Kiribati

Kiribati is situated in the Central Pacific Ocean and consists of 33 atolls with a total land area of about 800 sq km. The atolls have a maximum height of 3 to 4 m above mean sea level and support an estimated population of about 95,000 people.  Most people live a subsistence lifestyle, as the country is amongst the poorest and least developed countries in the world - having only a few natural resources, the main industries are tourism and the exports of Copra and fish.  The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. It is known that the heat content of the oceans has increased, and this could mean increase in internal energy (turbidity enhancement) of the oceans and/or increase in sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed - quite consistent with what to expect from climate change. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change through its impacts of sea level rise leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges bounding on the edges of the land will reduce agricultural productivity such as of pandanus varieties, and coconut.

Related Content

Enhancing “whole of islands” Approach to Strengthen Community Resilience to Climate and Disaster risks in Kiribati

The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Kiribati to develop a project proposal for a new US$9 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Enhancing 'whole of islands' Approach to Strengthen Community Resilience to Climate and Disaster Risks in Kiribati" project will include US$45 million in co-financing. The project looks to strengthen the capacity of government institutions to support the operalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP), enhance capacity of island administrations  to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach, and enhance community capacities  to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-160.66406254289 -1.5708480860501)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.9 million proposed GEF LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$45 million proposed co-financing
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Outcomes:

1.1 Capacities of national government institutions and personnels strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP)

2.1 Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach

3.1 Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Expected Outputs:

1.1.1 National and sectoral level policy, planning and legal frameworks revised or developed, integrating climate change and disaster risks

1.1.2 Budgetary processes and related institutional structures adjusted with considerations to climate change risk

1.1.3 National and sectoral monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes, related data gathering and communication systems enhanced and adjusted to support KJIP implementation

1.1.4 KJIP Coordination mechanism enhanced

1.1.5 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on climate change and disaster risks enhanced at the national level

2.2.1 Island and community level vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments revised and/or developed at 5 additional islands

2.1.2 Island Council Strategic Plans reviewed and complemented with whole of island adaptation action plans in 5 islands

2.1.3 Island level M&E processes, related data gathering, and communications systems enhanced and adjusted linked with national systems

2.1.4 Tools and mechanisms to develop, stock, and share data, knowledge, and information on CC and DR enhanced at the island level – with the option of exploring the software and hardware to strengthen information and communication mechanisms for early warning system (EWS)

2.1.5 I Kiribati population in 5 islands receives formal and informal training and awareness raising programmes on climate change and disaster risk management

3.1.1 Climate-resilient agriculture and livestock practices (including supply, production and processing/storage aspects) are introduced in at least 5 additional islands and communities

3.1.2 Water supply and storage facilities enhanced and/or installed at 5 additional islands and communities

3.1.3 Shoreline protection and climate proofing of infrastructure measures implemented at 5 additional islands and communities

Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Capacities of national government institutions and personnels strengthened on mainstreaming climate and disaster risks, supporting the operalization of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2014-2023 (KJIP).

Outcome 2 - Capacity of island administrations enhanced to plan for and monitor climate change adaptation processes in a Whole of Islands (WoI) approach.

Outcome 3 - Community capacities enhanced to adapt to climate induced risks to food and water security and community assets

Kiribati: Enhancing National Food Security in the Context of Climate Change

Kiribati is a nation comprised of 33 atolls (21 inhabited) spread across a vast Pacific Ocean territory. The people of rural Kiribati are largely reliant upon a limited land base and coastal zone fisheries for both nutrition and livelihood.

As the population grows and climate change advances, the security of island resources will be challenged. Already, the ecosystem integrity upon which islanders depend for climate change resilience is being eroded. This is evinced by many factors including deteriorating quality of near-shore fisheries, degraded lagoon health, and reduced freshwater quality. The primary reason for this is that current management regimes for both atoll and lagoon resources are defined by open resource access. There is very little active management, research, and/or regulation to make certain use of lagoon resources is maintained within sustainable limits. The nation has very little experience with the design and implementation of community-based management regimes to incentivize improved and more innovative management techniques. There are few tools in place to support better management of lagoon resource in light of expanding economic use and demand for these resources. This situation challenges resource management both within the lagoon and on the atoll. Climate change will certainly exacerbates an already very high level of vulnerability.

The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.

To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.357 1.88243)
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 

The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.

To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the LDCF investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.

Under Component One, the project will assist Kiribati to address urgent institutional capacity building needs primarily on the national level. This will include helping to set in place an improved regulatory environment, strengthened institutional planning and policy frameworks, and generation of data required to support informed decision-making.

Under Component Two, the project will assist Kiribati to address climate change vulnerabilities by implementing and demonstrating community-based adaptation measures. The project will work on a select number of atolls to set in place models for land and lagoon resources management that is predicated upon informed planning and management processes. The general awareness of rural communities regarding fisheries management and climate change impacts will be increased.  Community-based monitoring systems will be established. This will be used to inform decision-making, serve as an early warning system for climate change impacts, and be linked to island-wide vulnerability assessments. The monitoring system will linked to national level programming so that national level decision-making benefits from more broad-based information sources. The project will support the generation, adoption, and implementation of model council by-laws designed to be ecosystem inclusive and enhance ecosystem integrity. This will include model regulations for the management of fisheries, including permit and reporting mechanisms for both subsistence, commercial and tourism use of lagoon resources. The project will work with extension officers responsible for both agriculture and fisheries resources. This will include building the capacities of officers, responsible government agencies, island councils, and rural stakeholders through formal training programs utilizing fisheries field schools. Model programs for more sustainable and climate resilient practices will be tested, assessed, and ready for national replication.

All project activity will target the reduction of food security issues by setting in place capacities required for local communities to maintain and enhance ecosystem integrity. By project close, Kiribati should have operational models showing that food security, ecosystem integrity and climate change resilience can be enhanced through improved management approaches.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Expected Outcomes
Expected Outcome
Institutional capacity development to reduce vulnerability to climate change-induced food shortages
Implementation of community adaptation measures to increase food security
Project Management

Expected Outputs
Expected Output
1.1 Development of Climate Early Warning and Information System, and the capacity to use the system nationally including (i) Extended meteorological and hydrological observations by National Meteorological Service; (ii) identification of critical areas for agro-ecological, hydrological and coastal services in relation to livelihoods, and overlay of likely climate change impacts under modelling scenarios; (iii) development of coastal fisheries spatial database and GIS including predicted impacts of climate on species population and distribution; and (iv) Use of state radio and TV for dissemination of climate risk information, seasonal forecasts related to food production, and warning of extreme events.
1.2 National policy and planning framework and capacities emplaced to integrate decision making tools to increase adaptation to changed climatic conditions and preparedness for extreme events, and to deploy funds and human resources as needed, including: (i) Training of officials and community groups in the Tarawa Atoll and seven main outer islands to use climate risk information to undertake vulnerability assessments, integrated land/ marine resource-use planning taking into account climate risks, development of management framework for inshore/lagoonal ecosystems under changing cliimate, prioritization of adaptation actions for fisheries and food security; and (iii) Review and amendment of fisheries legislation and guidelines to implement measures that enhance resilience to climate impacts, including draft community protocols or by-laws for community-sanctioned set-asides to protect refugia and recruitment areas.
2.1 Demonstration of climate resilient fishery practices, including, including i) public works to restore vegetative cover in degraded coastal areas to reduce erosion and siltation of coral reefs under changing climate conditions, and monitoring of coral reef siltation levels in pilot sites; (iii) building artificial coral reefs in pilot sites,; (v) training community members to participate in monitoring lagoon and coastal ecosystems
2.2 Increasing effective processing and storage to act as food buffer during times of shortages at community level because of drought or disruption of transport by storms, including: (i) constructing storage and processing facilities where needed on the seven main outer islands; (ii) feeding information from the Climate Early Warning and Information System into the surplus food collection and distribution system; and (iii) undertaking extension work with communities to promote traditional local preservation methods

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 

Kiribati P-CBA Country Page

1. Purpose Statement
“To mainstream CBA in the design and assessment of project proposals of a significant size in Kiribati and to pursue initiatives for the sustainability of CBA in the design of future projects”

2.  P-CBA Focal Points:
Mr. Jason Reynolds – Director, National Planning Office

3. Ministries and institutions involved:
National Planning Office
To be updated

4. CBA Case Studies and Timeline:
Cost Benefit Analysis on development projects required to transform the Island of Kanton (pristine) in the Phonenix group in Kiribati into a tourist destination.

5. In-Country Training and Mentoring:
The in-Country trainings should focus on the Module 1 “Overview of a CBA” for senior officials, Module 2 “the ABC of CBA”, Module 3 “The CBA Workplan” and Module 6 “Train the trainers”

6. Sustainability Measures Proposed:

  • Internal: Current project proposal require a CBA, but often this is ignored. Provide support for enforcement of CBA for large projects (e.g. over AUD 1 million). Train the trainers.
  • External: Certification of courses at USP and establishment of a database with guidelines and reports

7. Proposed Sources of funding:                                   
Source of funding need to be identified with regional development partners.

8. Additional Resources

Region/Country: 

Kiribati – GEF Trust Project Identification Form

 

Project Identification Form (PIF) for the project titled “Integrating Global Environmental Priorities into National Policies and Programmes in Kiribati.”

Integrating Global Environmental Priorities into National Policies and Programmes in Kiribati

Over the years, the government of Kiribati has demonstrated its commitment to the global environmental agenda as it struggles to address national issues and priorities.  Kiribati has developed a number of national environment strategies and plans that address its obligations under various MEAs. However, there exist gaps in national environmental policies and legislation, training, education, and public awareness as well as coordination among government agencies key for effective implementation of the Rio conventions.

With its focus on strengthening Kiribati's environmental management information system (EMIS), this UNDP-supported project, Integrating Global Environmental Priorities into National Policies and Programmes in Kiribati, will address the challenges of improving and enforcing environmental policies and legislation and help integrate environmental issues into national and sector strategies and plans among other goals. 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.212295583 1.74140823521)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Ministry of Environment, Land and Agricultural Development, Government of Kiribati
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$547,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$530,000
Project Details: 

More Information to come...

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The two major outcomes of this project are –

  1. The development of an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) including a SWOT and Gap analyses of existing databases and management information systems (Outcome 1.1); Formulation of benchmarks central for data generation (Outcome 1.2); Formulation of a strategic plan for institutional reforms to create an EMIS (Outcome 1.3); Identification and training on the use of new and improved tools and technologies for collecting and managing harmonized environmental data/information (Outcome 1.4) and; Launch of a public awareness campaign on the value and need for an EMIS (Outcome 1.5)
  2. The development of an Environmental Indicators and Compliance Monitoring System (CMS) including creation of harmonized environmental indicators (Outcome 2.1); Establishing best practice methodologies and training on the application of environmental indicators (Outcome 2.2); Development of software and information technology to track environmental indicators (Outcome 2.3); Development of the CMS in a structured manner to track environmental indicators (Outcome 2.4) and; Institutionalization of the CMS within planning and decision-making authorities at the technical and ministerial levels (Outcome 2.5).
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

More Information to come...

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

More Information to come...

Kiribati's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed, impacts consistent with what to expect from climate change. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change, through its impacts of sea level rise, are leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges which are expected to increasingly reduce vital agricultural productivity of crops such as pandanus varieties and coconut.

To view progress on Kiribati's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.491720548 1.85633100549)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Kiribati is situated in the Central Pacific Ocean and consists of 33 atolls with a total land area of about 800 sq km. The atolls have a maximum height of 3 to 4 m above mean sea level and support an estimated population of about 95,000 people.  Most people live a subsistence lifestyle, as the country is amongst the poorest and least developed countries in the world - having only a few natural resources, the main industries are tourism and the exports of Copra and fish. The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change.

Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. It is known that the heat content of the oceans has increased, and this could mean increase in internal energy (turbidity enhancement) of the oceans and/or increase in sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed - quite consistent with what to expect from climate change. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change through its impacts of sea level rise leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges bounding on the edges of the land will reduce agricultural productivity such as of pandanus varieties, and coconut.

Adaptation Needs and Priorities

The Kiribati Government’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change released in 1999 describes the vulnerabilities of the country, with a focus on the potential adverse impacts of sea level rise. The impacts include brackish water invasions, coastal erosion and reduced groundwater quality and quantity. Throughout the document, there in an emphasis on the melding of traditional practices in agriculture and extreme weather event preparation. This report includes a list of projects planned by the Kiribati government to address is adaptation needs, including (MESD, 1999):
 
  • Establishment of a climate change and sea level monitoring center.
  • Formation of an integrated coastal zone management plan.
  • Public awareness programming.
  • Education and training program.
  • Research and information dissemination.
  • Technology transfers program.
  • Water supplies program.
  • Alternative energy source program.

In its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Kiribati builds upon these observations to identify nine key areas in which adaptation action is required. These nine key areas (as detailed in Table 3) include implementation in the areas of (MELAD, 2007):

  • Freshwater–A water resources adaptation project; and a well improvement project to improve public health;
  • Coastal zones–A coastal zone management program for adaptation; 
  • Risk reduction and monitoring–A strengthening of climate change information and monitoring program; upgrading of coastal defenses and causeways; and upgrading of meteorological services;
  • Marine resources–Coral monitoring, restoration and stock enhancement; and
  • Agriculture–Agricultural food crops development.
 
National Level Policies and Strategic Documents
 
The prominent documents of the Government of Kiribati that document is adaptation needs, priorities and action plans are its  Initial National Communication and its NAPA, the latter of which was released in 2007. As well, Kiribati has initiated efforts to mainstream climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into its development processes through the Kiribati Adaptation Program, adoption of a Climate Change Adaptation Policy Note and a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy released in 2005. This strategy identifies eight priority areas for action: (1) integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and institutional capacity; (2) use of external financial and technical assistance; (3) population and resettlement; (4) government and services; (5) freshwater resources and supply systems; (6) coastal structures, land use and agricultural production; (7) marine resources; and (8) survivability and self-reliance
(Government of Kiribati, 2005).
 
As well, the Kiribati Development Plan (2008–2011) recognizes the potential adverse consequences of climate change for national development. In addition, Kiribati’s National Water Resource Policy completed in 2008 integrates consideration of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change (KAP, n.d.).
 
Current Adaptation Action
 
The moderate number of adaptation projects, relative to other Pacific Island developing countries, are underway in Kiribati, most of which seek to build local capacity. The projects mainly focus on several sectors, namely: coastal zone management, water, meteorology, forestry and fisheries. Notably, Kiribati has hosted the Kiribati Adaptation Program since 2003. This program has progressively support understanding of climate change impacts, development of adaptation measures and the integration of adaptation into policy and planning. In its third phase, this initiative is supporting implementation of actions identified in Kiribati’s NAPA.
 
Proposed Adaptation Action
 
Within its NAPA, Kiribati identified nine priority projects for implementation. Some of these planned actions are now being supported through the project “Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Hazards” financed by the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF). 
 
References:

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars

Water Resources

  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Improve or develop water management

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Emma Mario
Country Officer
Government of Kiribati
Riibeta Abeta
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Kiribati National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) Official Document - January 2007

Kiribati is one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. The atolls of Kiribati rise 3-4 metres above mean sea level and are an average of a few hundred metres wide. These atolls are the home of nearly 90,000 Kiribati people with their distinct culture. Inundation and erosion destroy key areas of land, and storm surges contaminate the fresh groundwater lens which is vital for survival. An economic evaluation of the costs of climate change related risks has been estimated to be 35% of Kiribati GDP.

