Philippines

The Philippines is an archipelagic country comprised of more than 7,100 islands that spans an area of roughly 300,000 square kilometers (CIA, 2011). The country lies between 5o to 20o north of the equator. With a population of over 101 million people (CIA, 2011), the Philippines ranks 97 of 169 in the 2010 Human Development Index (UNDP, 2010), placing it in the top half of countries that have achieve a medium level of human development. The country’s economy is dominated by the services sector, which contributes over half of economic output, followed by industry (30 per cent) and agriculture (less than 20 per cent) (USDS, 2010).  The country’s topography is characterized by large mountainous terrain with narrow coastal plains and interior valleys and plains. The Philippines has a humid equatorial climate marked by high temperatures and heavy annual rainfall. It is located within the region of ascending air and widespread equatorial cloudiness. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous parts of the country, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys. The mean annual temperature is about 27oC. The hottest months are April, May and June while the coldest months are December, January and February. In general, the highest temperatures are observed in valleys and plains.

Related Content

Effective Climate Information Services for Agriculture in ASEAN

The ASEAN Climate Resilience Network (ASEAN-CRN) Knowledge Exchange Event on Effective Use of Climate Information Services (CIS) for Agriculture in ASEAN was conducted on 21–23 March 2017 in Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu, Philippines. The event brought together ASEAN Ministries of Agriculture, Ministries of Environment, National Meteorological and Hydrological Institutes (NMH) of ASEAN Member States (AMS), development partners, academic and civil society organizations involved in the generation and provision of CIS in the agriculture sector.

Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Philippines

Agriculture plays a relatively important role in the Philippines economy; contributing 11.3 percent of the GDP and employing 32 percent of the work force. Climate change is expected to increase both the frequency and severity of natural hazards like floods, typhoons, sea level rise and droughts.

Region/Country: 
Key Collaborators: 
Project Details: 

The Republic of the Philippines is a Southeast Asian, island nation. Located close to the equator it is characterized by high temperatures, humidity and rainfall.

Agriculture plays a relatively important role in the economy contributing 11.3 percent of the GDP and employing 32 percent of the labor force.  Farming and fisheries are the most important subsectors while livestock and forestry make smaller contributions.

Recent natural disasters have resulted in loss of human lives and significant impacts on crops and livestock production. A combination of socioeconomic conditions and geography make the Philippines highly vulnerable to climate change. Hazards include floods, typhoons, tsunamis, sea level rise, landslides and droughts. Climate change will continue to drive (i) increases in temperature (ii) rainfall variability, (iii) sea level rise and (iv)storm surges. Approximately 60 percent of the country’s 1,500 municipalities and 120 cities are along its extensive coastline, while a third of the Philippine work force that depends on agriculture for their livelihoods.

UNDP and FAO are supporting farming communities in Philippines identify and implement adaptation strategies through the Integrating Agriculture Into NAPs initiative. This entails:

  • strengthening technical and institutional capacities for NAP implementation
  • developing a strategy for integrating adaptation measures with national planning and budgeting processes (Kenya Climate Smart Agricultural Framework Programme)
  • strengthened relevant monitoring and evaluation capacities
  • disseminate lessons learned and case studies on integrating agriculture into NAPs process at a national level
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
Agriculture plays a relatively important role in the Philippines economy; contributing 11.3 percent of the GDP and employing 32 percent of the work force. Climate change is expected to increase both the frequency and severity of natural hazards like floods, typhoons, sea level rise and droughts.

Strengthening Coordination for Effective Environmental Management (STREEM) in the Philippines - Project Document (2009)

The STREEM Project aims to generate global environmental benefits through improved coordination in the implementation of the three Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA), also referred to as the Rio Conventions, in the Philippines.

Strengthening Coordination for Effective Environmental Management (STREEM) in the Philippines

The STREEM Project aims to generate global environmental benefits through improved coordination in the implementation of the three Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA), also referred to as the Rio Conventions, in the Philippines.

Specifically the project intends to establish/strengthen cross-sectoral/convention institutional and coordination structures and mechanism at the local and national levels. The project is designed to comply with the country's commitments under the MEAs and ensure mainstreaming of MEA activities in the work plan of the concerned national government agencies while at the same time enhancing synergies, collaboration, coordination and complementation of activities and tasks among relevant actors.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (120.980092883 14.5902266849)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
480,000
Co-Financing Total: 
520,000
Project Details: 

The Philippines is a South East Asian archipelagic country of approximately 300,000 km2 distributed over approximately 7,000 islands and maintains a population of approximately 82 million. It has a Human Development Index of 0.753, placing it 83rd amongst 177 countries, and a GDP per capita of US$1,026. This figure, however translates to great wealth disparities and high levels of poverty in remote areas and amongst indigenous peoples. Despite recent improvements, poverty remains the main development challenge. Economic growth and poverty alleviation are heavily dependent on the primary productive sectors (agriculture, fisheries and forestry) which, in turn, are dependent on a reliable supply of environmental and natural resources services and goods.

As a result of poor management, over the last 50 years, severe natural resources degradation has a taken a toll. The country now has one of the lowest forest covers per capita in Asia in the tropics and many coastal and marine ecosystems have collapse. For example, 45% of arable land has been moderately or severely eroded. Also, as an example, landslides (resulting from a complex combination of natural circumstances, climate change and poor land management) led to the loss of at least 18,339 lives in the years 2000, as well as causing untold socio-economic damage.

The government has taken steps to reverse these negative environmental trends, introducing innovative institutional and legal reforms for sustainable natural resources management. These include the strengthening of the natural resources function in government agencies, and a comprehensive decentralization process. Importantly, the Philippines also quickly moved to ratify the Rio Conventions and establish an implementation framework.

A recent comprehensive and fully participatory assessment of capacity to implement the Rio Conventions identified five priority capacity areas for implementation. The STREEM projects responds to one of these, i.e. ‘cross-sectoral policymaking’. In short, the Assessment determined that many committed stakeholders at all levels are undertaking various tasks related to the Conventions, but a lack of coordination is leading to wastages, loss of synergy, loss of economies of scale, and duplication.

The STREEM project will address these issues through an interconnected package of activities at national and local levels. At the national level, the project will first establish an inter-Convention coordination mechanism and the related infrastructure. It will then develop a series of tools designed to pragmatically support coordination at the local levels and in the implementation of activities. These tools will include an incentive system for local stakeholders. The project will then pilot these tools at the pilot site in Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park and surrounding areas, and will simultaneously develop local capacity for coordination. Finally, based on the lessons learnt and experience acquired from the pilot site, the project will refine the tools and replicate their use through national, international and local partners.

The Project’s main goal is to generate global environmental benefits through improved coordination with respect to the implementation of cross-cutting issues within Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in the country.

Specifically the project aims to:

  • establish/strengthen cross convention institutional and coordination structures and mechanisms at the local and national levels
  • finalized the tools generated from experience and lessons learned and replicate them across the country

The Government of the Philippines, through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) received a grant from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to implement the project “Strengthening Coordination for Effective Environmental Management (STREEM)”. The project aims to generate global environmental benefits through improved coordination with respect to the implementation of cross-cutting issues within Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in the country.

Specifically, the project will look into the issues and concerns that restrain effective implementation of the three Rio Conventions namely United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)).

The project STREEM will address the issues through a series of consultation and coordination activities at the national down to the local level. At the national level, the project will utilize existing mechanism for effective coordination among three Focal Point Agencies (FPAs) (i.e. DENR-PAWB, DENR- EMB & DA-BSWM) and consequently develop a series of tools and incentive systems designed to pragmatically support coordination and implementation of MEA activities at the local level. The Project will pilot these tools in Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP) and the surrounding areas aimed at strengthening local capacity for coordination. The final step would be to finalize these tools generated from experience and lessons learned and to replicate them across the country.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: National Rio Convention stakeholders are effectively coordinating the preparation and implementation of related policies, programmes, projects and activities.
    • Output 1.1: Establish a National Technical Coordination Committee and Office
    • Output 1.2: Establish a Business Plan for the Committee and Office in order to develop a coherent approach to the nine cross-cutting thematic areas
    • Output 1.3: Establish an Initial Incentive System in line with the Business Plan and through the Committee. The project will support national stakeholders in the design of the national system of incentives for coordinated implementation of the Conventions.
    • Output 1.4: Develop a series of tools to promote coordination at the local level in line with the Business Plan and through the Committee in line with the priorities established under the nine cross-cutting thematic areas
  • Outcome 2: Local and national stakeholders are addressing key global environmental issues in and around PPSRNP in a coordinated manner.
    • Output 2.1: Define a clear set of priorities and sequences
    • Output 2.2: Increased coordination and substantive outputs as a result of piloting the tools.
    • Output 2.3: Increased understanding of the Incentive System and the potential tools
  • Outcome 3: International, national and local partners have adopted the Tools prepared under the project.
    • Output 3.1: Finalized tools for promoting local level coordination
    • Output 3.2: Institutionalize the incentive system
    • Output 3.3:  Tools, Incentive System, and all Project outputs disseminated to local, national and international partners.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Imee Manal
Country Officer
Government of the Philippines
Cristina Regunay
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Philippines' Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

As an archipelagic country with a tropical climate and a total coastline of over 36,000 kilometers, the Philippines is particularly susceptible to ocean based extreme weather events. It experiences an average of 20 typhoons per year. Flooding and landslides are significant risks in the country. In the 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, the Philippines was ranked eighth in the world with respect to the absolute number of people exposed to floods per year. The same report ranked the Philippines tenth on the Mortality Risk Index for landslides. The Philippines is also vulnerable to earthquakes—experiencing an average of 887 each year —and volcanic eruptions—with 20 of 220 volcanos within the archipelago being active. Due to these factors, the Philippines is considered to be one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. 

To view progress on the Philippines' SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (120.984209183 14.5942413248)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

The Philippines is an archipelagic country comprised of more than 7,100 islands that spans an area of roughly 300,000 square kilometers (CIA, 2011). The country lies between 5o to 20o north of the equator. With a population of over 101 million people (CIA, 2011), the Philippines ranks 97 of 169 in the 2010 Human Development Index (UNDP, 2010), placing it in the top half of countries that have achieve a medium level of human development. The country’s economy is dominated by the services sector, which contributes over half of economic output, followed by industry (30 per cent) and agriculture (less than 20 per cent) (USDS, 2010).  The country’s topography is characterized by large mountainous terrain with narrow coastal plains and interior valleys and plains. The Philippines has a humid equatorial climate marked by high temperatures and heavy annual rainfall. It is located within the region of ascending air and widespread equatorial cloudiness. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous parts of the country, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys. The mean annual temperature is about 27oC. The hottest months are April, May and June while the coldest months are December, January and February. In general, the highest temperatures are observed in valleys and plains.

Adaptation Needs and Priorities: 

As an archipelagic country with a tropical climate and a total coastline of over 36,000 kilometers (CIA, 2011), the Philippines is particularly susceptible to ocean based extreme weather events. It experiences an average of 20 typhoons per year (World Bank and NDCC, n.d). It also ranks second behind Japan in terms of the absolute number of people exposed to tropical cyclones each year and second behind Bangladesh in terms of its Mortality Risk Index (Peduzzi and Deichmann, 2009). 

Flooding and landslides are also significant risks in the country. In the 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, the Philippines was ranked eighth in the world with respect to the absolute number of people exposed to floods per year (Peduzzi and Deichmann, 2009). The same report ranked the Philippines tenth on the Mortality Risk Index for landslides. The Philippines is also vulnerable to earthquakes—experiencing an average of 887 each year —and volcanic eruptions—with 20 of 220 volcanos within the archipelago being active (World Bank and NDCCRP, n.d). Due to these factors, the Philippines is considered to be one of the most disaster prone countries in the world (Vos et al., 2010). Looking to the future, the Philippines is expected to experience an average temperature increase of between 1.7 and 3.0oC by 2050, with the highest increases projected to occur in the primary agriculture growing regions (OPP, 2010: 9). Rainfall patterns are projected to vary, with some regions seeing up to 16 per cent increases, while others experiencing a drying effect. Sea level rise is projected to result in a land loss of over 129,000 hectares (OPP, 2010: 10).

Given the Philippines current exposure to natural disasters and the continuing importance of agriculture to its national economy, these changes could have significant negative impacts on its population and economic development. Through its first National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) released in May 2000, the Philippines expressed the importance of adaptation to its future development, highlighting in particular the risks posed by extreme climatic events, sea level rise and degradation of marine ecosystems (GEF and UNDP, 2000). The country has taken steps to undertake vulnerability assessments in many areas, particularly agriculture, to determine the potential impacts of changes in climate and weather patterns. It has identified the following sectors as priority areas for adaptation, as well as some proposed adaptation measures (GEF and UNDP, 2000; OPP, 2010):

  • Agriculture – priorities include: changes to agricultural management practices; better water management; cropping pattern adjustment to take advantage of growing seasons in relation to rain patterns; advanced weather prediction information that is passed down to local farmers; improved access to agricultural data on diversified farming irrigation strategies; and improved post-harvest handling practices.
  • Freshwater resources – priorities include: comprehensive watershed management; water allocation procedures; establishment of irrigation efficiency; recycling/reuse of water; introduction of low water use crops and efficient farming practices; improvement of monitoring and forecasting systems for floods and droughts; water pricing policies and structures; and raising awareness of climate change.
  • Coastal and marine management (including fisheries) – priorities include: formulation of guidelines and legislation for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management; inclusion of wetlands, swamps and marshes as protected ecosystems; limitations on development of land subject to sea-level rise; and long term planning on coastal zone management.
  • Disaster risk management
  • Forestry

National Level Policies:

The Philippines is establishing a governance framework for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change. While the mandate of the government historically has been more focused on mitigation and energy issues, greater attention is beginning to be given to adaptation as it and public increasing recognize the vulnerability of the country. In 2009, the government passed the national Climate Change Act that enabled creation of a Climate Change Commission responsible for coordinating climate actions and policy through the Office of the President. As well, in 2010, it established the Philippine National Climate Change Framework Strategy to help map out climate policies and prepare international negotiating communications and positions. The Framework Strategy stresses a balance between adaptation and mitigation. Amongst other issues, it emphasizes the need for coastal and marine ecosystem protection for resilience against extreme weather events. As well, it has a focus on equity in adaptation action with respect to protection of the poor, women, children and other vulnerable sectors.

Current Adaptation Action:

The Philippines is currently participating in a moderate number of adaptation projects relative to other East and Southeast Asia developing countries. Current nationally focused projects are addressing a number of adaptation priorities, including research and pilot project implementation in the areas of agriculture and natural resources management; engaging in awareness raising and the development of early warning systems in order to reduce risk to the effects of natural disasters, particularly in flood-affected areas; policy formulation and integration to better address adaptation across a range of sectors; and enhancing resilience within the areas of coastal zones, agriculture, water and natural ecosystems. These projects are being funded by a range of donors including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and the governments of Germany and the United States. 

The Philippines is also involved a range of adaptation projects that bring together other Asian countries, as well as a number of projects with a global reach. These multi-country projects are primarily focused on capacity building, vulnerability assessment, and community based adaptation within the following areas: policy formulation, fisheries, coastal zones, agriculture, water, and urban areas. These projects are receiving funding from a wide array of donors, including: the ADB, Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), the European Commission, Global Environment Facility (GEF), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Red Cross/Red Crescent, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), and the governments of Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, the United Kingdom and, in particular, the United States.

Proposed Adaptation Action:

The Philippines plans to be part of two multi-country projects submitted for consideration to the SCCF: “Supporting Sub-National Level Decision Makers to Prioritize Adaptation Initiatives within Development Planning Frameworks,” which will involve countries from around the world; and “Adaptation in the Coral Triangle” involving five Southeast Asian and Pacific island countries.

Assessment:

The Philippines has made significant advancements in addressing climate change both at the policy and project level. It has shown the ability to identify areas of need and develop ways to help meet these needs. Although the country’s policy frameworks are well developed, one of the key challenges faced by the Philippine Climate Change Commission is ensuring the full integration and mainstreaming of adaptation policies and actions from the National Communication to the UNFCCC and the National Framework Strategy. It is the responsibility of the Commission to address inconsistencies and gaps in policy across government. More clarity is also needed on the interaction and interplay of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
Progress has been made in recent years in balancing mitigation and adaptation actions. The early commitment the country showed to climate change, and the development of a national committee comprising 15 agencies, later replaced by a Commission headed by the President’s Office, no doubt contributed to this progress. Capacity on data and knowledge seems to be improving, however there is a need to improve scientific infrastructure to support research and analysis of climate change exposure, impacts and vulnerabilities to enable targeted policy and planning outcomes.

At the project level, progress is being made in a number of the areas identified as priorities by the government, including risk reduction, coastal zones, fisheries and marine resources, as well as agriculture, water, natural resources management and policy formulation. Gaps appear to persist within the forestry sector, which was also identified as a key area of vulnerability in the country. Moreover, none of the projects identified specifically focuses on addressing the differential gender impacts of climate change, although the Philippine National Climate Change Framework Strategy specifically aims to promote equity in adaptation action, including the protection of women. Future adaptation efforts may transition from the current focus on capacity building and pilot project implementation to more concrete adaptation measures.

Sources:

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop and introduce policy measures, including taxes, subsidies, facilitation of free market
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
  • Reduce water pollution
  • Improve or develop water management
  • Alter system operating rules, e.g. pricing policies, legislation

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Develop planning/new investment requirements
  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Imee Manal
Country Officer
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Joyceline Goco
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Philippines NAMA

Under the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme, financed by the EU, Germany, and AusAID, participating countries are primarily focusing on capacity building activities at the national level.  This includes formulating Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and/or Nationally appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), as well as establishing the underlying data collection systems (i.e. national GHG inventory systems, and monitoring, reporting and verification systems).

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, policies, and/or programmes that shift a technology or sector in a country onto a low-carbon development trajectory.  A LEDS, on the other hand, outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify entry points for policy intervention (including identifying and prioritizing NAMAs and ensuring coherence between NAMAs and national development goals).

Under the Programme, the Philippines will fully operationalise its newly developed GHG inventory management system as a platform to identify NAMAs, design LEDS, and MRV mitigation actions. The focus under the Programme will be on building capacities in the transport, waste management, and agriculture sectors.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (120.893557742 15.4649600982)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
The four-year Low Emission Capacity Building Programme is being implemented with €8,000,000 of funding from the European Union and €5,000,000 from the Federal Republic of Germany.
Project Details: 

Supporting Mitigation Actions

As a country driven process, each country determines, develops and executes its own project with a clear focus on one of the two areas. From the inception phase of each project, however, and for the life of the project, countries will receive guidance and support from UNDP. Guidance and technical backstopping for all national-level projects will be coordinated, delivered and supported through an over-arching component of the programme: the Global Support Unit.

Programme-supported projects fall into one of several categories:

  • Identifying opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and designing low emission development strategies (LEDS) in context of national priorities
  • Design ofsystems for measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme promotes essential cooperation between relevant institutions, engaging the public sector and industry in a concerted effort to address climate change consistent with national development priorities around the world.

The overall objectives are to strengthen capacities in participating countries in the following ways:

  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems;
  • Identify opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA);
  • Design low emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national priorities
  • Design systems for measuring, reporting, and verification of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any LEDS, NAMAs, or Mitigation Action Plans (MAPs) prepared by developing countries – particularly if a developing country is seeking external financial, technical or capacity-building support, and will therefore be subject to international MRV as described in the Cancun Accords. However, MRV needs will differ depending on whether a country is undertaking a REDD+ type NAMA, for example, versus improving an urban mass transit system. (It is worth noting that the international political arena also refers to the MRV of public finance; this is not being addressed under this project.)

Methodological approach

New methodologies are being developed by different organizations for the development and adoption of MRVs. Although there are still no adopted guidelines on MRV, we can assume that there will be some overarching principles of good practice, such as using the GHG estimation and reporting processes described in the IPCC guidance materials for GHG inventories.

Institutional and political context

As with the GHG national inventory system, it will be important to raise awareness of all key stakeholders on the necessity for MRV to ensure full engagement. It may be useful to consider developing a strategy to engage key providers of data and ensure they are adequately trained.

Linkages to other relevant initiatives

Clearly, the work undertaken under this component has a direct linkage to the National Communications process. Some countries may also be undertaking GHG inventories at the sub-national level and will need to consider how to incorporate this work, as appropriate. Indicators being used in mitigation projects financed by the GEF or other sources may also provide insights for the MRV strategy for NAMAs, LEDS, and/or MAPs.

Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
bf
Project Status: 

Scaling up Risk Transfer Mechanisms for Climate Vulnerable Farming Communities in Southern Philippines

As a result of increasingly unpredictable weather and increasing frequency of extreme events (particularly drought, excessive rains and/or flooding), farmers in Southern Philippines are losing income and assets including access to community infrastructure and facilities critical to their livelihoods. Baseline studies and Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments conducted by CCAP in 2009 and 2010 show that extreme weather events have led to crop production losses ranging from 30 to 60% per annum.  The data show that while flooding could be expected yearly based on historical trends, that over the past decade such events have started to come earlier and extend over longer periods. Events are also affecting larger portions of farmland, not only those in the low-lying areas.  On the other end of the spectrum, drought events have also become an increasing risk factor, particularly over the past 5 years.

This project aims to reduce poverty through strengthening the resilience of vulnerable farming communities to climate risks in the North of Mindanao, including measures to promote greater productivity, sustainability and increased certainty. The project will deliver this objective through reducing vulnerability in development sectors and strengthening awareness and ownership of adaptation and climate risk reduction processes at local levels.

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (125.068359375 7.91270910589)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Farming communities in the North of Mindanao
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
1,050,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$9,306,325
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Regulatory and fiscal incentive structures adjusted to stimulate private sector engagement in climate risk reduction for farming households.

  • Output 1.1 Updated Policy Paper contributing towards the development of national incentives, standards and guidance to promote national uptake of climate risk transfer mechanisms for vulnerable farming communities, including private sector engagement .
  • Output 1.2 Four case studies disseminated and  5 national and province level learning events conducted,  to promote understanding and uptake of climate risk transfer mechanisms to 30 national institutions, 20 provincial authorities, and 25  private sector organisations.
  • Output 1.3 Policy Guidelines released at  Provincial Level  on government and private sector role and engagement in risk reduction and transfer for vulnerable farming communities

Outcome 2: Innovative financial mechanisms developed and applied to strengthen climate resilience in the agriculture sector in North Mindanao

  • Output 2.1 Pre-tested, customized  Integrated Financing Package (IFP) delivered to at least 500 farming households (particularly female headed), to include credit and loans, training on savings, financial literacy and climate risk literacy)
  • Output 2.2 Pre-tested,customized Weather Index Based Insurance (WIBI) delivered to at least 500 farming households (particularly female headed)  to include low and excess rainfall cover for both corn and rice cultivation
  • Output 2.3 Financial Assessment of  the Integrated Financial Package undertaken by private sector establishing costs, distribution of risks, modes of engagement of public and private sectors and links to food production and security.

Outcome 3:Farmer organisations and other local stakeholders able to analysis climate risk, and develop and implement adaptation practices to enhance agricultural productivity and diversity livelihoods.

  • Output 3.1Four community level Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments  and  Farming Value Chain Analyses covering 4 municipalities, including baseline assessments of existing coping and risk reduction strategies, through 4 farmer associations/municipal federations.
  • Output 3.2 Four Municipal Early Warning System Plans prepared along with Early warning devices installed in CC vulnerable barangays covering 4 municipalities
  • Output 3.3 At least 4 barangayfarming associations  each in 4 municipalities provided with training and orientation in green agricultural production practices, as well as demonstrations in green production systems.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits: 

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Establish a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SCCF
Project Status: