Thailand

Sharing a northern border with Myanmar, Lao PDR and Cambodia, and a southern border with Malaysia, Thailand covers an area of 513,120 square kilometers and has a population of 66.7 million people (CIA, 2011). The country is situated in the South-Eastern region of Asia and lies between latitudes 5o40’ and 20o30’ N and longitudes 97o20’ and 105o45’ E. It is divided into five regions: North, Northeast, Central, East and South. The Northern region is generally mountainous and the Northeast is on a high plateau, whereas the Central region is relatively flat fertile land. The land in the East is highly fertile and has a long coast line. The Southern Peninsula consists of a narrow strip of land. Thailand is located in the Monsoon region, although there are three distinct seasons in Thailand: hot, wet and cool. The mean annual temperature is between 22-32 degrees celsius. Thailand has seen a marked increase in temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns over the past thirty years. Both of these changes have a significant effect on food production, particularly rice—the yields of which are essential to national food security (MSTE, 2000).Thailand’s long coastlines, fragile agriculture system and susceptibility to extreme weather events make it vulnerable to the effects of climate change.Thailand has a rapidly expanding economy which has led to a significant demand for energy. In order to adapt to climate change and address the increasing need for further energy Thailand has implemented a demand-side management program and an energy conservation program. For many of these resources it was concluded that more research was necessary to provide a sufficient basis to recommend adaptation options. The Global Environment Facility has provided funding to Thailand to enable it to launch national climate change strategies.  Thailand is susceptible to extreme weather events such as tropical storms, floods and drought. The main natural resources in Thailand are the fishery resources, offshore oil supplies, fertile agriculture land in the central and eastern regions and the large areas of land covered in forests. There has been a problem with deforestation despite the government banning logging in 1989.

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Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Processes

Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Processes

Risk-based National Adaptation Plan – Risk NAP Project

By Kollawat Sakhakara, Ph.D.

Climate Change Coordination and Management Division

Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

The First Draft of Thailand National Adaptation Plan

By Ms. CHOMPUNUT SONGKHAO
Policy and Strategy Section Climate Change Management and Coordination Division  
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning

Objective of the National Adaptation Plan

1. To provide government agencies and other related entities at the national and local levels with implementation framework, good practices, approaches, and guidelines for developing their own strategies, management plans, and action plans suitable for individual sectors and areas

Applying RAPTA to Indigenous People’s Green Climate Fund Concept Notes

Training-Workshop to Develop Concept Notes of Indigenous Peoples for the Green Climate Fund for Community-Based Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation
Read the final report from this training workshop that provided participants with unique insights and methodologies to more effectively include indigenous peoples in project implementation and design.

Datasets: Economics of Climate Change Adaptation

The datasets contained on this page were collected through the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme (ECCA), 2013-2015.

Household surveys were conducted in various countries as part of the ECCA Programme and were made available here for download and analysis.

Data Collection and Sampling Methods: 

The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:

  1. Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
  2. Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
  3. Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
  4. Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
  6. Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
Datasets: 
ECCA Bangladesh
A total of 360 farm households were interviewed for this study drawn from 7 provinces. Of the sampled households, 87% practised irrigated agriculture while 13% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 7.10 acres of land in total, with those practicing rainfed farming owning larger parcels (average 8.99 acres) relative to those practicing irrigated farming (average 6.81 acres).
ECCA Indonesia
The data collection was conducted in Brantas River Basin in East Java district as agriculture center in Indonesia, particularly in villages in Batu City (> 100 m above sea level) and Mojokerto District (< 45 m above sea level). In each location, 100 farm households were interviewed based on purposive sampling by using size of farmland as selection criteria. The households in the survey reported having about 27 years of farming experience ranging from 1 to 70 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 9 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (68%) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 32% have a computer and 20% have access to the Internet.
ECCA Sri Lanka
Three hundred and twenty-one households were interviewed spanning the agro-ecological zones of the country. About 40% of the sample is from the Central Province of the country while the rest are distributed across the other provinces including the North west and Uva provinces that are about 14% of the sample. The majority of the households in the survey reported having about 20 years of farming experience, with a minimum of four years and a maximum of 60 years. On average, each household consisted of five people (minimum four, max 16) with 10 years of education. The majority (88 percent) of the respondents owned a telephone, while 33 percent had a computer, 18 percent of which had access to the Internet.
ECCA Thailand
A total of 395 farm households were interviewed, drawn from 18 provinces. Of the sampled households, 58% practised irrigated agriculture while 42% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 15.18 acres of land in total, with those practicing irrigated farming owning larger parcels (average 18.89 acres) relative to those practicing rainfed farming (average 10.26 acres).
ECCA Viet Nam
Survey locations were selected to cover each of the ago-ecological zones present across Viet Nam in the context of agriculture production. In each location, the Viet Nam country team surveyed 18 households, with a total of 342 surveyed households. Out of the 342 surveyed households, the team obtained 323 usable questionnaires, of which 306 cover households with cultivation activities. The households in the survey have about 27 years of farming experience ranging from one year to 60 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 7.5 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (96 per cent) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 20 per cent have a computer and 15 per cent have access to the Internet. On average, the respondents owned 7.4 acres of land (2.96 ha) with the majority of planted crops in two seasons, while a few planted all the three seasons. The average annual planted area across the three seasons is 5.5 acres (Figure 11), with 2 acres left fallow, on average. A third of the farmers have less than 2 acres of planted area, while nearly 15 per cent of farmers planted more than 10 acres.
Country: 
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Theme: 
Agriculture/Food Security
Tools: 
Title: 
Economics of Adaptation Toolkit
Title: 
Survey Questionnaire
Description: 
Countries Conducting Survey: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

NAP-Ag Infographic: Thailand

The publication depicts Thailand's key climate change adaptation objectives and concerns, their national climate change policies and current adaptation actions, as well as lessons learned on key drivers for adaptation planning.

Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Thailand

Agriculture contributes 11.6 percent of Thailand’s GDP and employs approximately 40 percent of the labor force (2012).  As the world’s leading exporter of rice crops, production is particularly sensitive to increases in temperature and variability in precipitation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Project Details: 

Thailand is located at the center of the Indochinese peninsula in mainland Southeast Asia. Floods are a normal part of the seasonal cycle, and play a critical role in agriculture and fisheries. Agriculture contributes 11.6 percent of the GDP and employed approximately 40 percent of the labor force (2012).  Thailand is the world’s leading exporter of rice and among the leading exporters of food products in Southeast Asia.

Climate change impacts in Thailand are projected to include increase frequency and severity of floods, droughts, extreme weather events, sea level rise and increased temperatures. These hazards will have a number of significant impacts on Thailand’s agricultural sector. They include destruction to rice crops unable to cope with higher temperatures and increased water stress for farmers in drought prone areas.

  • integrate climate adaptation programs into the sector development plan and annual, medium-term budgeting cycle
  • strengthen agricultural sector staff capacity & knowledge on climate change adaptation
  • build evidence base for climate change adaptation interventions through enhanced M&E frameworks
  • disseminate lessons learned and feed sector experience into NAP development process
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Blog: NAPs workshop in Thailand highlights path to climate resilient strategies
By Glenn Hodes
Thailand is the home to 65 million people, the majority of whom ... Photo:  Contact Details:  Glenn Hodes Climate Policy & Finance Specialist Bangkok Regional Hub ...

Building Institutional Capacity in Thailand to Design and Implement Climate Programs (29th March 2017)

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About (Summary): 
Agriculture contributes 11.6 percent of Thailand’s GDP and employs approximately 40 percent of the labor force (2012). As the world’s leading exporter of rice crops, production is particularly sensitive to increases in temperature and variability in precipitation.