Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geography: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a total surface area of 51,209.2 km², composed of 51 197 km² of land and 12,2 km2 of sea. BiH has common frontiers with the Republic of Croatia (931 km), the Republic of Serbia (375 km) and the Republic of Montenegro (249 km). The land is mainly hilly to mountainous, with an average altitude of 500 meters. Of the total land area, 5% is lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karst region.
Population: The last census of population on the BiH territory was done in 1991 and all the data on the population in this Initial National Report are prepared on the basis of statistical evaluations of relevant studies. At the end of 2007, according to estimates from the statistical institutions, the population of BiH was 3,315,000. Urban population is estimated at 80% of the total population as a result of mass war-time migration from rural to urban areas. There has been an observable rise in the proportion of people aged over 64 (from 6.4% to almost 14,8% of the total population) and a significant drop in the active working population in the 20-40 age group.
Climate: The climate of BiH varies from a temperate continental climate in the northern Pannonia lowlands along the Sava River and in the foothill zone, to an alpine climate in the mountain regions, and a Mediterranean climate in the coastal and lowland areas of the Herzegovina region in the south and southeast.
Economy: Despite major international aid efforts, the pace of post-war economic recovery has been much slower than expected. Nominal GDP is estimated at KM 20,950 million in 2007, representing a real growth of 6%. Since the war ended, BiH has attracted only around KM 2.12 billion in foreign investment. Estimates made by Agency for Statistics of BH the year 2008 shows that GDP velue was 24,716 bilion of KM, while an average GDP per person was 6435 KM (Agencz for Statistics, 2009). Estimations made by CIA shows that the real growth rate of GDP for 2008 was 5 %, while the world average was 6%. Composition of GDP by sectors was 10.2% agrucultuure, 23,9% industry, and 66% services (CIA, 2009).
The project to “Advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate sensitive sectors in Bosnia-Herzegovina (B&H)” will support the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and reach goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Green Climate Fund (GCF) resources will be used to enable the government to integrate climate change-related risks, coping strategies and opportunities into ongoing development planning and budgeting processes.
Bosnia-Herzegovina’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) will build on the country’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy of 2013. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes: supporting evidence-based policy development for climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities; creating effective institutional and regulatory frameworks; mainstreaming climate change adaptation approaches into decision making; and effectively assigning resources and reaching implementation goals. The implementation of the strategy has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to undertake adaptation measures.
To overcome these challenges, and support reach UNDP’s signature solutions to “strengthen effective, inclusive and accountable governance” and “enhance national prevention and recovery capacities for resilient societies,” the project will advance adaptation planning in B&H with a focus on sectoral approaches, upgrading the knowledge base for adaptation, prioritising adaptation interventions for the medium term, building institutional capacities for integrating climate change adaptation, and demonstrating innovative ways of financing adaptation at sub-national and local government levels. Proposed activities will result in the compilation of a NAP and an implementation strategy focused on scaling-up adaptation in key sectors for the medium-term. Through the project, the Government of Bosnia-Herzegovina will also develop municipal-level investment financing instruments with public and private sector engagement, and build national, sub-national and sectoral capacity to integrate and mainstream risk informed planning and budgeting.
The project will be implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of climate change adaptation activities throughout the country.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign state with a decentralized political and administrative structure. It comprises two entities: Republika Srpska (RS) and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H), and Brčko District. Decision making involves the Council of Ministers, two entities (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska) and Brčko District. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is sub-divided into 10 Cantons, while Republika Srpska has a centralized structure. The entities have a very high degree of autonomy, with their president, parliament, government and courts. The entities have jurisdiction in the areas of environment, water management, agriculture, forestry, energy, civil administration, health, education, police department and physical planning. Authority at the state level covers foreign policy, defense, border monitoring, foreign trade, fiscal and monetary politics.
With a population of 3,791,622 and total surface area of 51,209.2 km², Bosnia and Herzegovina is located at Balkan Peninsula. It is composed of 51,197 km² of land and 12.2 km² of sea and belongs to the Adriatic basin and the Black Sea basin. Of the total land area, 5% is lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karst regions.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has several climate types: the temperate continental climate type (northern and central parts), the sub-mountainous and mountainous type, the Adriatic and modified Adriatic climate type. Temperature increase on annual level and change of precipitation schedule is evident in the entire area, resulting in extreme weather conditions.
Extreme climate events in Bosnia and Herzegovina are becoming more frequent. In the past 16 years, drought was experienced during seven years (2000, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013). In addition, years with floods are very common (2004, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2014). Economic damages are vast, especially in the water, agricultural and housing sectors. The total economic impact of the 2014 floods is estimated to have reached 2.04 billion EUR, or 15% of B&H's GDP in 2014. Extreme climate events were especially pronounced during the last seven years:
- in 2009, 2010 and 2014 major floods were recorded;
- in 2011, 2012 and 2013 there were severe droughts and waves of high/tropical temperatures;
- in early 2012 there was a wave of extreme cold; and
- In mid-2012 there were windstorms.
The NAP process
The Bosnia and Herzegovina UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology, RS, officially launched the NAP process in 2016. The NAP process began with a national consultation that engaged sector ministries and local government units via associations of cities and municipalities in both entities (Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H).
As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) has undertaken important steps towards understanding and addressing climate change issues. It is increasingly recognized not only by the Government and scientific community, but also by its citizens that climate change is an issue of key strategic importance. B&H has put great emphasis on climate change as one of the most significant development challenges facing the country. The importance of adaptation was clearly reflected in its Second National Communications and Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy (CCA LEDs), adopted in 2013. In 2015, B&H submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), as part of the negotiations leading to the historic Paris Agreement, which it signed in April 2016.
In 2017, B&H submitted its Third National Communication (TNC) to the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The TNC provides further update and strengthens information regarding national circumstances, vulnerabilities to climate change, steps taken to adapt to climate change and information on public awareness, education, training, systematic research and observation and technology transfer.
B&H’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy itself is of key importance to the NAP process. The strategy was adopted by the B&H Council of Ministers on October 8, 2013 and utilized the then available observed and projected climate change impacts on key sectors in the country including agriculture, water, hydropower, human health, forestry, biodiversity/sensitive ecosystems and tourism. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes covering climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities supporting evidence-based policy development, effective institutional and regulatory framework, mainstreaming CCA approaches into decision making, and effective resourcing with timely and effective implementation. However, its implementation has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to project, attract finances and undertake adaptation measures.
Authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina and key domestic stakeholders realize the increasing threat posed to them and the development of the country by climate change and the need of adapting to it in order to avoid or minimise negative consequences. The government is motivated to support and implement the NAP process as adaptation issues are becoming very important for the country’s further development. The problem that this readiness and preparatory support project will address is that despite the government motivation and extreme climate events already observed in the country, climate change is insufficiently integrated into development planning processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main identified barriers to change are:
- Limited institutional capacities and weak vertical and horizontal coordination for adaptation planning and implementation caused by complex administrative structure and top-down approach, limited stakeholders’ participation in B&H strategic planning for adaptation, inadequate level of technical knowledge on climate change adaptation of staff in sectoral ministries, limited training on climate change issues and low capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse, communicate, and use climate risks and impacts for sectors.
- Limited climate Information to support integration of climate change into planning and budgeting due to limited existence of scientific data and information on climate impacts and vulnerability assessments, limited knowledge of current climate variability, and a lack of systematic information on environmental protection.
- Alternative sources of finance, including innovative funds are not optimized as neither climate change adaptation, nor disaster-risk reduction (DRR) activities are included in budgeting on any level (municipal, cantonal, entity), and effective finance plan for securing adequate funds from a range of sources for adaptation does not exist.
By addressing the above barriers, this project will contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
The preferred solution is to advance the NAP process through a) improving coordination mechanisms, b) strengthening technical expertise, and c) establishing mechanisms for financing climate change adaptation in the medium- to long-term. The proposed project aims to overcome these barriers by:
- Improving national coordination mechanisms for multi-sectoral planning and implementation at the national and sub-national levels. Capitalizing on lessons and knowledge gained from successful cross-entity and local development planning and management methodology such as that of Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP), the proposed project will support the strengthening of coordination between: i) different levels of government within the country; ii) technical experts; iii) private sector; iv) local communities v) civil society and vi) academia. The improved coordination will increase efficiency, ensure vertical connectivity, avoid redundancy and allow Bosnia and Herzegovina to leverage capacity that is present or being supported by other initiatives. In order to strengthen national coordination mechanisms, climate adaptation planning at municipal and cantonal levels will need to be included in the planning process from the outset, by a) differentiating capacity needs in municipality and cantonal from those at the entity level, b) clearly establishing roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders at the entity, municipal and cantonal levels. This will clarify the institutional arrangements for formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s NAP. Existing policies and strategies will be used as entry-points for advancing the NAP process. Building on existing plans such as the CCA LEDS will ensure avoidance of parallel structures and processes that may lead to conflict or redundancy.
- Enhancing in-country knowledge and technical capacity to a) appropriately apply policy guidance on climate change adaptation planning, and b) use existing climate assessments and analyses to inform medium- to long-term adaptation budgeting and planning. The project will support the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina by i) drawing on lessons from a successful Energy Management Information System (EMIS) in developing a management information system with database open to all stakeholders across different levels of government on the NAP process, on-going institutional and technical capacity building, etc., ii) identify institutional and technical capacity gaps in utilization of climate information, data collection and analysis, and iii) build capacity of relevant staff to generate and analyse climate and socio-economic data and to select most efficient adaptation solutions. This suite of solutions will support science- and evidence-backed arguments (and proposed interventions) to convince policymakers at the planning and finance ministries and ensure appropriate attention is given to climate change adaptation and ensure sustainability of the National Adaptation Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Establishing a financing framework for climate change adaptation action in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the bottom-up. The project will support the development of a financing framework at the municipal level, including identification of possible innovative financing solutions for climate change adaptation action. The project will further seek to i) conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors in selected municipalities; ii) identify policy options for scaling up adaptation, including by engaging and incentivizing the private sector in adaptation, in addition to its corporate social responsibility; iii) development of municipal assistance tools for adaptation planning and financing, and iv) training of staff to apply the tools in the design of ‘bankable’ adaptation interventions. By undertaking these interventions, appropriate financing for climate change adaptation action is expected to be met for medium- to long-term planning.
The most important Governmental institutions include, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) as B&H UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of CCA activities throughout the country, Federal Ministry for Environment and Tourism (FMoET) and entity ministries of agriculture, forestry and water management (Republic of Srpska Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management – MAFW RS and Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry – FMAWF), having in mind vulnerability of water, agriculture and forestry sectors in B&H. The non-state actors, in addition to international organizations, include non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as associations of municipalities, chambers of commerce and civil society, active in environmental sector. The principal Donors and International Organizations are the UNDP, World Bank, European Commission and other bilateral donors. Private sector can be divided into consulting companies specialized in water management, agricultural services etc. and construction companies. Research institutions (the Agricultural Institute and Economics Institute), along will state (faculties of sciences and faculties of civil engineering) and private universities, are also stakeholders of huge importance.
The National Adaptation Plan of B&H will require greater coordination between the MoFTER and entity ministries, as well as coordination among ministries for climate change to be included in the budget policy. Important part of NAP will be devoted to municipalities to strengthen their role in CCA and its budgeting.
Other important project initiatives in B&H of relevance to the NAP process in relation to its planned outcomes and activities include:
- Capacity Development for the Integration of Global Environmental Commitments into National Policies and Development Decision Making (GEF) - for facilitating cross-sectoral and participatory approaches to natural resource management planning and implementation; including developing individual and institutional capacities to better adapt and apply global environmental management indicators as a monitoring tool to assess the intervention performance and institutional sustainability
- Flood Hazard and Flood Risk Maps of B&H of the Western Balkans Investment Framework (WBIF). The overall objective of this project is to prepare the expert basis needed to ensure protection against floods for existing and future facilities and raise the level of knowledge on flood hazard and flood risk in the most prone-to areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It will be achieved via development of flood hazard and flood risk maps. Therefore, its aim is to raise awareness of the likelihood of floods among stakeholders (population, state and local government, future investors, etc.) and, thereby, reduce the vulnerability of the population and properties (injury, death, material and economic damages, etc.) to flooding under extreme conditions. This 2-year project started in July 2016.
- Technology Transfer for Climate Resilient Flood Risk Management – SCCF funded UNDP implemented project. The SCCF funds will be used to enable the communities of the Vrbas basin (12% of B&H) to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management, upgrade and rehabilitation of the hydrometric monitoring network, development of a flood forecasting system and early warning system, development of emergency response plans, and provision of training in flood-specific civil protection. Importantly, the project will provide targeted training on climate-induced Flood Risk Management (FRM) to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers and will develop an institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in FRM.
- Emergency Flood Relief and Prevention Project - EIB Loan. The total value of this project is 55 million Euros with implementation period 2012-2017. The purpose of the project is to safeguard the agriculture, industrial and housing areas prone to flood impacts and to enable a stable basis for future development. The main focus of this project is construction of hard engineering structures, mainly along the Sava River. The project also makes an inventory of damages to flood protection infrastructure within the main Danube tributaries
- DRR Initiative and Disaster Reduction and Response Application for Municipalities (UNDP), UNDP has launched several initiatives with a purpose to support DRR efforts in B&H in a form of a road map to contribute to the achievement the four priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
- Floods and Landslides Housing Risk Assessment – EU, The European Union launched the EU Flood Recovery Programme for B&H, in order to support recovery efforts after the floods of May 2014. The Programme aims at assisting people in the flood affected areas and communities in the 24 most affected municipalities to normalize their lives. Furthermore, the Programme recognizes the importance of investing in future risk informed decision making and it thus initiated the development of a Flood and Landslide Risk Assessment for the Housing Sector in B&H (Assessment). The Assessment focuses on the flood and landslide risk for the housing sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina, prioritizes locations based on risk ranking and makes recommendations for risk reduction.
- Support to Flood Protection and Water Management – EC Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA II 2014 – 2020), The Action supports the development of integrated flood risk management in B&H observing the cornerstone relevant European Union Floods Directive. The assistance is provided within two components through sets of activities aiming to increase capacities (in terms of prevention, protection and preparedness) for integrated flood risk management. Component 1 is designed for the development of hydrological forecasting system for Bosna River Basin. The scope of Component 2 is re/building infrastructure for protection from potential floods at the sites with highest flood risk. The two components are implemented with synergetic efforts to establish and strengthen the network of key stakeholders and institutions for integrated flood risk management in the country.
- West Balkans Drina River Basin Management Project (GEF)- World Bank project to assist the countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro to achieve improved planning and implementation for integrated, cooperative management of the trans-boundary Drina River basin
- Municipal Infrastructure Development Fund (MIDF)- EBRD/KfW, The Fund is registered in Luxemburg and will involve local banks to provide loans in the amount of up to EUR 5 mln. In B&H no loans have been processed by the Fund yet and EBRD would be very interested in collaborating through NAP initiative to support sub-sovereign resilient development finance.
- Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP) – SDC. This project, launched in 2008 has resulted in application of a methodology for Integrated Local Development Planning, as an instrument for proactive and responsible planning and management of local development in B&H. The methodology has been adopted by both Association of cities and municipalities in Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H and recommended for implementation by entity governments. It has been used by more than 50 municipalities across B&H.
Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process.
Under the first outcome, the project aims to lay the groundwork for the NAP process by strengthening institutional coordination, including through i) an establishment of a coordination structure that includes among others, key multi-sectoral actors and municipalities, ii) development of manuals, standard operating procedures and trainings, iii) formulation of the NAP and iv) enhancement of communication and outreach.
1.1 National institutional arrangements to coordinate adaptation processes are in place.
This sub-outcome responds to the identified barrier on weak coordination, by examining the current structure and instituting a multi-sectoral steering mechanism to formulate and implement the NAP. The steering mechanism will be built on lessons from and be fashioned around the sound and proven approach applied by the Integrated Local Development Planning project, while furthering the development of mid-term municipal investment programming and financial planning (outcome 3) that integrates CCA.
Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:
1.1.1 Establish an inter-agency working group to enable an active and participatory approach to advance the NAP
1.1.2 Conduct gaps assessments focused on existing processes, technical capacity, frameworks and coordination to improve coordination across sectors and levels of government
1.1.3 Analyse existing regulatory framework, policies and plans and assess entry points to identify opportunities to integrate climate risk considerations
1.1.4 Develop Standard Operating Procedures for coordination of adaptation within sectors and between agencies and among working groups at the state, entity, cantonal and municipal levels
1.1.5 Constitute a multi-disciplinary drafting team (a subset of the working group in 1.1.1), compile available technical studies and assessments and draft the NAP for B&H
1.2 Mechanisms for regularly reviewing and updating NAP are in place
Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on gender sensitive monitoring, learning and review of NAP, adaptation processes as well as development of tracking and reporting mechanisms of financial investments for adaptation. These will in turn support the iterative development of B&H’s NAP.
Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:
1.2.1 Development of technical guidelines for M&E activities
1.2.2 Identify appropriate gender-sensitive indicators for monitoring climate change impacts and a system to collect data
1.2.3 Undertake capacity building on M&E
1.2.4 Establish and maintain an effective M&E system for adaptation and inter-alia the NAP process, adaptation investments and assess their effectiveness and relevance
1.2.5 Undertake peer review of NAP and make it publicly available for information and comments from general public
1.3 Communication and outreach for NAP process enhanced
Within this sub-outcome, the strategy will be developed to communicate the importance of climate resilient development and medium to long-term adaptation planning. This activity will start with identification of most effective communication channels to highlight the NAP process and climate change adaptation concerns. Activities will include steps to raise awareness on both - the project results and climate change issues.
1.3.1 Develop and implement communication and outreach strategy for medium to long-term adaptation planning
1.3.2 Increase the coverage and visibility of project activities for both domestic and international audiences
1.3.3 Document and communicate lessons learned and best practice in order to encourage replication of successful approaches
1.3.4 Finalize the NAP for official endorsement and place online and submit internationally to the UNFCCC NAP central
Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors.
Under the second outcome, capacity of stakeholders and institutions will be strengthened to climate vulnerability assessments and development of socio-economic scenarios. Adaptation options for agriculture and water sectors will also be prioritized using multi-criteria and/or cost benefit analyses.
2.1 System to gather, organize and update relevant data and information on adaptation established or strengthened
Activities under this sub-outcome will establish a system to gather and organize climate change-related data from across sectors and levels of government, and train relevant staff to maintain it in the medium-to-long term. The Energy Management Information System model will be applied in development of a system to gather and share data across entities and all sectors/levels of government.
2.1.1 Create climate change data management system accessible to all stakeholders
2.1.2 Utilise information on key climate change vulnerability scenarios and projected impacts as informed by 2.3.1 to enhance initial capacity gaps assessments (carried out under 1.1.2)
2.1.3 Capacity building of relevant sectors and levels of government to report on and utilize information for decision making on adaptation interventions Data/ information utilisation will be part of capacity building programme implemented under sub-outcome 2.2.1.
2.2 Capacity for design and implementation of adaptation strengthened
Capacity gaps identified in sub-outcomes 1.1 and 2.1 will be addressed through this sub-outcome to strengthen the individual and institutional capacity to identify, prioritise and monitor effectiveness of adaptation interventions.
2.2.1 Informed by 1.1.2, 2.1.2 and 2.3.1, formulate a capacity development plan for upgrading skills and knowledge of government staff on adaptation.
2.2.2 Sensitize and train policy makers and stakeholders
2.3 Available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation investments increased or shared in at least 2 priority sectors and 4 or 5 municipalities.
Activities within this sub-outcome aim to increase the skills and capacity of staff in relevant institutions to generate and/or use assessments towards science-informed policy making in agriculture and water sectors as well as sub-national development.
2.3.1 Undertake a review of existing vulnerability assessments (including the information from National Communications) for key priority sectors
2.3.2 Quantitatively assess socio-economic and environmental change scenarios for the medium to long-term, for agriculture and water sectors in B&H
2.3.3 Identify and prioritize options for climate change adaptation in 2 priority sectors based on findings of 2.3.1-2
Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities.
Under the third outcome, the project aims to introduce an innovative, sustainable and bottom-up approach to adaptation investments in 4-5 selected municipalities informed by activities under outcomes 1 and 2. A set of guidance and tools will also be developed to potentially scale-up these activities through future adaptation investments outside these initial municipalities.
3.1 Studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors conducted and financing strategy developed
This sub-outcome will include development of a financing strategy, incorporating analyses of national and sectoral adaptation finance needs and a prioritisation of national adaptation investments.
3.1.1 Analyse current budgetary and extra-budgetary expenses, sources of funding and other financing mechanisms used to address climate change impacts
3.1.2 Identify financial resources required to meet adaptation strategies and develop a financing strategy
3.1.3 Develop two GCF concepts along with pre-feasibility studies concepts for 2 follow-up priority CCA projects
3.2 Policy options for scaling up financing adaptation analysed and recommended
Under this sub-outcome financing opportunities and new sources of funding will be identified, with particular focus on sub-national level to set the ground for active participation of municipalities in reaching out to complementary sources of funding that are available and feasible for accessing by local authorities.
3.2.1 Assess existing market barriers for up to 2 municipalities and identify effective means of de-risking market-based adaptation financing transactions
3.2.2 Assess feasibility of complementary sources of finance, including private sector capital
3.2.3 Define and demonstrate new financing approach for accessing adaptation finance by municipalities
3.2.4 Develop methodology and tools for multi-year capital investment risk informed programming and prioritization as well as for long-term forecasting and mid-term financial planning at municipal level
3.3 Practical methodology for CCA planning and access to finance introduced in selected municipalities
In order to introduce innovative financial mechanisms facilitating access to supplemental adaptation financing at the sub-national level, new financing approaches for accessing adaptation will be developed and tested in 4-5 municipalities. This will be undertaken through the application of pertinent financial tools with the aim of further replication. Adaptation projects will be addressed in budgetary planning and allocation processes.
3.3.1 Test new financing approach (linked to activity 3.2) and prepare investment programming, prioritization and financial planning tools to support municipal access to domestic market financing to leverage additional sources of funding for effective adaptation implementation
3.3.2 Carry out municipal CCA finance start-up and orientation workshops
3.3.3 Assist selected municipalities and local professionals through expert support and practical hands-on training
Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process
Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors
Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities
This country briefing on the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans in Bosnia and Herzegovina considers firstly the country context and the climate change risks. The groundwork for supporting NAPs is considered, covering the policy, planning and budgetary framework, priority adaptation sectors in the NDC, climate assessments, the implementation of adaptation actions and plans thus far. The briefing contains a timeline of the process to formulate and implement NAPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina . Challenges, successes and opportunities are also discussed.
Stories from 25 years of environmental innovation for sustainable development
Storytelling is part of the fabric that holds human societies together – stories connect us to our humanity, providing links to what has been, and a glimpse of what might be to come.
Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement
How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?
Assessed climate change adaptation budgeting and planning
Looked at how budgeting and planning for adaptation could be carried out in the agricultural, water resources, human health, forestry, biodiversity, and vulnerable ecosystem sectors. The conclusion was that significant improvements in monitoring, analysis and data modelling were needed to understand the impacts on these sectors.
Helped build capacity and facilitated access to additional climate finance
The Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal was submitted by the NDA to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in April 2017 and proposed the “Advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate sensitive sectors in Bosnia-Herzegovina (B&H)” project, which aims to advance adaptation planning by taking a sectoral approach, prioritising medium-term adaptation interventions and demonstrating innovative finance methods at sub-national levels. Approximately US$ 2.5 million was granted by the GCF to fund this project and advance NAP implementation.
Key successes have been:
The incorporation of a Revolving Fund by the Fund for Environmental Protection of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which could act as a supplementary source of adaptation finance at the municipal level; and the focus on environment and energy efficiency outlined in the 2015-19 strategy adopted by the Municipal Association of Republika Srpska.
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Technology Transfer for Climate Resilient Flood Management in Bosnia and Herzegovina's Vrbas River Basin
BiH is significantly exposed to the threats of climate change, but has very limited capacity to address and adapt to its negative impacts, in particular the frequency and magnitude of floods from its major rivers which have tripled in frequency in the last decade. The negative impacts of climate change particularly affect the vulnerable groups within the basin and key sectors such as agriculture and energy (hydropower). Vrbas River basin is characterized by a large rural population comprised of the poorest and most vulnerable communities in BiH, including war returnees and displaced people, with high exposure to flooding and its devastating impacts. In May 2014, Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced its worst flooding in 150 years which resulted in 23 deaths and 2.7 Billion USD worth of damages which is 15% of GDP, and is expected to result in a 1.1% contraction in the economy this year, compared to the growth of 2.2% that had been predicted before the flood.
The project, “Technology transfer for climate resilient flood management in Vrbas River Basin”, will enable the government of BiH and communities of the Vrbas basin to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management and embark on climate resilient economic activities.
Working closely with state, entity and local governments and institutions the project will enable strategic management of flood risk through the legislative and policy framework and appropriate sectoral policies and plans that incorporate climate change considerations. In order to develop institutional and local capacities in Flood Risk Management (FRM) the project aims to:
- Upgrade and rehabilitate of the hydrometric monitoring network,
- Develop Flood Risk Management plan (FRM) for Vrbas river basin (VRB),
- Develop flood risks and flood hazard maps for the VRB,
- Develop a flood forecasting system and early warning system,
- Develop emergency response plans, and provide trainings in flood-specific civil protection,
- Provide targeted training on climate-induced FRM to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers,
- Prepare institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in Flood Risk Management (FRM),
- Implement non-structural interventions in municipalities of the VRB,
- Provide training to local communities in climate resilient FRM, and introduce community-based early warning systems,
- Prepare and implement municipal-level flood response and preparedness plans,
- Implement agro-forestation scheme,
- Introduce financial instruments such as index-based flood insurance and credit deference schemes as a means of compensating for flood damages for agriculture.
Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014) and Establishment of hydro-meteorological network in Vrbas River Basin (November 2015).
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
The workshop on reducing the risk of floods and the impact of climate change was held in Banja Luka, April 2015, and it aimed to gather all relevant representatives of local authorities and institutions and international organizations in order to get familiar with all the activities that take place and effectively coordinate them. The ongoing projects and planned activities were presented in the field of flood protection and water management in BiH and all participants expressed their willingness to reduce the risk of flooding and other negative impacts of climate change.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a middle income country with an estimated 3.8 million inhabitants, which is still recovering from the 1992-1995 war which had a devastating impact on its human, social and economic resources, leading to enormous challenges of the post-war reconstruction and economic and social recovery. This challenge has been further compounded by the transition towards market economy requiring structural reforms and improved governance. The slow rate of the post-war economic recovery of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been compounded by the negative impacts of climate change on key sectors such as agriculture, energy (hydropower), the environment and, in particular, the frequency and magnitude of flood disasters, which have tripled in frequency in the last decade. In May 2014, Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced its worst flooding in 150 years which resulted in 23 deaths and $2.7 Billion USD worth of damages which is 15% of GDP, and is expected to result in a 1.1 percent contraction in the economy this year, compared to the growth of 2.2 percent that had been predicted before the flood.
BiH is significantly exposed to the threats of climate change, but has very limited capacity to address and adapt to its negative impacts, in particular the frequency and magnitude of floods from its major rivers. The Vrbas River basin is characterized by a large rural population comprised of the poorest and most vulnerable communities in BiH, including war returnees and displaced people, with high exposure to flooding and its devastating impacts. Of the 28 munipalities that make up the Vrbas basin, 13 have experienced flooding in the past decade. Around a third of the rural population of Vrbas Basin (approximately 100,300 people) manage "smallholdings" where they produce fruit, vegetables and livestock products mainly for their own consumption, and about 16% may be classified as "farmers", in that they manage at least 3 ha and/or 3 livestock units. Agriculture is therefore important to the Vrbas River Basin, and the direct impacts of climate change on agriculture such as floods and droughts will inevitably impact the rural communities without any adaptation. Under climate change there is a real risk of reduced crop yields leading to increased food prices, which would in turn have negative implications for food security.
The SCCF funds will be used to enable the communities of the Vrbas basin to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management, upgrade and rehabilitation of the hydrometric monitoring network, development of a flood forecasting system and early warning system, development of emergency response plans, and provision of training in flood-specific civil protection. Importantly, the project will provide targeted training on climate-induced FRM to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers, and will develop an institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in Flood Risk Management (FRM). The project will work closely with affected communities to introduce climate resilient community-based non-structural measures and provide training to local communities in climate resilient FRM. This will include the introduction of agro-forestry, community-based early warning systems, reforestation and introduction of financial instruments such as index-based flood insurance and credit deference schemes as a means of compensating for flood damages for agriculture.
The enabling environment will be enhanced by embedding climate change into key sector policies, strategies and plans to enable climate resilient flood risk management within sectors that impact flood risk significantly, including land use and spatial planning, forestry, agriculture and energy sectors. Specifically, the project will introduce floodplain management regulations that will enhance zoning of development and activities away from high risk areas.
Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).
Outcome 1. Key relevant development strategies/policies/legislation integrate climate change-resilient flood management approaches
Update at least two priority sectoral policies and plans (e.g. agriculture, hydropower, water resources) to include climate change modeling results (Output 1.1); Update floodplain management and spatial planning regulations and policies to include climate change risks (revision of land use regulations, stricter policy on construction permits in the areas prone to flooding, etc) (Output 1.2); also to codify and disseminate appropriate adaptation technology solutions for climate resilient flood management in BiH (Output 1.3).
Outcome 2. Climate resilient flood risk management is enabled by transferring modern technologies and strengthening institutional capacities
Improved hydrological and hydrodynamic model for the VRB incorporating climate change predictions, developed to produce flood hazard inundation maps for spatial planning and emergency response planning, and for the long-term strategic flood risk management of the VRB (Output 2.1); establishe and institutionalize GIS-based vulnerability, loss and damages assessment tool and database to record, analyze, predict and assess hydro-meteorological and other hazard events and associated losses (Output 2.2); upgrade the hydro-meteorological monitoring system in the VRB (increased from 11 to 25 gauging stations) and harmonize into a central hydrometric system (Output 2.3); Develop institutional capacity strengthening plan and provide targeted training on climate-induced flood risk management to at least 100 practitioners and decision-makers (Output 2.4).
Outcome 3. New technologies and approaches for enhanced flood risk management applied to increase resilience of vulnerable communities in VRB.
Developed integrated land use and flood risk management plan for the VRB and implement non-structural measures by local communities (through Output 3.2.), government and/or private sector (Output 3.1); Implement articipatory community-based adaptation strategies, technologies and practices in priority flood risk areas (e.g. community afforestation scheme on the flood plains as well as establish locally controlled and managed flood zones and watershed rehabilitation works, etc. (Output 3.2); Train local communities (particularly women and refugees) to implement and maintain flood resilient non-structural intervention measures, including agricultural practices such as agro-forestry, to improve livelihoods of 13communities in the VRB, and community-based flood early warning systems (Output 3.3); Modify early warning system in VRB to include the new hydrometric monitoring network as part of a fully-integrated flood forecasting system (comprised of centrally-based and community-based early warning systems) while also preparing and implementing municipal-level flood response and preparedness plans (Output 3.4).
Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).
The project will be monitored through the following M& E activities, which include Inception Workshop and Report; Measurement of Means of Verification of project results; Measurement of Means of Verification for Project Progress on output and implementation; ARR/PIR; Periodic status/ progress reports; Mid-term Evaluation; Final Evaluation; Project Terminal Report; Audit; and Visits to field sites.
A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
The Inception Workshop should address a number of key issues including:
a) Assist all partners to fully understand and take ownership of the project. Detail the roles, support services and complementary responsibilities of UNDP CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team. Discuss the roles, functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures, including reporting and communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms. The Terms of Reference for project staff will be discussed again as needed.
b) Based on the project results framework and the relevant SOF (e.g. GEF) Tracking Tool if appropriate, finalize the first annual work plan. Review and agree on the indicators, targets and their means of verification, and recheck assumptions and risks.
c) Provide a detailed overview of reporting, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements. The Monitoring and Evaluation work plan and budget should be agreed and scheduled.
d) Discuss financial reporting procedures and obligations, and arrangements for annual audit.
e) Plan and schedule Project Board meetings. Roles and responsibilities of all project organisation structures should be clarified and meetings planned. The first Project Board meeting should be held within the first 12 months following the inception workshop.
Periodic Monitoring through site visits:
UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress. Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
Mid-term of project cycle:
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point of project implementation (insert date). The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term. The organization, terms of reference and timing of the mid-term evaluation will be decided after consultation between the parties to the project document. The Terms of Reference for this Mid-term evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG. The management response and the evaluation will be uploaded to UNDP corporate systems, in particular the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC).
The relevant SOF (GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the mid-term evaluation cycle.
End of Project:
An independent Final Terminal Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.
The Final Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities and requires a management response which should be uploaded to PIMS and to the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC).
The relevant SOF (e.g GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the final evaluation.
During the last three months, the project team will prepare the Project Terminal Report. This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lay out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.
Source: Bosnia and Herzegovina's UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).