Jordan

 

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan stretches over an area of over 90,000 km2 in the hot and dry region of West Asia. It is an almost land-locked country, bordered by Israel and the West Bank to the west, Syria to the north, Iraq to the east and Saudi Arabia to the southeast. The port of Aqaba in the far south gives Jordan a narrow outlet to the Red Sea. Its eastern part is largely desert; elevations therein range from 300 to 1,500 metres and annual precipitation is less than 50 millimeters. The central region of the country contains the Jordanian highlands (average altitude 900 metres), with rainfalls of up to 600 millimeters in the north. Jordan’s outstanding topographical feature is the great north-south rift, stretching from Lake Tiberias through the Jordan River Valley to the Dead Sea (the lowest point on earth, more than 400 meters below sea level). Jordan has three major rivers: Jordan River and its two principal tributaries, the Yarmouk and the Zarqa rivers. Because of its salinity and other quality problems, surface water is used mainly for irrigation. Drinking water is taken from underground aquifers and King Abdullah Canal.

Jordan, according to mid-1994 statistics, has a population of 4.14 million and a population density of about 42.4 inhabitants per km2. Over 40 per cent of Jordan’s population resides in the Amman area, with the capital, Amman, having over 1.48 million people. In the longer term, Jordan is likely to face severe water shortages, a problem that can be overcome only through increased regional co-operation. Jordan’s most pressing environmental problems are the need to manage more effectively the scarce water resources and cultivable land in order to meet the growing needs of a population which grew at a rate of 3.4% per annum in the decade between 1980 and 1990.

More than 80% of the country is made up of unpopulated desert. Water resources in Jordan depend chiefly on precipitations within the country; exceptions are the Yarmouk River, which is fed mainly by the rain that falls on Syrian territory, and the Azraq aquifer, whose replenishment also depends on precipitations in Syria. The annual average rainfall ranges between 600mm in the northern uplands and less than 50mm in the southern and eastern desert areas. It usually rains between October and May, with heavier precipitations between December and March, when 80% of the annual rain falls.

 

Related Content

Developing Policy-Relevant Capacity for Implementation of the Global Environmental Conventions in Jordan - Official Document (2008)

The project’s long-term goal is to develop the policy and legal frameworks in Jordan to strengthen compliance with Global Environmental conventions.

Developing Policy-Relevant Capacity for Implementation of the Global Environmental Conventions in Jordan

The project’s long-term goal is to develop the policy and legal frameworks in Jordan to strengthen compliance with Global Environmental conventions. The project objective is to develop policy-relevant capacities for the implementation of the three Rio Conventions. The project is adopting an approach for mainstreaming and capitalizing upon existing national initiatives already engaged in the application of policies and laws through applied research, which will therefore ensure that the continuity of any enforcement measures of policies and laws will be based on nationally tested and demonstrated systems and approaches

The project addresses the thematic NCSA reports, as well as the cross-cutting assessment which confirmed that the main cross-cutting capacity development priority issue is “linking research to policy development” in that the existing research capacities in environmental and natural sciences do not adequately address the global environmental management themes in the areas of biodiversity, desertification and climate change. To achieve this, the project will target key research and education institutions and develop necessary knowledge base by building on existing in-house capacities and will build upon existing policies and legal frameworks to ensure that the current national efforts for reforming and implementing these frameworks are enabled and strengthened to catalyze the required reforms. 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.9321363224 31.9472568162)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
480,000
Co-Financing Total: 
500,000
Project Details: 

Jordan is a small, middle-income country with a narrow natural resource base, water scarcity, limited oil resources, a small domestic market and a predominantly young population. It is located in a region where political and security upheavals have had severe repercussions on the country’s development.

The economic downturn of the mid-1980s and the impact of the 1991 Gulf War demonstrated the vulnerability of Jordan to external factors. The structural adjustment and macroeconomic reform programmes implemented as a result were generally successful in realizing their macro-objectives. Economic growth rates averaged 5.5 per cent between 2000 and 2006; growth in real gross domestic product reached 7.7 per cent in 2004 and 8.4 per cent in 2005. The volume of foreign direct investment amounted to $1.5 billion in 2005, and exports increased substantially. In 2000, Jordan accessed to the World Trade Organization and signed an economic association agreement with the European Union in 2002. Subsequently, free trade agreements with Singapore and the United States came into force.

Despite the repercussions of the 2003 Iraq war on its economy, Jordan has realized impressive human development results and is on track to achieve most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It ranked 86 in the Human Development Report 2006, with satisfactory indicators on life expectancy (71.6), child mortality (2.7 per cent) and maternal mortality (0.04 per cent), combined with good levels of primary and secondary school enrolment (79 per cent) and literacy (96 per cent). Nevertheless, Jordan still faces serious challenges.

The macroeconomic reforms of the past decade have not translated into tangible poverty reduction and employment generation outcomes, and the economy is fragile. Despite new social welfare and development funds and programmes, poverty stands at 14.2 per cent, and there are wide gender and geographic disparities. Twenty pockets of poverty have been identified across the country, and there is a risk that the segment of the near-poor (over 600,000 in a population of close to 6 million) will fall below the poverty line. Unemployment is estimated at 12.5 per cent, and the economy is unable to accommodate new job seekers, especially educated young men and women. The recent influx of Iraqis into Jordan has put pressure on services and infrastructure.

Considerable investments have been made in the past few years to improve social services, encourage participation in political and economic life, and enhance transparency and accountability. Inefficiencies hamper public sector management at the central and local levels, however, and progress towards decentralization is minimal. Although Jordan ranks 40th (out of 142 countries) in the Transparency International corruption perceptions index, the public perception is that corruption and nepotism are pervasive.

The Constitution guarantees equality of rights and opportunities, but female participation in political and economic life is low. Women’s share in economic activity is only 21 per cent of the economically active population, and their representation in parliament and government stands at 7.9 per cent and 10.7 per cent, respectively.

Arable land represents only 7 per cent of the land area. Jordan is one of the 10 most water-scarce countries in the world, with a per capita water availability of 153 m3 per year. Jordan is adhering to international environmental conventions and is establishing mechanisms to support their implementation. Nevertheless, population growth, rapid urbanization, industrialization, air pollution in urban areas, and low energy efficiency exert pressure on water and land resources and to generate environmental pollution.

The National Agenda and the Kuluna Al Urdun (We Are All Jordan) document, which spell out the national vision and priorities for the period 2006-2015, rest on eight pillars, including political development and inclusion; justice and legislation; financial services and fiscal reform; employment support and vocational training; and social welfare. They set ambitious objectives, most of which are in line with the MDGs.

The areas of intervention set out in the country programme document were based on the national agenda and made in consultation with all relevant entities in line with the formulation process mandated by the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). The institutions involved were active members in the UNDAF working groups where consensus was reached on priorities and areas of intervention by each organization. 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Increased communities (esp. women and youth) productivity, empowerment and participation in local development initiatives

  • Output 1.1: Increased employment skills and work opportunities for women, young people, food in-secure farmers, and persons with disabilities in under-served areas.
  • Output 1.2: Enhanced employment skills of young men and women, business processes and market responsiveness of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Zarqa, Aqaba, Balqa, Irbid and Mafraq

Outcome 2: Strengthened institutions, systems and processes to promote, coordinate and implement pro-poor gender sensitive national development objectives based on good governance principles

  • Output 2.1: Uniform and transparent systems for accounting, procurement and property tax collection systems set up and operational.
  • Output 2.2: Capacity of the Ministry of Public Sector Development enhanced to improve service delivery at pilot line ministries
  • Output 2.3: Institutional capacity of Anti-Corruption Commission built up

Outcome 3: Environmental policies aligned to global conventions and national implementation capacities enhanced.

  • Output 3.1: Strengthened national capacities to generate information for evidence based policy making
  • Output 3.2: Policy relevant capacities for the implementation of the global environment conventions are developed
  • Output 3.3: Climate change adaptation streamlined in national action plans in ways that protect the vulnerable groups
  • Output 3.4: The protection and sustainable use of agricultural resources and  biological diversity included in relevant national and sectoral plans particularly for major hotspots
  • Output 3.5: Policy options for higher energy efficiency

Outcome 4: Enhanced capacities for safer management of hazardous waste

  • Output 4.1: Enhanced national capacity to implement the National Implementation Plan related to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in accordance with the Stockholm Convention.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 
Contacts: 
UNDP [nid:57]
Maha Al-Zubi
Country Officer
UNDP [nid:57]
Ahmad Abdelfattah
Project Coordinator
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Jordan's Second National Communication Official Document - 2009

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Jordan's Second National Communication - 2009

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

In the longer term, Jordan is likely to face severe water shortages, a problem that can be overcome only through increased regional co-operation. Jordan’s most pressing environmental problems are the need to manage more effectively the scarce water resources and cultivable land in order to meet the populations growing needs.

Key Vulnerabilities:

  • Agriculture
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.930800896134 31.947492581409)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

 

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan stretches over an area of over 90,000 square kilometers in the hot and dry region of West Asia. It is an almost land-locked country, bordered by Israel and the West Bank to the west, Syria to the north, Iraq to the east and Saudi Arabia to the southeast. The port of Aqaba in the far south gives Jordan a narrow outlet to the Red Sea. Jordan’s outstanding topographical feature is the great north-south rift, stretching from Lake Tiberias through the Jordan River Valley to the Dead Sea (the lowest point on earth, more than 400 meters below sea level). Jordan has three major rivers: Jordan River and its two principal tributaries, the Yarmouk and the Zarqa rivers. Because of its salinity and other quality problems, surface water is used mainly for irrigation. Drinking water is taken from underground aquifers and King Abdullah Canal.

Jordan has a population of 6.5 million (CIA World Factbook 2012). Over 40 per cent of Jordan’s population resides in the Amman area. In the longer term, Jordan is likely to face severe water shortages, a problem that can be overcome only through increased regional co-operation. Jordan’s most pressing environmental problems are the need to manage more effectively the scarce water resources and cultivable land in order to meet the populations growing needs.

More than 80% of the country is made up of unpopulated desert. Water resources in Jordan depend chiefly on precipitations within the country; exceptions are the Yarmouk River, which is fed mainly by the rain that falls on Syrian territory, and the Azraq aquifer, whose replenishment also depends on precipitations in Syria. The annual average rainfall ranges between 600mm in the northern uplands and less than 50mm in the southern and eastern desert areas. It usually rains between October and May, with heavier precipitations between December and March, when 80% of the annual rain falls.

Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture

  • Main adaptation measures at farm level included conservation agriculture, improvement of water use efficiency, implementation of water harvesting techniques, supplemental irrigation with treated wastewater and community-based management of rangeland resources.
  • Policy and legislation options, capacity building for mitigation and adaptation assessment and monitoring of vulnerability, early warning and risk management systems, knowledge management and technology transfer, and rehabilitation of livestock systems and rural livelihoods.

Water Resources

  • Water conservation
  • Finding additional water sources (desalination and wastewater reuse)
  • Water demand management

Health

  • Strengthening surveillance and establishment of highly sensitive alert system by the development of health forecast system for climate sensitive diseases.
  • Prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging vector- borne diseases.
  • Strengthening the existing emergency preparedness and disaster management
  • Improving data collection on diseases related to climate change and establishing database for the collected data.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium and long term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Jordan
Rafat Assi
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Jordan

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Jordan" is working to increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change.

The Jordan project will focus on; (i) strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, (ii) development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and (iii) increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.

Jordan is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.9007628998 31.9791810374)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Jordan Project Objective

To increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change in Jordan.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Jordan is ranked among the poorest countries in the world in terms of water availability. Resources are already seriously limited and are far below under the water poverty line of (1000) m3 per capita per year. The threat of climate change will increase water scarcity. The lack of water and secondary effects of these changes are considered as the highest priority threat to health in Jordan.

Water scarcity will have a direct impact on the health of Jordanians. In 2005, a WHO/UNEP project determining minimum water requirements for health in Jordan showed a linkage between the per capita water consumption and the incidences of diarrhoea.

Due to the serious vulnerabilities of water scarcity, the national Government has prioritized the use of clean water for domestic supply. This should avoid much of the direct health risks from water scarcity: However, the proposed increase in use of wastewater reuse as an alternative water supply could raise a series of health risks.  Unless adequately managed, both untreated and to a lesser extent treated wastewater poses significant risks to health.

Increasing use of wastewater in agriculture, driven by climate change, will therefore increase the potential of intestinal diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals for farmers, consumers, and neighbouring communities.

Expected Benefits

The greatest benefit expected from this project is the elevated level of national preparedness and adaptation to protect human health from a key risk associated with climate change and variability. Other expected benefits include:

  • Enhanced coordination and cooperation among different governmental and non-governmental organization concerned with climate change adaptation  to protect human health.
  • Increased awareness and strengthened institutional capacity to address other health risks from climate change within Jordan.
  • All areas where wastewater reuse is practiced will have a safer and healthier environment and the health conditions of farmers and farm workers will also be improved.
  • Economic benefits will be attained on both national and local levels through fresh water savings and higher value of safer agricultural products.

Results and Learning:

This project will focus on; (i) strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, (ii) development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and (iii) increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.  To achieve this goal, several adaptive capacity issues will be addressed:

  • Standards and criteria - The use of treated water in agriculture and points of monitoring treated wastewater effluent is currently unregulated there is also no reuse criteria related to hygiene, public health and quality control or  irrigation techniques, degree of wastewater treatment, and choice of areas and types of crops to be irrigated.
  • Monitoring - The lack of efficient control and monitoring on safe practices of wastewater reuse in agriculture.
  • Capacity - The lack of trained personnel both in the competent authorities and the treatment plants.
  • Communication - The low level of awareness of the farmers and the public at large and the lack of communication and information dissemination between different parties involved.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: A comprehensive and integrated monitoring and surveillance systems for wastewater reuse activities is in place.

  • Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems of quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture are improved.
  • Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems for food safety are improved.
  • Heath and epidemiological surveillance programs provide reliable data on wastewater-related diseases, linked to water and food quality monitoring.
  • Social acceptance of agricultural products irrigated by treated wastewater is increased.

Outcome 2: Regulatory and institutional frameworks for management of health risks associated with increased wastewater reuse in unrestricted agriculture are improved and implemented.

  • National health guidelines or standards for safe wastewater reuse are developed and promoted.
  • Institutional responsibilities to operationalize the national health guidelines for safe wastewater re-use are defined.
  • A legislative tool to define institutional responsibilities for different components of the system is issued.
  • Institutional capacity needed to execute the system is established.

Outcome 3: Health protection measures for safe wastewater reuse are defined and implemented in X pilot sites.

  • A manual and operating procedure on health protection measures for all vulnerable groups (farmers, nearby communities, and consumers) is developed.
  • Operational wastewater reuse safety plan, applying the provisions of the national guidelines on safe wastewater reuse, is developed and implemented at 10 selected sites.
  • The manual and lessons learnt from applying the safety plan at the site are disseminated.
  • A mechanism for implementation of the needed safety plan at all farms using treated wastewater is established and enforced.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project coordination

The project will be implemented in close co-operation and coordination with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) and Ministry of Environment (MoE). The Executing Agency of the project will be the Government of Jordan, MWI. The National Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the project will be the Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee (ISC). The ISC includes representatives from the MoH, MWI, Ministry of Planning, MoE, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Meteorology, a representative from CEHA/ WHO, a representative from UNDP/GEF, and representatives from major NGOs.

Contacts: 
WHO
Basel Al Yousfi
Director CEHA
WHO
Mazen Malkawi
Technical Officer CEHA
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: