Latin America and the Caribbean is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods and landslides, many of which are regularly exacerbated by climate variability. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation regimes, including shifts in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate-related events, will affect population health, livelihoods, economies, the environment and natural resource availability across national borders. Sea level rise, already observed in recent decades, will likely lead to greater inundation, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion and greater susceptibility to storm surges.
Exposure to climate change and extreme climate-related events in the LAC region varies considerably with more than half of Caribbean nations facing ‘extreme’ exposure risks. The Caribbean nations of Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba as facing extreme and high-risk vulnerability to climate change.
The Caribbean possesses inherent geographical, economic and social characteristics which intensify vulnerability and limit ability to respond to catastrophic events. These include geographic isolation, small populations located in hazard prone areas, coastal positioning of critical and economic infrastructures, prevalence of poverty, limited capacity and resources, fragile ecosystems and undiversified economies vulnerable to shocks; weather-dependent economic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, create greater risk of negative impact of climate related events and conditions.
Changes in the rainfall regime and sea level rise are the key risk drivers in the Caribbean. Decreasing rainfall over the Caribbean is likely to be accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of heavy rainfall events, affecting the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts. A high proportion of land area of many Caribbean islands is near sea level, resulting in susceptibility to future sea level rise. Though highly uncertain, climate change may act to decrease the overall number of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) but increase the frequency of the most intense storms in the Caribbean region.
These driving forces affect important ecosystems and ecological processes in the region. Human-induced soil erosion is affecting up to 2.23 million square kilometers of land in LAC, and river networks transport these sediments and other land-based sources of pollution to the oceans, impacting coastal ecosystems. The World’s Water Quality Assessment (2016) states that about one-quarter of all river stretches in LAC fall in the severe pollution class; and the number of rural people coming into contact with polluted surface waters is estimated to be as high as 25 million.
The main objective of the project is to upscale the function of local RRMC in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of population. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms.
Component 1: Local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMCs)
Outcome 1.1.: Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.
Output 1.1.1.: RRMCs established, equipped, functional linked with national EWS. 43
Output 1.1.2.: Vulnerability and hazard studies and risk mapping available at the municipal/community level.
Output 1.1.3.: Local government and population trained on preparedness measures using EWS
Component 2: National climate information and early warning services for disaster risk reduction
Outcome 2.1.: Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.
Ouput 2.1.1: Observation network strengthened with automated weather and flow stations and related data transmission equipment refurbished and installed in disaster-prone areas44
Ouput 2.1.2.:Hydro-met and sectorial databases and information systems and platforms streamlined, software, methodologies and procedures developed for information analysis and prognosis.
Ouput 2.1.3.: Climate information and EWS products complemented and developed with ICT protocols and tailored to sectorial and local entities.
Component 3: Disaster Risk Reduction/Adaptatio n plans and measures
Outcome 3.1: Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.
Output 3.1.1: climate resilient territorial development plans (municipal, parish, provincial) developed with DRR/CCA measures integrated
Output 3.1.2. Selected adaptation measures prioritized in the development plans are implemented
Component 4: Knowledge management and South-South cooperation
Outcome 4.1: Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.
Output 4.1.1.: Technical guides, toolkits, standardized methodologies, experience notes and multimedia experience materials are developed and disseminated
Output 4.1.2.: Exchange site visits organized between participating government and community reps
Output 4.1.3.: Regional training and lessons learnt events held
Outcome 1 - Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.
Outcome 2 - Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.
Outcome 3 - Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.
Outcome 4 - Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.
Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods
The main objective of the "Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods" programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.
The programme targets the three regions in the northern part of Ghana: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions. Compared to other regions of the country, these three northern regions have high degree of exposure to climate variability and change characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing and erratic rainfall. These factors make the northern regions highly vulnerable to climate change and high priority regions for climate change adaptation.
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Water is recognized as a cross-cutting resource underlying the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy of the Republic of Ghana and the National Water Policy with direct linkages to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.
The lack of potable water caused by extreme climate events such as droughts and floods, increases the exposure of people, especially women and children, to water-borne and other hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera. Besides household wellbeing, water plays a central role in many industrial activities. For example, hydropower generation, transportation services, tourism and the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors all depend on water resources. Rainwater harvesting serves as the major source of surface water for many rural communities during the rainy season. There is high agreement between national and regional analyses that vulnerability, especially to droughts, has geographical patterns and socioeconomic associations.
The country experienced severe drought in 1983. Since the late 1990s, floods have been increasingly frequent in the northern regions. Floods affected more than 300,000 people in 1999, 630,000 in 2007/08 and 140,000 in 2010, causing deaths, damaging farmlands, and destroying livelihoods. This resulted in severe hunger, which affected the poor and reduced gross domestic product for that year.
The most severe flood occurred in 2007, during which 630,000 people were affected, through losses of life and displacement, and extensive infrastructural damage and loss of crops. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential impact of climate change on Ghana’s development.
Under a changing climate, poor farmers are finding it difficult to predict the timing of rainy seasons. Consequently, it is becoming difficult manage climate risks to crop production. Failure in crop production is one of the key factors undermining food security . The World Food Programme’s (WFP) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (2009) found that 5% of the population or 1.2 million people are food insecure.
The bulk of the food insecure population is located in the northern regions: 34% in Upper West, 15% in Upper East, and 10% in Northern region. This is the equivalent of approximately 453,000 people. The three northern regions covered by this programme are the most vulnerable. Similarly, the adaptive capacity of these three regions is the lowest nationwide due to low socioeconomic development and the heavy dependence of local economies and livelihoods on rain-fed systems such as agriculture and forestry.
Decreasing annual rainfall and its increasingly erratic pattern, on the background of climate change, are adversely affecting rural livelihoods in northern Ghana and in particular agricultural and pastoral practices. Agriculture is a major driver of Ghana’s economy and employs close to 55 percent of the total labour force.
The proposed Programme will promote four types of adaptation intervention: 1. livelihood enhancement; 2. livelihood diversification; 3. ecosystem protection and enhancement; and 4. community-level water infrastructure planning. These approaches will build up financial, natural, physical and social capital of the communities. A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprise the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010. The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities. Income generation will increase by 30 % in at least 50% of households in the communities.
The main adaptation benefits of the Programme are that it will be able to provide concrete inputs into water resource management planning in the northern region by ensuring that climate change concerns are taken into account. The Programme will be able to build and enhance the adaptive capacity of the ecological systems of water catchments to climate change, once the proposed measures are adopted and implemented.
This is expected to be the first showcase in the Ghana where climate concerns are taken into account and lessons learned will be replicated to other river basins of the country. The activities that will be implemented will include producing knowledge products that capture lessons learnt on management of water resources and diversification of livelihoods under climate change. The capacity to document traditional knowledge systems as well as methods for managing knowledge will be developed, as well as the engagement of community service organizations for knowledge transfer.
The main objective of the programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.
There are three components, each with the following outcomes that will be delivered by the programme:
COMPONENT 1: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING
Outcome 1: Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources
COMPONENT 2: COMMUNITY LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
Outcome 2: Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana
COMPONENT 3: DIVERSIFICATION OF LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES
Outcome 3: Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana
The Chiefs and people of the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions have been urged to embrace the Adaptation Fund Project to help increase climate resilience and enhance sustainable land and water management in the areas. The Adaptation Fund was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MEST) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is implementing the project in some selected communities in the north. Mr Asher Nkegbe, the Upper East Regional Director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), made the call when the technical team of the Project undertook separates community visits to the beneficiary communities in the Upper East Region to engage them on the project implementation and to solicit for their support in the process.
Outcome 1 - Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources
Outcome 2 - Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana
Outcome 3 - Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana
Making the Case for Ecosystem-based Adaptation: The Global Mountain EbA Programme in Nepal, Peru and Uganda.
This publication is a legacy document of the Mountain EbA Programme, delivered through a partnership between the German Government, UNEP, UNDP and IUCN, together with the Governments of Nepal, Peru and Uganda.
Learning Brief 1 - Introduction to Ecosystem-based Adaptation: A nature-based response to climate change
This brief is part of a series of learning briefs produced by UNDP. These briefs draw together experiences and lessons learned from working on ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) within the global Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountain Ecosystems Programme from 2011 to 2015. The content also draws on lessons generated by the broader global EbA community of practice. The briefs are designed for practitioners, including local government representatives, civil society organizations and other actors working on climate change issues.
Human wellbeing and livelihoods cannot be sustained without healthy ecosystems. Mountain ecosystems are particularly important, in that they maintain rich ecological processes and provide essential goods and services, especially water, not only to mountain people, but also to downstream lowlands where demand from population centers, agriculture and industry is high. These ecosystems, however, face severe threats from unsustainable land use practices (overgrazing and non-conservation agriculture), illegal wood extraction, development of large-scale infrastructure (dams, roads) and unsustainable natural resource projects (hydrocarbons, mining).
Climate change further compounds these threats by increasing levels of exposure to droughts, floods (which in turn results in an increase in landslides) and changes in seasonality. These impacts both undermine the resilience of the mountain ecosystems and increase the vulnerability of the local mountain communities, whose livelihoods and wellbeing depend on their services. Mountain people tend to be among the world’s poorest and most marginalized populations. Not only do many share the disadvantages of rural poverty and ethnic or religious discrimination. They also face additional challenges to subsistence brought about by elevation, rough topography and severe climate.
Through the global Ecosystems-based Adaptation (EBA) in Mountains Programme, UNDP, UNEP and IUCN, with funding from the German Government, are using sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems, as part of an overall adaptation strategy, to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of select fragile mountain ecosystems and their local communities to climate change impacts. It is a global partnership that involve national and regional government agencies, civil society and local communities in three pilot countries: Uganda, Nepal and Peru.
Photos provided by: UNDP Peru, Carlos Diaz Huertas and Adriana Kato, UNDP Nepal, Tine Rossing, Andrea Egan, UNDP Uganda, Ed Barrows and James Leslie.
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Training & Tools
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
The Ecosystems-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountains Programme is a global partnership jointly implemented by UNDP, UNEP and IUCN from 2011-2015, with funding from the Germany’s Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). While global in scope, Uganda, Nepal and Peru were selected as pilot countries, due to their significant vulnerability to climate change, coupled with their endowment of fragile mountain ecosystems upon which a multitude of communities and economic activities depend.
The overarching Programme goal is to strengthen capacities of the involved governments and local communities to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the effects of climate change using EbA measures in targeted mountain ecosystems.
Expected programme results include:
- New and field tested methodologies and decision-making tools for EbA, including Vulnerability & Impact Assessments;
- Monitoring and Evaluation centered on ecosystem resilience; and
- Capacities and knowledge of all involved stakeholders (national, district and local level government, local communities and civil society organizations) will be enhanced for planning and implementing both early action “No Regrets” and longer-term EbA measures through pilot activities in target mountain ecosystems.
Based on evidence emerging from these processes, lessons will also be generated on how to use cost-benefit analyses to make an economic case for specific EbA measures. In close collaboration with key governments agencies, evidence and lessons will be generated on how to mainstream EbA into broader district and national policy and financing frameworks. These lessons can be scaled-up and shared as policy examples at regional and global levels beyond the three pilot countries. Overall, the resilience to climate change of targeted mountain ecosystems and their local custodians will be enhanced.
Outcome 1: Methodologies and tools for EbA decision making developed. The application of appropriate scientific methodologies and tools to assist decision makers on the effectiveness of the interventions is a critical ingredient of successful EbA approaches. In each pilot country, this outcome will finance a process that will assess, evaluate and develop appropriate methodologies for use in informing project adaptation actions. Additional results that will be generated include development of project baselines as well as comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to monitor programme impacts. Indicators will be developed to specifically measure impacts related to ecosystem functioning and adaptive capacity.
Outcome 2: EbA methodologies and tools applied at ecosystem level. This outcome will finance the development of a capacity building approach that, in turn, will be used to apply the methodologies and tools developed under Outcome 1. In order to ensure sustainability in the use of the tools as well as ensuring that results from the programme are integrated in national processes, relevant stakeholders who were to be involved in the programme will be trained in the use and application of the tools.
Outcome 3: EbA pilot projects implemented in each pilot country and contributing towards ecosystem resilience and reduction of livelihood vulnerability in the face of climate change impacts. A number of EbA activities will be identified and selected for implementation based on the outputs of outcomes 1 and 2. In addition, 1) institutional roles and responsibilities for EbA will be agreed to by different stakeholders at all levels; 2) Institutional capacity of local governments and other key national institutions to plan, monitor and enforce EbA will be enhanced; 3) pilot projects focusing on water resources management and enhancement of soil conservation measures will be implemented; 4) market opportunities and access will be enhanced; and 5) lessons learned from pilot projects will be captured and disseminated.
Outcome 4: Business case for EbA at the local and national levels developed. To make an economic case for EbA, the project will identify and apply the best methods and practice for socio-economic evaluation of adaptation options. This will provide an economic justification for support from relevant government institutions for the use of EbA as a climate risk management strategy. To this end, i) an enabling environment for scaling-up EbA at national level will be created; and ii) information and capacities of key government stakeholders will be enhanced so as to integrate EBA into national development planning processes and climate change policies and strategies.
Outcome 5:New learning and knowledge on EbA generated. In early 2014, the scope of the Programme was expanded to include a new Learning and Knowledge Component. These new activities will strengthen learning about EbA at various levels namely 1) site level – i.e. the three pilot sites in Nor Yauyos-Cochas, Mount Elgon and Panchase – 2) country level (Peru, Uganda and Nepal), and 3) beyond (inter-country, regional and global levels). Systematization of generated information and learning wil be used by partners to generate new science, insights and messages that can influence policy and practice on EBA in mountain ecosystems and beyond. The application of methodologies and tools, combined with implementation of pilot activities, will enable the Programme to shorten the learning curve for local and national institutions, and fast-track the transfer of knowledge and experience in building ecosystem and social resilience to climate change.
The "Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu" project in Mali will work to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities and their adaptive capacity to climate change in the regions of Mopti and Timbuktu, including the Faguibine system zone.
Located in the Sahel of West Africa, Mali has a dry climate with 65% of its territory under semi-desert and desert conditions. Climate change is expected to increase the variability and the incidence of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, intense rainfall events. Without improved planning and management and particularly improved water management, climate change will destroy crops and property, and lead to greater degradation of already fragile soils. Regardless of whether there is an increase or decrease in precipitation, increased temperatures will cause greater evapo-transpiration, which will lead to drier soils in many areas and a corresponding decrease in water availability.
The programme will generate clear adaptation benefits that will assist Mali to make the transition towards climate resilient food security through:
(i) enhanced ability of small farmers and pastoralists to cope with increasing climate variability;
(ii) systematic integration of the risks associated with climate change, including variability into key natural resources, water and agriculture development policies, plans and legislation; and
(iii) strengthened institutional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change threats on water and food production systems.
Adaptation benefits will also result from the catalytic and innovative nature of the programme and the valuable lessons learnt and information generated. By its simultaneous focus on enhancing food security, promoting resilient rural household livelihoods, rehabilitation of water systems, and facilitating access to adaptation technologies, the programme brings together the crucial elements needed for demonstrating climate-proofing and fostering a paradigm shift in providing holistic adaptation beyond a merely sectoral approach in Mali.
Mali experiences severe recurrent shocks particularly droughts, locust infestation and irregular rainfalls causing reduction in agricultural yields and water resources severely affecting the livelihoods of the people and national development. There are also extreme climate events such as flooding.
The NAPA assessment, for example, concluded that climate change is likely to cause significant losses in crop production (like millet, sorghum, maize and rice) by 2025 and 2050. This demonstrate that farming systems in Mali are extremely vulnerable to climate change and climate variability.
The root causes of vulnerability include significant reliance on rain-fed production systems, ongoing practices of crop and livestock selections, water resource management, rangeland management, drought ill-preparedness, and household income generation that are not compatible with increasing impacts of climate change.
Other drivers of vulnerability include: (i) increasing demographic trends e.g. climate-induced refugee movements into regions least affected by drought, which cause intense pressure on productive arable lands; (ii) shortage of basic investment in market instruments in rural areas (such as access to credit, limited market outlets, etc.); and (iii) lack of land tenure regulation that hinders development of the the sector.
In the context of the above root causes , the performance of production systems (agriculture, fisheries, livestock, forestry, etc.) and the capacity to adapt are limited.
The National Policy, Strategy and Action Plan on Climate Change for Mali (AEDD 2011) clearly states government recognition of the problem of climate change by this problem statement:
"In Mali, climate change threatens key sectors of the economy: Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry, Energy, Health, and Infrastructure. Without an organized response and anticipated level of governance of these sectors to address these challenges, climate change could be very threatening on the development of Mali."
There is a high level of uncertainty associated in climate projections for Mali, and West Africa in general, particularly for changes in precipitation.In the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the IPCC, general circulation model simulations suggest a future warming of 0.2 degrees C per decade (low warming scenario) to more than 0.5 degrees C ( high warming scenario) by 2030. While some models predict a decrease in precipitation, others suggest increased rainfall under the most rapid global change scenario. No clear outcome regarding future climatology has emerged for the Sahel region.
Models do agree, however, on the increased unpredictability of rainfall, and this is consistent with local observations.
This climate variability threatens to undermine Mali's ability to acheive development goals, reduce poverty, improve food security and build a resilient nation.
Outcome 1 - Increased climate change resilience of local water systems in Mopti and Timbuktu regions
Outcome 2 - The production of local livelihood systems such as agriculture, fisheries, livestock, and forest enhanced under climate change
Outcome 3 - Enhanced capacity of local institutions and of communities to better adapt to climate change
Asia and Pacific adaptation portfolio includes 31 ongoing projects with a total value of $139 million. Supporting Integrated Climate Change Strategies; advancing Cross-sectoral Climate Resilient Livelihoods and strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems are the main areas of intervention. The cumulative effect of the portfolio in the region can be substantial providing that the implementation pace and delivery can be maintained at expected UNDP standards.