Nicaragua

 

The Republic of Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America, with an area of 129,494 square kilometers (USDS, 2011).149 Home to most of the Central American Volcanic Arc, the geographical variation in the country—from the Pacific Lowlands to the Amerrique Mountains and the Mosquito Coast along the Atlantic Lowlands—has contributed to Nicaragua’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Nicaragua is extremely susceptible to hurricanes. Other natural hazards include destructive earthquakes, threat of volcanic eruption, and landslides. It is predicted that climate change will result in an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Therefore Nicaragua is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

The country’s abundant resources support most of its economy, about one-third of which is derived from agriculture, timber and fishing (USDS, 2011). Manufacturing (particularly textiles and apparel), services (retail, hotels and restaurants) and remittances also form a significant portion of the country’s economy (CIA, 2011; USDS, 2011). Social and economic conditions have improved in Nicaragua since 1991 (when the Sandinistas government ended), with its ranking on the UN Human Development Index rising by 25 per cent between 1990 and 2010. Still, Nicaragua remains one of the poorest countries in Central America, with a per capita Gross Domestic Product in 2010 estimated to be US$2,900, and economic gains are uneven within the population (USDS, 2011).

Nicaragua has submitted only one National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in March 2001. The Communication established the National GHG Inventory with 1994 as its base years, it presents future climate change scenarios for Nicaragua for the 21st century, it includes vulnerability and adaptation studies to climate change for the water sector and it presents mitigation options in protected areas of the country, forestry and agriculture as well as a description of the National Climate Change Action Plan.

A Second National Communication is under preparation and it will include a Second National GHG Inventory with 2000 as its base year, which is already completed.

In December 2007, Nicaragua formulated its National Climate Change Action Plan (PANCC, Spanish acronym) based on a series of studies on vulnerability, mitigation options and climate change impact, whose objective is to develop adaptation measures for the most vulnerable sectors of the economy, such as agriculture and water resources and to contribute to the mitigation of GHG gases, particularly in the forestry sector.

Nicaragua is in the process of publishing their first National Climate Change Strategy. The Strategy was conceived with the help of UNDP and the Embassy of Denmark and the main vulnerabilities taken into account for Nicaragua and the main actions proposed are focused on extreme weather events, leaving aside the analysis of gradual climatic changes.

Related Content

Mainstreaming Multilateral Environmental Agreements into Environmental Legislation in Nicaragua

Under the auspices of the GEF intervention, the proposed Project will strengthen the national judicial system and adjust it to present-day changes and conditions in the country’s reality, as well as needs to protect the natural environment. MARENA, the agency in charge of national environmental management, will build up its technical and financial capacities to efficiently promote a better application of legal instruments and elevate its level of compliance.

Mainstreaming Multilateral Environmental Agreements into Environmental Legislation in Nicaragua

Under the auspices of the GEF intervention, the proposed Project will strengthen the national judicial system and adjust it to present-day changes and conditions in the country’s reality, as well as needs to protect the natural environment. MARENA, the agency in charge of national environmental management, will build up its technical and financial capacities to efficiently promote a better application of legal instruments and elevate its level of compliance.

The project’s overall goal is to increase local and national capacities to enforce environmental legislation, in particular the Special Law on Crimes against the environment and natural Resources in support of the Rio Conventions.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-86.2792790434 12.1574650624)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
470,000
Co-Financing Total: 
130,000
Project Details: 

Nicaragua is the second poorest country in Latin America with half of its 5 million inhabitants living in poverty.  It is also the largest country in Central America with over 130,000 km2, and with a rich biological endowment.

Despite past and ongoing efforts, there remains much to be done to effectively implement the Rio Conventions at the national level and mainstream environment into local and national policies.

Under the auspices of the GEF intervention, the proposed Project will strengthen the national judicial system and adjust it to present-day changes and conditions in the country’s reality, as well as needs to protect the natural environment. MARENA, the agency in charge of national environmental management, will build up its technical and financial capacities to efficiently promote a better application of legal instruments and elevate its level of compliance.

Likewise, the judiciary will gain the necessary technical knowledge for the correct interpretation and application of the recently approved “Crimes against Natural Resources and the Environment Act”. Thereby, officials will be able to identify non-fulfillment of regulations, assess damages with the necessary technical expertise and sanction according to the just and applicable penalties. This will only be possible through a constant training process within these authorities, providing them with teaching materials and transmitting expert knowledge on matters of environment and natural resources. These tools will constitute the two main pillars for improved compliance with national environmental legislation and consequently international norms, particularly the Rio Conventions.

Following the obstacles and structural causes identified in the NCSA, the purpose of the Project is to carry out a series of interventions aimed at removing, as far as possible, these obstacles in order to be able to achieve a more effective compliance with environmental MEAs.

The project’s overall goal is to increase local and national capacities to enforce environmental legislation, in particular the Special Law on Crimes against the environment and natural Resources in support of the Rio Conventions. To this end, three main outcomes have been defined:

  • Outcome 1: The administrative and legal system, as well as other observance institutions at central and local levels, effectively enforce the environmental legislation related to MEA, with emphasis on the recently passed Special Crimes against the Environment and Natural Resources Act.
  • Outcome 2: Organizational development and inter-institutional strengthening on environmental mainstreaming in line with the MEAs and other environmental agreements, in an institutionally sustainable manner.
  • Outcome 3: MARENA has acquired the technical and methodological capacities to monitor the impact of a more effective enforcement of the environmental legislation, and the way it contributes to act in accordance to compliance with MEAs.

To fulfill this task, the Project will involve directly and permanently, members of NGOs, local governments and municipalities, government and academic institutions. Support and participation of municipalities is of key importance, especially because they are intimately in touch with local environmental problems in the management and enforcement of the national environmental legislation.

The Project will have a direct impact on two specific pilot areas in the departments of Granada-Rivas and Matagalpa–Estelí. These areas are characterized by a high representation of the target structures for the strengthening intervention through the project (judiciary and executive power) and a high population density.

A decisive selection criterion for these two pilot areas is the presence of wide-range projects aimed at achieving goals in common with the project, such as biodiversity preservation, fight against desertification and drought, and mitigation of climate change. Another key element for the selection of these regions is the participation of civil society in all activities carried out by the NCSA.

The project aims to provide a short-term support for a sustainable long-term capacity increase in the areas mentioned above, that would otherwise be unattainable.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: The administrative and judicial system, as well as other observance institutions at central and local levels, effectively enforce environmental legislation related to MEA, with emphasis on the recently passed Special Law on Crimes against the Environment and Natural Resources.       

  • Output 1.1: The following local judicial entities and municipal authorities in previously selected pilot areas are adequately trained and enabled to enforce the law:
  • Output 1.2: Exact definition and demarcation of the project’s pilot areas, including the definition of target groups and necessary institutional arrangements with local actors, fine-tuning of criteria for priorization and final selection of pilot areas, on the basis of current conditions, identification of target groups and definition of training strategies, and the signing of coordination agreements with local authorities.
    • Magistrates, judges, court clerks, regional prosecutors and other key law enforcement  officials.
    • Inspectors and technicians of MARENA and National Forestry Institute (INAFOR) territorial delegations.
    • Officials at the municipal environmental units.
  • Output 1.3: Motivational and capacity building activities for key actors at central and national levels are carried out and institutionalization of the same with special emphasis on the following stakeholders:
  • Output 1.4: A managerial and financial plan for sustained training and capacity building is developed and responsibilities appropriately distributed.
    • Police-judicial assistance authorities
    • Environmental law enforcement staff, such as the inspectors and technicians at the MARENA and INAFOR territorial delegations.
    • Environmental ombudspersons.
    • Legal advisors to government agencies

Outcome 2: Organizational development and inter-institutional strengthening on environmental mainstreaming in line with the MEAs and EAs, in an institutionally sustainable manner.

  • Output 2.1: Preparation of a proposal for the structure and functioning of MEA focal points.
  • Output 2.2: Training and equipping of EA focal points at MARENA.
  • Output 2.3: Capacity strengthening at the MINREX to meet the objectives of this project.
  • Output 2.4: Implementation of institutional arrangements with other agencies and co-operation agents to establish sustainable mechanisms to finance the capacities needed by the project.
  • Output 2.5: Raising of environmental political awareness as a crucial factor for sustainable development and the fight against poverty     

Outcome 3: MARENA has acquired the technical and methodological capacities to monitor the impact of a more effective enforcement of the environmental legislation and the way it contributes to act  in compliance with MEAs.