Kiribati National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their immediate needs to adapt to climate change, ultimately leading to the implementation of projects aimed at reducing the economic and social costs of climate change.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.41403766675 1.8621891518381)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved capacity building and project identification, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
200,000
Co-Financing Total: 
20,000
Project Details: 

Kiribati is situated in the Central Pacific Ocean and consists of 33 atolls with a total land area of about 800 sq km. The atolls have a maximum height of 3 to 4 m above mean sea level and support an estimated population of about 95,000 people.  Most people live a subsistence lifestyle, as the country is amongst the poorest and least developed countries in the world - having only a few natural resources, the main industries are tourism and the exports of Copra and fish.  The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change.

Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. It is known that the heat content of the oceans has increased, and this could mean increase in internal energy (turbidity enhancement) of the oceans and/or increase in sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed and is consistent with current climate change predictions. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change through its impacts of sea level rise leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges bounding on the edges of the land will reduce agricultural productivity such as of pandanus varieties, and coconut.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Adaptation Needs and Priorities

The Kiribati Government’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change released in 1999 describes the vulnerabilities of the country, with a focus on the potential adverse impacts of sea level rise. The impacts include brackish water invasions, coastal erosion and reduced groundwater quality and quantity. Throughout the document, there in an emphasis on the melding of traditional practices in agriculture and extreme weather event preparation. This report includes a list of projects planned by the Kiribati government to address is adaptation needs, including (MESD, 1999):

  • Establishment of a climate change and sea level monitoring center.
  • Formation of an integrated coastal zone management plan.
  • Public awareness programming.
  • Education and training program.
  • Research and information dissemination.
  • Technology transfers program.
  • Water supplies program.
  • Alternative energy source program.

In its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Kiribati builds upon these observations to identify nine key areas in which adaptation action is required. These nine key areas (as detailed in Table 3) include implementation in the areas of (MELAD, 2007):

  • Freshwater–A water resources adaptation project; and a well improvement project to improve public health;
  • Coastal zones–A coastal zone management program for adaptation; 
  • Risk reduction and monitoring–A strengthening of climate change information and monitoring program; upgrading of coastal defenses and causeways; and upgrading of meteorological services;
  • Marine resources–Coral monitoring, restoration and stock enhancement; and
  • Agriculture–Agricultural food crops development.

National Level Policies and Strategic Documents

The prominent documents of the Government of Kiribati that document is adaptation needs, priorities and action plans are its  Initial National Communication and its NAPA, the latter of which was released in 2007. As well, Kiribati has initiated efforts to mainstream climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into its development processes through the Kiribati Adaptation Program, adoption of a Climate Change Adaptation Policy Note and a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy released in 2005. This strategy identifies eight priority areas for action: (1) integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and institutional capacity (2) use of external financial and technical assistance; (3) population and resettlement; (4) government and services; (5) freshwater resources and supply systems; (6) coastal structures, land use and agricultural production; (7) marine resources; and (8) survivability and self-reliance

As well, the Kiribati Development Plan (2008–2011) recognizes the potential adverse consequences of climate change for national development. In addition, Kiribati’s National Water Resource Policy completed in 2008 integrates consideration of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change (KAP, n.d.).

Current Adaptation Action

The moderate number of adaptation projects, relative to other Pacific Island developing countries, are underway in Kiribati, most of which seek to build local capacity. The projects mainly focus on several sectors, namely: coastal zone management, water, meteorology, forestry and fisheries. Notably, Kiribati has hosted the Kiribati Adaptation Program since 2003. This program has progressively support understanding of climate change impacts, development of adaptation measures and the integration of adaptation into policy and planning. In its third phase, this initiative is supporting implementation of actions identified in Kiribati’s NAPA.

Proposed Adaptation Action

Within its NAPA, Kiribati identified nine priority projects for implementation. Some of these planned actions are now being supported through the project “Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Hazards” financed by the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF). 

Publication: Dohan, Rosemary; Hove, Hilary; Echeverría, Daniella; Hammill, Anne, Parry, Jo-Ellen. (2011) “Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: The Pacific.” Adaptation Partnership/International Institute for Sustainable Development, pp.71 - 81. 

Additional References:

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: