The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) aims to address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) under the Climate Convention. LDCF supports projects that address the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the least developed countries, focusing on reducing the vulnerability of the sectors and resources that are central to human and national development, such as water, agriculture and food security; health; disaster risk management and prevention; and infrastructure, as identified and prioritized in their National Adaptation Programmes of Action.
Here are a few examples of the UNDP-GEF supported LDCF projects currently under implementation around the world:
Tuvalu's LDCF project, 'Securing Marine-based Coastal Livelihoods from Climate Change and Climate-Induced Disasters', has an overarching goal to increase the resilience of outer island communities to future climate change induced risks such as declining marine resources productivity and increasing/intensifying climatic hazards.
Photo: Gabor Vereczi, UNDP / Location: Tuvalu
The LDCF project, Integrating Community-Based Adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Programs in Bangladesh, will transform the way greenbelt afforestation and reforestation programs in Bangladesh are designed and developed.
Photo: UNDP Bangladesh / Location: Bangladesh
The LDCF project, Increased Resilience to Coastal Erosion in Communities in Mozambique, is working to introduce adaptation processes to 10,000 households in seven communities across three coastal provinces in Mozambique.
Photo: UNDP Mozambique
Taxonomy Term List
Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Colombia
Colombia launched its National Adaptation Plan (Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PNACC) in 2012. This milestone document was followed in 2013 by a Road Map for the country’s National Adaptation Plan (Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC). The specifics of the country’s adaptation actions are being elaborated in additional territorial and sectorial adaptation plans – one of which is a plan for the agriculture sectors. Colombia is also developing a set of adaptation indicators to monitor and evaluate impacts in selected territories. These will be incorporated into a national monitoring system and protocol.
MinAgricultura oficializa programa para preparar al campo frente al cambio climático en Colombia
El Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, en alianza con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO) y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), formalizaron el Programa de Integración de la Agricultura en los Planes Nacionales de Adaptación. El objetivo de este programa es que al término del próximo año el país cuente con una herramienta que le permita adelantar acciones de adaptación al cambio climático, tal y como confirmó el Ministro de Agricultura, Aurelio Iragorri. "El cambio climático es una realidad que todavía muchos no están dispuestos a asumir, pero desde que trazamos los lineamientos de la política Colombia Siembra, fue una obligación vincular la actividad agropecuaria con la protección del medio ambiente y la adaptación ante los efectos, en veces devastadores, de fenómenos climáticos que determinan la productividad rural", indicó Iragorri.
Related Publications and Documents
- Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático (PNACC)
- Hoja de ruta para la elaboración de los planes de adaptación dentro del PNACC
- CONPES 3700 – Estrategia Institucional para la Articulación de Polí¬ticas y Acciones en Materia de Cambio Climático en Colombia
The impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR) and pronounced droughts have severe consequences on water and sanitation in the country. The areas which are most vulnerable to SLR are low-lying islands, atolls and flat deltaic regions at the mouth of larger rivers. Intrusion of salt water from rise in sea level has affected groundwater resources, especially freshwater aquifers (lens) in small atolls and low-lying islands that rely on rainfall or groundwater for their freshwater supply. Droughts have severely affected water supplies and have also damaged crops and livelihoods. Likewise, climate-related impacts on the quality and quantity of water has a gender dimension; in the context of the ethnic tensions, the safety and security of women and girls are compromised as they need to travel further to collect water, also leading to less time for other activities.
To improve the resilience of water resources to the impacts of climate change in order to improve health, sanitation and quality of life, and sustain livelihoods in targeted vulnerable areas. The project will focus on issues of water supply and sanitation.
For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.
Based on the LDCF resources requested and the scope of the climate change adaptation measures, the project will cover work in 6 pilot sites. On a national scale there are a number of benefits that this project will contribute to.
- More than 70% of the national population i.e. more than 360,000 people benefit from communal water systems and natural water sources and do not rely on government managed water supply systems. Many of these supply systems are dependent on water catchments and underground aquifers aquifers that are very sensitive to the hydrological cycle and its disturbances, most of which are related to climate change. Lessons from the project could be multiplied for the benefit of this population.
- Improvements to water supply will also result in more people having access to proper sanitation facilities, potentially reduce prevalence of disease and reduced costs to the people and to government’s social services
- UNDP estimates that water supply investment has an economic return of $4.4 to $1 while investment in sanitation has a return of $9.1 to $1. Some of the multiplier effects of investing in water and sanitation include; healthy workers, savings on medicines, bottled water not required, boost to agriculture and healthy tourists
- Increasing preparedness and enhancing resilience of the water sector to extreme events can potentially reduce the cost to government for disaster relief. Over the past few years flooding, king tides, excessive rainfall and storm surges have rendered rural locations and communities as disaster areas with the frequency of calls for disaster relief assistance from the national government reaching levels never before experienced in the country since it attained political independence in 1978
Outcome 1: Integrate water conservation and sustainable water resources management in all sectors and communities.
The outputs include: construction of village/community water tanks; construction of water reservoirs for institutional and residential areas; upgrading of existing reservoirs, protective structures/access roads; promote/build household rainwater harvesting; construction of strategic storage water reserve tank; engineered or “climate proofed” water reservoirs; develop and implement Water Use efficiency Plan; raise awareness for water conservation.
Outcome 2: Incorporate climate change adaptation strategies into the guidelines and criteria for design and construction of appropriate water infrastructure in vulnerable areas.
The outputs include: guidelines for development of water supply in rural areas developed; inventory of POPs and adequate storage and leakage prevention conducted; good practice guidance for pesticide storage and use, and application developed and used; drought and its effect on water distribution in rural areas assessed; rainwater harvesting technologies developed and used.
Outcome 3: Increased reliability and quality of water supply to all sectors and communities
The outputs include: capacity of water supply increased; water reticulation and distribution systems improved and where necessary constructed; arable land improved and rehabilitated; sustainable use of water on commercial agriculture land; build appropriate low-technology irrigation system for farmers; diversification food crops with a focus on high-yielding crop varieties promoted; promote water conservation and water use efficiency; prevent land-based pollution.
Outcome 4: Enhanced institutional and legal framework for water resources management
The outputs include: individual and institutional capacity for sustainable water management built and/or enhanced; water resources sector policy developed and implemented; water resources sector legislation developed and adopted; water sector plans and programmes developed and implemented.
Championed by the Government of the Solomon Islands through the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Rural Electrification (MMERE) Water Resources Division (WRD) in partnership with Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology (MECDM), and other line ministries, SIWSAP activities are designed to ensure access to safe and affordable drinking water and increase reliability and quality of water supplies in targeted areas. Longer-term project measures are working to integrate climate-resilient water management in policy and development frameworks; encourage investments in cost-effective and adaptive water management technologies; and improve governance and knowledge management for climate change adaptation in the water sector at the local and national levels.
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
Training & Tools
Climate Change Negotiation Skills: Training for LDC Negotiators 27 – 31 July 2015, Bangkok
UNDP and UNEP support climate change negotiators’ seminar for least developed countries ahead of COP 21 in Paris
Addressing the Risks of Climate Induced Disasters in Bhutan through Enhanced National and Local Capacity for Effective Actions
The current NAPA II project, Addressing the Risk of Climate-Induced Disasters through Enhanced National and Local Capacity in Bhutan, will address urgent and immediate climate change adaptation needs and leverage co-financing resources from national government, bilateral and other multilateral sources, and the private sector. The project is working to “enhance national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihood and livelihood assets.”
The USD 11.49 million project is funded by Global Environment Facility/Least Developed Countries Fund, and coordinated by the National Environment Commission Secretariat in partnership with UNDP, Bhutan. The project will safeguard essential economic and livelihood infrastructure in hazard-prone communities and key industrial areas from increasing climate hazards such as floods, landslides, windstorms and forest fire through reducing vulnerability at high-risk areas and increasing adaptive capacity of community-level disaster risk management institutions.
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012), and the Bhutan NAPA II brochure, June 2015.
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Assessments and Background Documents
Plans and policies of relevance to NAPs for Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
The overarching objective of the project is to increase national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate-induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihoods and livelihood assets. This objective is fully aligned with the development priorities of the RGoB as set out in Bhutan’s tenth 5-year plan, which is in turn underpinned and guided by the long-term development vision of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness. Under the four pillars of GNH (i.e. sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance), the 5-year plan places a strong emphasis, among others, on balanced rural-urban development for poverty alleviation, expansion/maintenance of key economic infrastructure including road infrastructure that connects rural and urban centers, and strengthening of the agricultural sector which continues to employ the majority of Bhutanese and be the backbone of the rural economy.
This project will implement priority interventions addressed in Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Actions corresponding to the following objectives, in part or full, as outlined in NAPA profile:
- Disaster management strategy
- Weather forecasting system to serve farmers and agriculture
- Landslide management and flood prevention
- Flood protection of downstream industrial and agricultural area
- Rainwater harvesting
- Promote community-based forest fire management and prevention
Situated on the southern slope of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan’s landscape is mountainous and rugged with elevations ranging from 100m in the southern foothills to 7500m towards north. Due to its topography, habitable and arable areas are limited to approximately 8.3% and 2.9%, respectively, of the landmass. Agriculture, which employs 69% of the population and accounts for 78% of monetary income in rural households, and industrial activities are largely practiced in this highly confined space that its topography permits. While Bhutan is in general endowed with abundant water resources from the four major rivers and their tributaries, most of the large rivers are at the bottom of valleys and gorges rendering these rich water resources largely inaccessible for agriculture or domestic use. As a result, irrigation is limited to areas near small perennial streams that exist above main rivers and majority of farmers rely primarily on monsoonal rains, which account for 60-90% of annual precipitation.
Bhutan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the Asia-Pacific region, irrespective of the presence of climate change. The country is exposed to multiple hazards, most prominently flash floods, landslides, windstorms, earthquakes, forest fires, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In terms of relative exposure to flood risks (as % of population), Bhutan ranks fourth highest in the region. Although the direct human risks of landslides, windstorms, and forest fires are not particularly higher compared to other countries, the socioeconomic repercussions from these events are thought to be high due to the baseline poverty prevalence.
Climate change is likely to magnify the intensity and frequency of these hazards. In fact, according to the International Disaster Database, among the top 10 natural disasters in Bhutan between 1900 to 2012, in terms of the number of casualties and number affected, all of them occurred in the last two decades (except epidemic outbreaks), which makes certain degree of attribution of climate change to the increasing magnitude of such hazards plausible. The most pronounced consequences of climate change in Bhutan are two folds: disruptions in the monsoonal system and increasing/intensifying trends of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards, both of which are obviously closely linked. These disturbances will amplify the socioeconomic challenges for the Bhutanese society, especially in rural areas where the majority of the population is engaged in rain-fed agriculture and rampant poverty makes them least equipped to adapt to creeping changes in climate.
Monsoon rains generally arrive during the summer months (from late June to late September). Downscaled simulations undertaken in Bhutan’s SNC indicate that the mean annual rainfall will increase by 26-30% by 2069 compared to the baseline year of 1980. This increase occurs primarily during the summer monsoon season while the dry winter season rainfall is projected to decline slightly. In addition, accelerated melting of glaciers, which act as a gigantic natural water retention and dispensing mechanism to communities downstream, is disrupting the hydrological regime of the perennial river systems in the region. All in all, climate change will increase the uncertainty of water availability throughout the year, and rural farmers are likely to have to better manage high fluctuation of rainfalls – increasing volume of monsoonal rain so that they can sustain longer dry periods. This poses significant risks to development when built rural infrastructure to alleviate water shortages, such as communal rainwater harvesting, is minimally available.
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)
- Outcome 1: Risks from climate-induced floods and landslides reduced in the economic and industrial hub of Bhutan
- Output 1.1: Protection of Pasakha Industrial area from flooding events through riverbank protection, river training and development of flood buffer zones
- Output 1.2: Slope stabilization to reduce climate-induced landslides in the Phuntsholing Township
- Output 1.3: Integrated risk hazard assessment and mapping completed in 4 critical landslide and flashflood prone areas with data collection standards compatible with the national database
- Outcome 2: Community resilience to climate-induced risks (drought, flood, landslides, windstorms, forest fires) strengthened in at least four Dzongkhags
- Output 2.1: Climate-resilient water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in at least four Dzongkhags, based on observed and projected changes in rainfall patterns and intensity
- Output 2.2: Community-level water resource inventory completed and maintained by Dzongkhag administration to increase the adaptive capacity of communities in the face of increasing water scarcity
- Output 2.3: Disaster Management Institutions at various levels established and trained in four Dzongkhags to prepare for, and respond to, more frequent and intense floods, storms and wildfire events
- Outcome 3: Relevant information about climate-related risks and threats shared across community-based organizations and planners in climate-sensitive policy sectors on a timely and reliable basis
- Output 3.1: Enhanced quality, availability and transfer of real-time climate data in all Dzongkhags which experience increasing frequency of extreme hydo-meterological events
- Output 3.2: Increased effectiveness of National Weather and Flood Forecasting and Warning Center through improved capacity to analyze, manage and disseminate climate information in a timely manner
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)
- Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
- Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.
- Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.
- Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July). The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.
Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:
- UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress. Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
Mid-Term of Project Cycle:
- Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.
End of Project:
- Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
- Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.
Learning and Knowledge Sharing:
- Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums.
- The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
- Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus.
Reducing the Vulnerability of Cambodian Rural Livelihoods through Enhanced sub-national Climate Change Planning and Execution of Priority Actions
Cambodia is one of the poorest nations in South-East Asia. Approximately 70% of Cambodian households derive all or an important part of their income from agriculture and the majority of agricultural production is dependent on the monsoon rain and natural floods/recession of the Tonle Sap River and Lake. Climate change is likely to disrupt the natural cycle of the monsoonal system and the hydrological function of the interconnected Mekong-Tonle Sap River drainage system and therefore cause a significant impact on the livelihood and welfare of rural Cambodians.
This project has been designed to reduce the vulnerability of rural Cambodians, especially land-poor, landless and/or women-headed households. This will be achieved through investments in small-scale water management infrastructure, technical assistance to resilient agricultural practices, and capacity building support, especially targeting poor women, for improved food production in home gardens. Importantly, these services will be delivered by sub-national administrations (communes, districts and provinces) with a view to strengthen their overall capacity to plan, design and deliver public services for resilience building. The objective of the project, therefore, is to improve sub-national administration systems affecting investments in rural livelihoods through climate sensitive planning, budgeting and execution.
Outcome 1, Climate Sensitive Planning, Budgeting and Execution at Sub-National Level Strengthened, builds on the existing system of development planning at District and Commune levels. In particular, mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in the plans and investment programmes of ten Districts and their constituent Communes will be supported. Technical capacity for climate sensitive agriculture extension and for planning and implementation of climate resilient infrastructure investments will also be developed.
Outcome 2, Resilience of Livelihoods of the most vulnerable improved against erratic rainfall, floods and droughts, will facilitate investments in small scale water management infrastructure which will contribute to resilient agricultural production, in particular by overcoming unpredictable rainfall during the wet season. Beneficiaries will be members of vulnerable communities identified through the sub-national planning process and a detailed, participatory Farmer Needs Assessment will be carried out to identify suitable improvements to resilient agricultural livelihoods. Groups of poor and vulnerable women will be assisted to develop livelihood activities requiring only limited amounts of land and will receive complementary support for social capital building activities including leadership training and formation of savings groups.
Outcome 3, Enabling environment is enhanced at sub-national level to attract and manage greater volume of climate change adaptation finance for building resilience of rural livelihoods, will result in an improved system of performance assessment for climate change adaptation by sub-national governments, linked to the Performance Based Climate Resilience Grant awards that will co-finance infrastructure investments under Outcome 2. The capacity of the sub-national administrations to monitor, evaluate and plan improvements in capacity and performance for climate change adaptation will be strengthened.
The Ministry of Environment of the Royal Government of Cambodia will be the Implementing Partner, with a number of key technical Ministries providing support which will be coordinated through a Technical Advisory Group. To ensure cross-sectoral integration, responsiveness to local needs and sustainability, sub-national activities of the Project will be integrated with the NP-SNDD under the coordination of NCDD-S. The Project will be implemented in 89 Communes and ten Districts of Siem Reap and Kampong Thom Provinces over a four year period beginning in 2015.
Kiribati is a nation comprised of 33 atolls (21 inhabited) spread across a vast Pacific Ocean territory. The people of rural Kiribati are largely reliant upon a limited land base and coastal zone fisheries for both nutrition and livelihood.
As the population grows and climate change advances, the security of island resources will be challenged. Already, the ecosystem integrity upon which islanders depend for climate change resilience is being eroded. This is evinced by many factors including deteriorating quality of near-shore fisheries, degraded lagoon health, and reduced freshwater quality. The primary reason for this is that current management regimes for both atoll and lagoon resources are defined by open resource access. There is very little active management, research, and/or regulation to make certain use of lagoon resources is maintained within sustainable limits. The nation has very little experience with the design and implementation of community-based management regimes to incentivize improved and more innovative management techniques. There are few tools in place to support better management of lagoon resource in light of expanding economic use and demand for these resources. This situation challenges resource management both within the lagoon and on the atoll. Climate change will certainly exacerbates an already very high level of vulnerability.
The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.
To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.
The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.
To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the LDCF investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.
Under Component One, the project will assist Kiribati to address urgent institutional capacity building needs primarily on the national level. This will include helping to set in place an improved regulatory environment, strengthened institutional planning and policy frameworks, and generation of data required to support informed decision-making.
Under Component Two, the project will assist Kiribati to address climate change vulnerabilities by implementing and demonstrating community-based adaptation measures. The project will work on a select number of atolls to set in place models for land and lagoon resources management that is predicated upon informed planning and management processes. The general awareness of rural communities regarding fisheries management and climate change impacts will be increased. Community-based monitoring systems will be established. This will be used to inform decision-making, serve as an early warning system for climate change impacts, and be linked to island-wide vulnerability assessments. The monitoring system will linked to national level programming so that national level decision-making benefits from more broad-based information sources. The project will support the generation, adoption, and implementation of model council by-laws designed to be ecosystem inclusive and enhance ecosystem integrity. This will include model regulations for the management of fisheries, including permit and reporting mechanisms for both subsistence, commercial and tourism use of lagoon resources. The project will work with extension officers responsible for both agriculture and fisheries resources. This will include building the capacities of officers, responsible government agencies, island councils, and rural stakeholders through formal training programs utilizing fisheries field schools. Model programs for more sustainable and climate resilient practices will be tested, assessed, and ready for national replication.
All project activity will target the reduction of food security issues by setting in place capacities required for local communities to maintain and enhance ecosystem integrity. By project close, Kiribati should have operational models showing that food security, ecosystem integrity and climate change resilience can be enhanced through improved management approaches.
Reducing Vulnerability from Climate Change in Lesotho's Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin
Lesotho is a mountainous, landlocked country located in Southern Africa, prone to natural disasters, and liable to drought and desertification. The country is already paying high premiums as a result of the impacts of global warming. This is evidenced by the increasing frequency of natural disasters, devastating droughts and emerging signs of progressive desertification. The fragile soil/terrain characteristics, erratic climatological conditions, difficulties of realizing the full potential of agro-ecological conditions, the growing level of poverty which is currently estimated at more than 50% of the households, and the relative deprivation of the inaccessible mountain region which makes up more than 60% of the country, ranks Lesotho as one of the most highly vulnerable developing countries.
In response to those vulnerabilities, the project seeks to mainstream climate risk considerations in the Land Rehabilitation Programme of Lesotho for improved ecosystem resilience and reduced vulnerability of livelihoods to climate shocks through i) Knowledge, skills and institutional capacity support land rehabilitation programme to factor in additional risks from climate change, increase resilience and reduce vulnerability; and ii) Climate change adaptation mainstreamed into local and regional development planning and finance.
Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26th, 2014) and Lesotho - National Communication on Climate Change.
The population of Lesotho is estimated at 2 million people (1996 census) a majority of which earns their livelihoods from agriculture. Many Basotho (Lesotho's majority ethnic group) pursue rainted agriculture and are thus highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. The agricultural sector accounts for about 10 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). It's the primary source of income - as well as an important supplementary source of income - for more than half of the population. The agricultural sector is subject to multiple shocks and stresses that increase household vulnerability. Climate change is one of the pervasive stresses that rural communities have to cope with. The situation is worsened by declining employment opportunities and rising staple food prices that adversely affect household resilience to the shocks brought by climate change.
The project will increase the effectiveness of the baseline being invested by the government on land rehabilitation and policy implementation (related to rangeland management and rural development), by increasing the resilience of the natural resources and ecosystems to climate-induced disasters; thereby reducing the vulnerability of the people dependent on these resources to climate variability and change. The LDCF portion of the project will finance the additional costs of maintaining natural assets and related agro-ecological and hydrological services essential to sustaining the productivity of the natural resources in the face of climate change. Community and District Councils will also be assisted to mainstream climate change considerations into local development strategies. Additionally, training communities to rehabilitate and manage ecosystems in a climate-smart manner will increase their resilience to climate shocks as well as improve their livelihoods through greater income-generating opportunities. Without the project, local communities and the ecosystems upon which they depend will be increasingly at risk from the impacts of climate change.
The project will also provide practical tools, technologies and capacities for an adaptation programme that promotes ecosystem management by communities. This will be done through practical demonstrations over 50,000 ha to improve the maintenance and enhancement of ecosystem functioning, integrity and resilience. At least 7,000 households in the Mohale’s Hoek District will directly benefit from LDCF resources. These benefits will accrue because improved soil quality and ground cover will lead to increased water infiltration and reduced run off, as well as a decrease in soil erosion. These benefits include: i) improved water quality; ii) increased groundwater recharge; iii) reduced surface water runoff during intense rainfall events; and iv) mitigating the impact of extreme weather events and natural disasters. The combined effect of improved soil and vegetation cover will also increase rangeland productivity. In addition, rehabilitation of degraded rangeland and wetland ecosystems would increase the potential for local communities to increase or diversify household income by supporting alternative livelihoods generated by ecosystem goods and services. The development of sustainable alternative livelihoods would reduce the pressure placed on natural resources by traditional livelihood practices such as agriculture, thereby increasing the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Lesotho. Strengthening the livelihood assets on which communities depend – such as rangelands – safeguards household income as households are less prone to – and in a better position to recover from – climate-induced disasters. In addition, the project will upscale the lessons learned to enable replication elsewhere in Lesotho.
Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014), Lesotho - International Food Policy Research Institute, and Lesotho - National Report on Climate Change
Outcome 1. Increased technical capacity of the Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation and relevant departments to apply up-to-date climate science for the management of evolving risks and uncertainty linked to climate science.
A geo-based climatic, agro-ecological and hydrological information system will be implemented to support better planning for climate change adaptation under the Land Rehabilitation Programme (Output 1.1), so will a socio-economics unit in the Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation (Output 1.2). Climate-driven vulnerabilities in the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils and cost-benefit analysis of specific adaptation interventions will be assessed (Output 1.3). And technical guidelines for these climate change adaptation interventions will also be established (Output 1.4).
Outcome 2. Communities empowered with skills, knowledge, partnerships and institutions for managing natural resources to reduce vulnerability to climate change and increase resilience of natural and social capital.
Training of technical staff of the District Technical Teams, Community Council staff and land managers on restoring and managing ecosystems and agro-ecological landscapes using a climate-smart approach (Output 2.1), as well as training of engineering, planning and monitoring sections of the MFLR on climate science will be done (Output 2.2). Local community members farmers, pastoralists and rural households) from Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils will be trained in construction and maintenance of climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions (Output 2.3). An operational inter-council land rehabilitation committees operational in Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils will be established (Output 2.4), so will a strategy for maintaining technical capacity in the MFLR and relevant departments (Output 2.5).
Outcome 3. Over 50,000 ha of land across the Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin rehabilitated through operationalization of the climate-smart Land Rehabilitation Programme.
Climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions in Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils implemented, including: i) protection of critical fens and bogs; ii) adoption of conservation agriculture and agro-forestry practices; and iii) strategic interventions in sensitive areas, including construction of check dams and rehabilitation of old gulleys and rills (Output 3.1). A long-term strategy for monitoring and evaluating climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions for the MFLR and relevant departments, including an experimental design to evaluate the impact of interventions using grass cover as a proxy for rangeland productivity will be established as well (Output 3.2).
Outcome 4. National strategies for rangelands and wetlands management strengthened by the integration of climate change/variability and ecosystem management.
Policy guidelines for incorporating climate science in the review/formulation processes of national sectoral strategies established by the Departments of Rangelands Management and Water Affairs (Output 4.1).
Outcome 5. NSDP mainstreamed into local development strategies to support the constituency-wide adoption of the climate-smart Land Rehabilitation Programme.
Strategy for improved coordination between regional and district development teams to reduce vulnerability to extreme climatic events in the Foothills, Lowlands and Lower Senqu River Basin established (Output 5.1). Revised local policies across productive sectors set up – particularly agriculture, infrastructure development, and rural development – include identified best practices for climate-smart interventions (Output 5.2). Policy recommendations for the integration of climate risk considerations into the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils’ development plans, as well as the Mohale’s Hoek District development plan established (Output 5.3). Training on climate-resilient construction, climate-smart land use and water resource planning, and climate risk management for the relevant officials. Trained staff will include: structural engineers; urban and rural infrastructure planners; local authorities; district planning units; officers of the Ministry of Development Planning; and teaching staff from technical colleges and vocational training institutes (Output 5.4). Best practices and documentation on climate-smart land management in the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils disseminated through existing national and international platforms (Output 5.5).
Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).
Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be in accordance with established UNDP procedures and will be carried out by the Project team and the UNDP Country Office. Periodic monitoring of implementation progress will be undertaken by the UNDP-CO through quarterly meetings with the project proponent, or more frequently as deemed necessary. This will allow parties to take stock and to troubleshoot any problems pertaining to the project in a timely fashion to ensure smooth implementation of project activities.
The budgeted M&E activities and timeframe are as follows:
Inception Workshop and Report (Within first two months of project start up); Measurement of Means of Verification of project results (Start, mid and end of project during evaluation cycle) and annually when required); Measurement of Means of Verification for Project Progress on output and implementation (Annually prior to ARR/PIR and to the definition of annual work plans); ARR/PIR (Annually); Periodic status/ progress reports (Quartly); Mid-term Evaluation (At the mid-point of project implementation); Final Evaluation (At least three months before the end of project implementation); Project Terminal Report (At least three months before the end of the project); Audit (Yearly); Visits to field sites (Yearly).
Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).
Climate change brings with it serious risks to public health, particularly in Asia. While heat waves are expected to increase morbidity and mortality in vulnerable groups, altered rain patterns and water flows will impact crop production and thus increase malnutrition. At the same time, changes in air and water temperatures, as well as increased incidence of extreme events, will affect transmission of infections diseases. Those in low-lying coastal zones and flood plains are particularly at risk.
The problems are exacerbated in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), where adaptive capacity and economic vulnerability limit adequate preparation for the impacts of climate change on health.
The Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change project will support Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste by:
- strengthening institutional capacity to integrate climate risks and adaptation into health sector planning
- improving surveillance and/or early warning systems for effective decision-making
- enhancing health sector service delivery
- supporting regional cooperation and knowledge sharing to promote up-scaling and replication of best practices
- and integrating health into the National Adaptation Plan process
This project will be implemented in partnership with the World Health Organization and is funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund.
The long term solution for the governments of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste is to have enhanced national health systems and institutions, which are able to respond effectively to climate change impacts on health.
While the impacts of climate change on health vary across countries, what is required to build the resilience of their respective health systems are similar. Each of the governments requested support to:
- strengthen institutional capacity to integrate climate risks and adaptation into health sector planning
- improve surveillance and/or early warning systems for effective decision-making
- enhance health sector service delivery
- support regional cooperation and knowledge sharing to promote up-scaling and replication of best practices
- and to integrate health into the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process
These complementary areas frame the Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change project. The project is currently at the concept stage, with stakeholder consultations and assessments ongoing. These will inform further development of the project toward detailed activities with measurable indicators to track results. Project development activities are expected to be completed by end-2016, followed by implementation starting in 2017.
The two-year project has an estimate budget of $9 million.
Economy-Wide Integration of Climate Change Adaptation and disaster risk management/reduction to Reduce Climate Vulnerability of Communities in Samoa
This project aims to enhance a more efficient integration and management of adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction into national development planning and programming and the resilience of communities’ physical assets and livelihoods across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters.
This will be accomplished through three major components:
1. Strategic integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management in national policy frameworks and development planning through an economy‐wide approach (estimated budget: 825,000 USD): this component will result in CC Adaptation, DRR and DRM mainstreaming in relevant policies, sectoral strategies, sub‐ national strategies and budgeting processes through enhanced coordination of government institutions and in increased public finance management at the national and village level, with stronger capacity to access, manage, implement and monitor use of climate change funds at the national and village level.
2. Enhanced resilience of communities as first responders of climate change‐induced hazards (estimated budget: 10,560,000USD) : this component will result in increased resilience, and decreased exposure and susceptibility of communities to climate change and natural disasters by protection of household and community assets and promoting resilient livelihoods and in CCA/DRR plans development and implementation
3. Knowledge about CCA and DRR is captured and shared at the regional and global level (estimated budget: 350,000 USD): this component will develop a knowledge management strategy, including national awareness campaigns and information sharing through existing international platforms and new multimedia platforms and a M&E system to strengthen institutional coordination and enhance the effectiveness of the interventions on adaptation with an economy wide approach.
Linkages with Related Initiatives, Policies, and Frameworks
This project closely aligns with efforts being undertaken for and climate change adaptation and disaster risk management by the Government of Samoa, UNDP, NGOs, and other organizations. It will also bolster gender‐sensitive national policies on sustainability by providing needed resources and livelihoods interventions to increase technical understanding and raise public awareness. Internal and External Collaboration This project will be implemented through the active engagement of the communities involved and various line ministries in the Government of Samoa as well as other development partners including JICA, AusAID, Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Conservation International. This will ensure cross‐sector coordination for policymaking, capacity building, and implementation activities. Project‐level activities will rely upon technical expertise at the regional and local levels. Descriptions and lessons learned from demonstration projects will be widely disseminated to local communities, national and regional stakeholders. Academia will also be informed about projects so knowledge is incorporated into relevant curricula.
In 2012, UNDP supported Samoa with undertaking a Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review which examined recent public expenditures related to climate change adaptation, and relevant policy and institutional frameworks for managing anticipated risks and opportunities. The analysis led to recommendations on how to integrate climate change in national development planning and budget management. Building on the CPEIR and other findings of various nationally led initiatives, UNDP in partnership with the Government of Samoa has outlined a programme that would, if successfully implemented, promote catalytic changes aimed at advancing adaptation to climate change at all levels. In brief, the focus of the programme is to advance an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation, aiming at efficient integration and management of adaptation and DRR/DRM into the national development policy, planning, and budgetingas well as enhancing the resilience of important economic assets and livelihoods for communities across Samoa to climate change induced disasters. Financing for this programme has been committed from the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF).
Samoa starts cross-sectoral response to climate change adaptation
Apia, Samoa —Samoa is set to adopt a whole-of-government approach to climate change adaptation through a US$12.3 million initiative, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
With financing from the Least Developed Country Countries Fund (LDCF), the Government will take critical steps to incorporate medium and long-term climate change and disaster-risk management priorities into the planning and budgeting processes of key economic sectors. It is expected that this will enable Samoa to better manage fast changing climate conditions that are eroding development gains achieved in the past decade.
“We can no longer grow or develop as a nation unless we ensure that every investment, whether it is in infrastructure, food security, watershed management, health improvement, or tourism, is informed by the most up-to-date data on climate change projections and expected impacts, particularly related to extreme weather events and resultant disasters.” said Suluimalo Amataga Penaia, CEO of Samoa’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.
Climate change is already affecting all economic sectors in the country and may cause more frequent and extreme rainfall and longer drought, increased air and water temperatures and sea level rise. About 70 percent of Samoa’s population and infrastructure are located in low-lying coastal areas.
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Ministry of Finance will lead the initiative and ensure that comprehensive approaches to climate change risk management are strengthened and effective.
The project is the largest national project ever funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and it is considered a strategic move for Samoa as it shifts out of its least developed countries (LDC) status.
“For every tala invested in climate change adaptation and mitigation today, there will be savings of thousands of tala tomorrow.” said Tupa’imatuna Iulai Lavea, CEO of the Ministry of Finance.
“The UNDP is cooperating with the Government of Samoa to reduce vulnerability to climate change while focusing on women and youth. Small businesses supported with LDCF financing can thrive despite climate change, providing opportunities and employment for the future,” said Lizbeth Cullity, UNDP Resident Representative in Samoa.
“Through the project, women, youth and other vulnerable population groups will have a chance to express their views on how this can be done. Their participation in decision-making will be a priority,” she added.
The Least Developed Countries Fund of the GEF focuses on reducing the vulnerability to climate change of those sectors and resources that are central to development and livelihoods.
Financing from the Fund will serve to advance Samoa’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, as established under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which integrates climate change adaptation into national development plans, budgets, and strategies.
Samoa is among the vulnerable Pacific nations exposed to climate change. The most recent catastrophic event, cyclone Evan hit Samoa in 2012, affecting 7,500 people and destroying about 2,000 houses.
Status of assistance to Sao Tome e Principe for their NAP process:
- A Government delegation from Sao Tomé and Principe attended the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Une délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe a assisté à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.
NAP - experiences in climate change adaptation planning / PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique
Presentation by the Government of Sao Tomé e Principe at the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.