  • Output 3.1: Design of a monitoring methodology, including the inter-institutional construction of synergic or multi-purpose indicators (to be used by several MEAs); pilot phase for compliance of monitoring procedures carried out.
  • Output 3.2: Establishment of an on-line information node for monitoring the compliance with MEAs in MARENA’s National Environmental Information System.
  • Output 3.3: Design and implementation of a methodology and indicators, through a first impact assessment or monitoring exercise of the strengthened enforcement of national environmental legislation in support of MEAs.
  • Output 3.4: Preparation and publication of a first national report on compliance with EAs, as an input to the National State of the Environment Report, published annually by MARENA.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Maria Fernanda Sanchez
Country Officer
Government of Nicaragua
Erica Avilés Hudiel
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Nicaragua's Second National Communication - Official Document (Spanish) - June 2011

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Nicaragua's Second National Communication - June 2011

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Nicaragua's Second National Communication presents future climate change scenarios for Nicaragua for the 21st century. It includes vulnerability and adaptation studies to climate change for the water sector and it presents mitigation options in protected areas of the country, forestry and agriculture as well as a description of the National Climate Change Action Plan. It is predicted that climate change will result in an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters, most notably hurricaines, rainfall variability, and rising sea levels, all of which will have significant impacts on the progress of development.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-86.2811034955 12.1359813448)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

The Republic of Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America, with an area of 129,494 square kilometers (USDS, 2011).149 Home to most of the Central American Volcanic Arc, the geographical variation in the country—from the Pacific Lowlands to the Amerrique Mountains and the Mosquito Coast along the Atlantic Lowlands—has contributed to Nicaragua’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Nicaragua is extremely susceptible to hurricanes. Other natural hazards include destructive earthquakes, threat of volcanic eruption, and landslides. It is predicted that climate change will result in an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Therefore Nicaragua is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

The country’s abundant resources support most of its economy, about one-third of which is derived from agriculture, timber and fishing (USDS, 2011). Manufacturing (particularly textiles and apparel), services (retail, hotels and restaurants) and remittances also form a significant portion of the country’s economy (CIA, 2011; USDS, 2011). Social and economic conditions have improved in Nicaragua since 1991 (when the Sandinistas government ended), with its ranking on the UN Human Development Index rising by 25 per cent between 1990 and 2010. Still, Nicaragua remains one of the poorest countries in Central America, with a per capita Gross Domestic Product in 2010 estimated to be US$2,900, and economic gains are uneven within the population (USDS, 2011).

Nicaragua's Second National Communication presents future climate change scenarios for Nicaragua for the 21st century, it includes vulnerability and adaptation studies to climate change for the water sector and it presents mitigation options in protected areas of the country, forestry and agriculture as well as a description of the National Climate Change Action Plan.

In December 2007, Nicaragua formulated its National Climate Change Action Plan (PANCC, Spanish acronym) based on a series of studies on vulnerability, mitigation options and climate change impact, whose objective is to develop adaptation measures for the most vulnerable sectors of the economy, such as agriculture and water resources and to contribute to the mitigation of GHG gases, particularly in the forestry sector.

Nicaragua is in the process of publishing their first National Climate Change Strategy. The Strategy was conceived with the help of UNDP and the Embassy of Denmark and the main vulnerabilities taken into account for Nicaragua and the main actions proposed are focused on extreme weather events, leaving aside the analysis of gradual climatic changes.

Adaptation Needs and Priorities

Nicaragua experiences a range of climate hazards including tropical cyclones, droughts, extreme rainfall events (via tropical storms) and floods. While no clear trend has emerged as of yet with respect to the occurrence of tropical cyclones, drought events often occur in relation to El Niño, particularly on the Pacific side of the country. The frequency of these events appears to be increasing (UNDP, 2010).

Temperature projections indicate that country’s the mean annual temperature will rise by 1.2o to 4.5oC by 2090, and that there will be more rapid warming in the northeast of the country. Rainfall projections show no consistent direction of change, but are mostly negative, with the strongest decreasing signal occurring for rainfall during the period of June to August, the wettest season of the year. Extreme rainfall events are not projected to increase, although such a trend is currently observed (UNDP, 2010).

In Nicaragua’s First National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the government identifies agriculture and livestock, energy, ecosystems, human health and water as priority sectors (República de Nicaragua, 2001). It identified priority actions in the water sector as being: water conservation; watershed management; infrastructure for water deviation; avoidance of deforestation; land planning measures; solid and liquid waste management; improving the country’s legal framework; implementation of water action plan; and decentralization and promotion of integrated use of watersheds.

In addition, Nicaragua developed a “National Action Plan on Climate Change” in 2003 (MARENA, 2003) that looks at land use, forestry, agriculture, energy and water; adaptation is addressed only in the context of agriculture and water. Similarly, a general governmental document on climate change discusses water, agriculture, forests, energy and coastal and marine resources as affected sectors (MARENA 2008a). Priorities identified in this document are, among other issues: integrated watershed management, conservation of protected areas, biodiversity conservation, reduction of environmental contamination, reforestation (with specified national targets), integrated marine and coastal ecosystems management, sustainable land use and citizen participation as key actions that help to adapt to a changing climate.

In 2010, the government elaborated the “National Strategy and Action Plan on Environment and Climate Change” for the years 2010 to 2015. It proposes actions related to climate information, as well as the water, agriculture, forestry and health sectors (República de Nicaragua, 2010). Specific priority adaptation actions noted in this plan are:

  • Water – Building water wells and aqueducts; water capture and storage; and watershed adaptation, including riverbank protection.
  • Agriculture – Resistant seeds, agricultural diversification, new crops and new economic activities.
  • Climate information – Strengthening monitoring and information collection, and early warning systems and response capacity.

Further government documents include: guidelines for the development of an adaptation strategy for forest ecosystems (CAHALAC, 2009); a vulnerability assessment for the Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte (RAAN; North Atlantic Autonomous Region) that discusses impacts on water, agriculture, fisheries, natural resources and biodiversity, human systems, coasts and health (Milan Perez and Martinez Ortiz, 2010); and a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-led capacity building initiative that involved vulnerability assessments for water, health and coasts (described below). Recently, the Ministry for Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) states that biodiversity (including forests), water (in particular related to agriculture), health and coasts are priority sectors in regards to adaptation. This statement suggests an extension of the strong emphasis on adaptation in the agriculture and water sectors that has been witnessed in the past.

National Level Policies and Strategic Documents

As noted above, Nicaragua has developed various polices and strategies that address needs in sectors vulnerable to climate change. First, in Nicaragua’s “National Plan of Human Development,” adaptation to climate change is mentioned under three of eight strategic programs: Productive and Commercial Strategy; Environmental Sustainability and Forest Development; and Disaster Risk Management. It does not take center stage in any of these programs, but it is mentioned as a factor to be taken into account in the development and execution of strategies and policies related to agriculture, environment, forestry and disaster management (República de Nicaragua 2009).

Second, the 2003 “National Action Plan on Climate Change” (MARENA, 2003), which does not appear to have been implemented, gives attention to adaptation, particularly with respect to agriculture and water. Third, the “National Strategy and Action Plan on Environment and Climate Change” (República de Nicaragua, 2010) describes key environmental challenges and sets out an agenda of actions for the period of 2010 to 2015 in the following areas: environmental education; defense and protection of the environment and natural resources; conservation, recovery and use of water sources; prevention and mitigation of and adaptation to climate change; and sustainable land use. In adaptation, measures relating to water, agriculture, climate information and disaster risk reduction are proposed. Lastly, an adaptation strategy was elaborated for a specific watershed, with a view to also informing policy decisions in other regions (MARENA 2008b). It identifies water and agriculture as key sectors (MARENA, 2008b). This prioritization is relevant for the national level as the watershed was selected with a view to matching sectors that are of country-wide importance.

The Climate Change Directorate of the Ministry for Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) is Nicaragua’s UNFCCC focal point, and all climate change related work of the government appears to be concentrated in a relatively small team within MARENA. Along with its various national strategies, Nicaragua has finalized one National Communication in conjunction with MARENA (República de Nicaragua, 2001). The Second National Communication contains, among other things, an adaptation strategy for coffee production in two regions (UNDP 2010).

At a regional level, Nicaragua is a member of the Central American Integration System (SICA), the institutional framework for the integration of Central American states, and of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), a committee which brings together environmental ministries of SICA member states. Under the auspices of SICA and CCAD, a regional climate change strategy was developed in 2010 (CCAD and SICA, 2010). The strategy summarizes climate information and sectoral vulnerabilities and proposes six strategic areas, of which one is themed “Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change, and risk management.” Nine strategic objectives with over 150 measures relating to disaster risk reduction, agriculture and food security, forest ecosystems and biodiversity, water, health, coastal-marine systems, tourism, indigenous people and public infrastructure are mentioned under this theme. Other strategic areas are: mitigation; capacity building; education, awareness raising, communication and participation; technology transfer; and international negotiations and management.

Current Adaptation Action

Nicaragua has a very high level of adaptation project activity ongoing relative to other Central American countries. This programming has so far largely focused on capacity building at the national and sub-national levels, as well as research, mainly on water and agriculture—the country’s implicit priority sectors. However, two important projects involving more specific measures, including infrastructure investments, have been approved recently. They are financed by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and the Adaptation Fund and will be implemented over the next five years. As with previous initiatives, they tend to focus on agriculture and water. Other organizations, like Oxfam, are involved in community-level initiatives that are helping to build adaptive capacity.

Proposed Adaptation Action

The “National Strategy and Action Plan on Environment and Climate Change” proposes a number of adaptation projects, along with responsible ministries and organizations, as well as funders (República de Nicaragua, 2010). It is unclear to what extent these projects are in the process of being developed. Outside of these projects, Nicaragua is proposed to be part of a global initiative called “Up-scaling and Replicating Successful Approaches to Adaptation at the Local Level.” Funding for this project has been requested from the Special Climate Change Fund.

Assessment

Agriculture and water are Nicaragua’s implicit priority areas for adaptation, reflecting its current climate risks and the location of its vulnerable populations. Adaptation projects have so far concentrated mostly on research and capacity building, but two larger infrastructure and capacity building initiatives have recently started. Current adaptation programming addresses needs in a number of different sectors, including agriculture and water, but also disaster risk management, coastal zone management and strengthening the capacity of government to prepare for and respond to climate change. Gaps in programming appear to be present in relation to human health and biodiversity; as well, none of the projects identified give explicit attention the gender-based impacts of climate change.

Nicaragua’s finalized “National Strategy and Action Plan on Environment and Climate Change” proposes a number of adaptation programs for the period 2010 to 2015. Moreover, Nicaragua’s policy framework is being strengthened, not the least through the national strategy which was adopted in 2010. Climate change is also mentioned in the country’s “National Human Development Plan.” Despite advancements made in adaptation measures, Nicaragua’s national government experiences weak capacities; MARENA, for example, has few permanent staff.

References:

  • Keller, Echeverría, Parry (2011) “Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: Central America and Mexico.” Adaptation Partnership / International Institute for Sustainable Development.
  • Central Intelligence Agency [CIA] (2011). Nicaragua. The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html.
  • Centro del Agua del Trópico Humedo para America Latina y el Caribe [CATHALAC] (2009). Consideraciones Generales para el Desarrollo de una Estrategia de Adaptación de los Ecosistemas Forestales al Cambio Climático en Nicaragua.
  • Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo [CCAD] and Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana [SICA] (2010). Estrategia Regional de Cambio Climático. Documento Ejecutivo.
  • Milan Perez, J.A. and A. Martinez Ortiz (2010). Vulnerabilidad al Cambio Climático de la Región Autonoma del Atlantico Norte.
  • Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales [MARENA] (2008a). Nicaragua Unida frente al cambio climático!
  • Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales [MARENA] (2008b). Estrategia de Adaptación al Cambio Climático de los Sistemas Recursos Hídricos y Agricultura
  • Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales [MARENA] (2003). Plan de Acción Nacional Ante el Cambio Climático.
  • República de Nicaragua (2001). Primera Comunicación Nacional Ante la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/essential_background/library/items/3599.php?rec=j&priref=3188#beg
  • República de Nicaragua (2009). Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano Actualizado 2009-2011.
  • República de Nicaragua (2010). Estrategia Nacional Ambiental y del Cambio Climático. Plan de Acción 2010-2015.
  • United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (2010). Nicaraguan Second National Communication Project Website:http://www.undp.org.ni/proyectos/2/101
  • United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (2010). UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. Nicaragua. Retrieved fromhttp://country-profiles.geog.ox.ac.uk/index.html?country=Nicaragua&d1=Reports
  • United States Department for State [USDS] (2010). Background Note: Nicaragua. Retrieved fromhttp://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1850.htm
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures 

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Reduce water pollution
  • Improve or develop water management
  • Alter system operating rules, e.g. pricing policies, legislation
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Office of Climate Change and Clean Development
Freddy Picado
Project Affiliate
Government of Nicaragua
Mayra Salinas Uriarte
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Nicaragua AF Project Proposal

Nicaragua proposal for project, 'Reduction of Risks and Vulnerability Based on Flooding and Droughts in the Estero Real Watershed'

Approved and funded by the Adaptation Fund Board 2010-12-15

Reducing Risks and Vulnerability to Flooding and Drought in Nicaragua

Climate variability, especially during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes, results in droughts that cause significant losses, particularly affecting the agricultural sector on which Nicaraguans' food security depends.  This project is designed to reduce drought and flooding risks generated by climate change and variability in the Estero Real River watershed. To reach this objective, this project relies upon a coordinated set of interventions designed to implement new public policies for addressing climate change by introducing agro-ecological practices and participatory watershed management in highly vulnerable rural communities. Through targeted investments in water retention, long-term farm planning, and institutional capacity building in local communities, municipalities and government agencies, the project will validate an adaptation scheme as a vehicle for implementation of the national climate change strategy.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-87.2548 12.9389)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Farmers; Rural Families
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$5,500,950 (amount requested and approved 2010-12-15)
Co-Financing Total: 
N/A
Project Details: 

Nicaragua is extremely susceptible to natural hazards, including hurricanes, destructive earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides.  Moreover, flooding and droughts present some of the most challenging natural phenomena to contend with. The areas that will be most affected by climate change are those currently classified as dry zones, such as the northern region and the municipalities in the departments of Chinandega and León, where the current project will be located.

In these areas, higher temperatures and increasing rainfall variability combined with more intense events will aggravate current conditions of water scarcity and extreme poverty. Under changed climate conditions, it is estimated that these areas will receive an average annual rainfall of 500mm, which will have significant repercussions for agricultural and livestock activities, and will also affect both water quantity and quality.

This project seeks to reduce climate change-related risks from droughts and flooding Estero Real River watershed. This will be achieved through investments in water storage infrastructure and climate resilient agro-ecological practice pilots for family farms in the designated project areas.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Investments in infrastructure for storing and using rain and surface water in eight micro-watersheds in the upper watershed of the Estero Real River.

Create two communal irrigation systems in two micro-watershed (Output 1.1) and at least 880 rainwater collection and storage facilities in eight micro-watersheds (Output 1.2) to supply family farms. Train and organize at least 100 farm families in management, efficient use and maintenance of their communal and individual irrigation systems and water storage facilities (Output 1.3).

Component 2: Introduction of climate resilient agro-ecological practices to make effective use of available water.

Prepare agro-ecological farm transformation plans with at least 1000 farm families to use their own resources and available credit for implementation (Output 2.1). In each micro-watershed, convert at least 140 hectares to water-conscious and climate resilient agro-ecological production (Output 2.2) and at least 50 hectares in water system recharge areas and riparian zones (Output 2.3).

Component 3: Institutional development and capacity building in micro-watersheds, municipalities, and participating national institutions.

Work with local organizations in eight micro-watersheds to prepare and implement climate-resilient management plans (Output 3.1) and establish inter-institutional coordinating bodies in El Sauce, Achuapa, and Villanueva to arrange governmental and NGO work plans (Output 3.2). Design proposals for instruments to build resilience and for operation of a Villanueva River sub-watershed committee (Output 3.3), and facilitate the adoption of climate adaptation measures in nine municipalities’ plans and policies (Output 3.4).

Component 4: Ongoing monitoring and analysis of climatic conditions and changes in land use, water flows and soil quality.

Identify hydraulic works needed to reduce flooding in lower Villanueva River basin (Output 4.1). Establish ongoing participation monitoring of water flows and quality, soil conditions, and land use changes (Output 4.2), along with electronic information posts, monitoring data dissemination, and preparation of maps for farmers, organizations, and users of the National Environmental Information System (SINIA) (Output 4.3).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Programme monitoring and evaluation will be carried out by the Programme Team and the UNDP-Country Office in accordance with established UNDP procedures.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Gabor Vereczi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
AF
Project Status: