The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) aims to address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) under the Climate Convention. LDCF supports projects that address the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the least developed countries, focusing on reducing the vulnerability of the sectors and resources that are central to human and national development, such as water, agriculture and food security; health; disaster risk management and prevention; and infrastructure, as identified and prioritized in their National Adaptation Programmes of Action.

Here are a few examples of the UNDP-GEF supported LDCF projects currently under implementation around the world:

Tuvalu's LDCF project, 'Securing Marine-based Coastal Livelihoods from Climate Change and Climate-Induced Disasters',  has an overarching goal to increase the resilience of outer island communities to future climate change induced risks such as declining marine resources productivity and increasing/intensifying climatic hazards.



Photo: Gabor Vereczi, UNDP / Location: Tuvalu

The LDCF project, Integrating Community-Based Adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Programs in Bangladesh, will transform the way greenbelt afforestation and reforestation programs in Bangladesh are designed and developed.



Photo: UNDP Bangladesh / Location: Bangladesh

The LDCF project, Increased Resilience to Coastal Erosion in Communities in Mozambique, is working to introduce adaptation processes to 10,000 households in seven communities across three coastal provinces in Mozambique.



Photo: UNDP Mozambique

Taxonomy Term List

Solomon Islands Water Sector Adaptation (SIWSAP)

The impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR) and pronounced droughts have severe consequences on water and sanitation in the country. The areas which are most vulnerable to SLR are low-lying islands, atolls and flat deltaic regions at the mouth of larger rivers. Intrusion of salt water from rise in sea level has affected groundwater resources, especially freshwater aquifers (lens) in small atolls and low-lying islands that rely on rainfall or groundwater for their freshwater supply. Droughts have severely affected water supplies and have also damaged crops and livelihoods. Likewise, climate-related impacts on the quality and quantity of water has a gender dimension; in the context of the ethnic tensions, the safety and security of women and girls are compromised as they need to travel further to collect water, also leading to less time for other activities.

To improve the resilience of water resources to the impacts of climate change in order to improve health, sanitation and quality of  life, and sustain livelihoods in targeted vulnerable areas.  The project will focus on issues of water supply and sanitation.

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.

Level of Intervention: 
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Thematic Area: 
POINT (159.697262571 -8.98782221794)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural and township communities of the Solomon Islands
Funding Source: 
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Co-Financing Total: 

Based on the LDCF resources requested and the scope of the climate change adaptation measures, the project will cover at most two townships and four rural areas. On a national scale there are a number of benefits that this project will contribute to.

  • More than 70% of the national population i.e. more than 360,000 people benefit from communal water systems and natural water sources and do not rely on government managed water supply systems. Many of these supply systems are dependent on water catchments and underground aquifers aquifers that are very sensitive to the hydrological cycle and its disturbances, most of which are related to climate change. Lessons from the project could be multiplied for the benefit of this population.
  • Improvements to water supply will also result in more people having access to proper sanitation facilities, potentially reduce prevalence of disease and reduced costs to the people and to government’s social services
  • UNDP estimates that water supply investment has an economic return of $4.4 to $1 while investment in sanitation has a return of $9.1 to $1. Some of the multiplier effects of investing in water and sanitation include; healthy workers, savings on medicines, bottled water not required, boost to agriculture and healthy tourists
  • Increasing preparedness and enhancing resilience of the water sector to extreme events can potentially reduce the cost to government for disaster relief. Over the past few years flooding, king tides, excessive rainfall and storm surges have rendered rural locations and communities as disaster areas with the frequency of calls for disaster relief assistance from the national government reaching levels never before experienced in the country since it attained political independence in 1978
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Integrate water conservation and sustainable water resources management in all sectors and communities.

The outputs include: construction of village/community water tanks; construction of water reservoirs for institutional and residential areas; upgrading of existing reservoirs, protective structures/access roads; promote/build household rainwater harvesting; construction of strategic storage water reserve tank; engineered or “climate proofed” water reservoirs; develop and implement Water Use efficiency Plan; raise awareness for water conservation.

Outcome 2: Incorporate climate change adaptation strategies into the guidelines and criteria for design and construction of appropriate water infrastructure in vulnerable areas.

The outputs include: guidelines for development of water supply in rural areas developed; inventory of POPs and adequate storage and leakage prevention conducted; good practice guidance for pesticide storage and use, and application developed and used; drought and its effect on water distribution in rural areas assessed; rainwater harvesting technologies developed and used.

Outcome 3: Increased reliability and quality of water supply to all sectors and communities

The outputs include: capacity of water supply increased; water reticulation and distribution systems improved and where necessary constructed; arable land improved and rehabilitated; sustainable use of water on commercial agriculture land; build appropriate low-technology irrigation system for farmers; diversification food crops with a focus on high-yielding crop varieties promoted; promote water conservation and water use efficiency; prevent land-based pollution.

Outcome 4: Enhanced institutional and legal framework for water resources management

The outputs include: individual and institutional capacity for sustainable water management built and/or enhanced; water resources sector policy developed and implemented; water resources sector legislation developed and adopted; water sector plans and programmes developed and implemented.

Yoko Ebisawa
Ministry of Mines Energy and Rural Electrification
Rance Sore
Jose Padilla
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Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Nepal

Small scale subsistence agriculture employs 78 percent of Nepal’s workforce, with the agriculture sector as a whole contributing to 34.3 percent of country’s GDP. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of floods and droughts and therefore food vulnerability of the already 3.4 million food insecure people living in Nepal.

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Nepal is a landlocked, mountainous country located in the Himalayas between India and China in South Asia. Despite its small size, Nepal is characterized by diverse climatic conditions. The majority of the country’s 23 million inhabitants live in rural areas. Small scale subsistence agriculture employs 78% of the country’s workforce, with the agriculture sector as a whole contributing to 34.3 percent of Nepal’s GDP.

Various climate change scenarios have indicated that warming, particularly at high elevations, will lead to reduction in snow and ice coverage. This, in turn, will increase the frequency of floods and droughts which is likely to increase the food vulnerability of the already 3.4 million food insecure people in Nepal. . Other reported climate related issues have included growing threats from Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs), disappearing forests in some areas; invasion of exotic species, disease outbreaks, threats to biodiversity and sharp sustained declines in food security.  As a result agricultural production and rural livelihoods are at risk.  With low literacy rates, wide spread poverty and a high dependency on natural resources there is a limited capacity in Nepal to adapt to future climate change risks (World Bank 2011).

UNDP and FAO are supporting farming communities in Nepal identify and implement adaptation strategies through the Integrating Agriculture Into NAPs initiative. This entails:

  • Supporting the Ministry of Agricultural Development to mainstream and operationalize climate adaptation into the Agricultural Development Strategy and related Programmes
  • Enhancing economic appraisal of adaptation measures and linking this to budgeting prioritisation efforts
  • Building participatory monitoring and evaluation capacity at local level with relevant agricultural agencies and decentralized authorities
  • Undertaking demonstration projects with farmers and developing case studies to feed into NAP process

This work is being undertaken in the context of Nepal’s Agricultural Development Strategy as well as its Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management in Agriculture – Priority Framework for Action 2011- 2020.

Rohini Kohli
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About (Summary): 
Small scale subsistence agriculture employs 78 percent of Nepal’s workforce, with the agriculture sector as a whole contributing to 34.3 percent of country’s GDP. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of floods and droughts and therefore food vulnerability of the already 3.4 million food insecure people living in Nepal.

Building Capacity of Negotiators in LDCs

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly launched a new global support programme today to assist Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in strategically engaging in intergovernmental climate change negotiation processes.

LDCs face severe socio-economic and environmental problems that threaten sustainable development. Climate change and variability will continue to exacerbate these problems, posing one of the biggest challenges for 21st century diplomacy and international development. Yet, LDCs face obstacles in engaging effectively in intergovernmental climate change negotiation processes.

The new initiative titled: Building Capacity for LDCs to Participate Effectively in Intergovernmental Climate Change Processes was launched in Bangkok. It will provide technical assistance to a select group of negotiators from LDCs. Its aim is to strengthen key negotiation skills, applying climate change information and science, and understanding the climate change policy-making framework under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Innovative learning methods will be used, including simulated negotiation sessions, e-learning, mentoring, and opportunities to participate in an active network of practitioners to continually share knowledge and expertise.

This support to LDCs comes at a critical time, as climate negotiators are engaged in the process of climate change diplomacy leading to a new climate treaty at COP21 in Paris in December 2015, aiming to limit the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

The programme is implemented in coordination with the LDC Expert Group (LEG), and Secretariat of the UNFCCC with support from the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF). Collaborating partners include the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and the International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD - Bangladesh). This initiative contributes to UNDPs strategic plan, which aims to foster more inclusive, resilient and sustainable development.

Funding Source: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Climate Change Negotiation Skills: Training for LDC Negotiators 27 – 31 July 2015, Bangkok


News and Updates: 

UNDP and UNEP support climate change negotiators’ seminar for least developed countries ahead of COP 21 in Paris

14 October 2015, Bonn, Germany: The UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in collaboration with UNITAR have jointly organized a seminar to assist Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in strategically engaging in intergovernmental climate change negotiation processes as part of an ongoing global support programme. 
“This support comes at a critical time, as climate negotiators are engaged in climate change diplomacy, leading to a new climate treaty at COP21 in Paris in December which, for the most vulnerable, must aim at limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Least Developed Countries must ensure that the future regime fully recognizes the challenges to development posed by climate change, to this end effective coordination and team-work are pivotal objectives in the run-up to Paris and beyond. The LDC Group needs to act more strategically and as a unit,” said Mr. Giza Gaspar Martins, Chair, LDC Group.
LDCs face severe socio-economic and environmental problems which threaten sustainable development. Climate change and variability will continue to exacerbate these problems, posing one of the biggest challenges for 21st century diplomacy and international development. Yet, LDCs face obstacles in engaging effectively in intergovernmental climate change negotiation processes. 
“LDCs need to look at the core issues towards an agreement in Paris. Some issues are not flexible –we cannot negotiate survival,” said Ambassador Collin Beck, from Solomon Islands. 
The seminar that took place at the UN Campus in Bonn, was part of the activities of a UNDP/UNEP global support programme, supported by the Global Environment Facility (The GEF). The programme aims to build the capacity of LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processes. 
A group of LDC group coordinators and senior negotiators reflected on upcoming issues for COP 21, with the aim to strengthen their negotiation skills, develop expertise in the application of climate change information and science, and enhance their understanding of the climate change policy-making framework under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The seminar included focused discussions, simulated negotiation sessions and reinforced skills for strategic planning as a group. Experiences on overcoming deadlocks and consensus-building were shared by experts from other multilateral negotiations.
Collaborating partners include the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and Climate Analytics. This initiative contributes to UNDP’s strategic plan 2014-2017, which aims to foster more inclusive, resilient and sustainable development. It fits into UNEP’s Programme of Work 2016-2017, in particular supporting the UNFCCC process and implementation of commitments under this framework.

Further information:

Rohini Kohli – Lead Technical Specialist, Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP-GEF – rohini.kohli@undp.org  
Mozaharul Alam – Regional Climate Change Coordinator, UNEP ROAP – mozaharul.alam@unep.org   


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Addressing the Risks of Climate Induced Disasters in Bhutan through Enhanced National and Local Capacity for Effective Actions

The current NAPA II project, Addressing the Risk of Climate-Induced Disasters through Enhanced National and Local Capacity in Bhutan,  will address urgent and immediate climate change adaptation needs and leverage co-financing resources from national government, bilateral and other multilateral sources, and the private sector.  The project is working to “enhance national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihood and livelihood assets.”

The USD 11.49 million project is funded by Global Environment Facility/Least Developed Countries Fund, and coordinated by the National Environment Commission Secretariat in partnership with UNDP, Bhutan. The project will safeguard essential economic and livelihood infrastructure in hazard-prone communities and key industrial areas from increasing climate hazards such as floods, landslides, windstorms and forest fire through reducing vulnerability at high-risk areas and increasing adaptive capacity of community-level disaster risk management institutions.

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012), and the Bhutan NAPA II brochure, June 2015.

Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
POINT (89.3851300344 26.8640612086)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural communities in Bhutan
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 11.49 million (as detailed in the Project Brochure, June 2015)

The overarching objective of the project is to increase national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate-induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihoods and livelihood assets. This objective is fully aligned with the development priorities of the RGoB as set out in Bhutan’s tenth 5-year plan, which is in turn underpinned and guided by the long-term development vision of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness. Under the four pillars of GNH (i.e. sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance), the 5-year plan places a strong emphasis, among others, on balanced rural-urban development for poverty alleviation, expansion/maintenance of key economic infrastructure including road infrastructure that connects rural and urban centers, and strengthening of the agricultural sector which continues to employ the majority of Bhutanese and be the backbone of the rural economy.

This project will implement priority interventions addressed in Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Actions corresponding to the following objectives, in part or full, as outlined in NAPA profile:

  • Disaster management strategy
  • Weather forecasting system to serve farmers and agriculture
  • Landslide management and flood prevention
  • Flood protection of downstream industrial and agricultural area
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Promote community-based forest fire management and prevention

Situated on the southern slope of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan’s landscape is mountainous and rugged with elevations ranging from 100m in the southern foothills to 7500m towards north. Due to its topography, habitable and arable areas are limited to approximately 8.3% and 2.9%, respectively, of the landmass. Agriculture, which employs 69% of the population and accounts for 78% of monetary income in rural households, and industrial activities are largely practiced in this highly confined space that its topography permits. While Bhutan is in general endowed with abundant water resources from the four major rivers and their tributaries, most of the large rivers are at the bottom of valleys and gorges rendering these rich water resources largely inaccessible for agriculture or domestic use. As a result, irrigation is limited to areas near small perennial streams that exist above main rivers and majority of farmers rely primarily on monsoonal rains, which account for 60-90% of annual precipitation.

Bhutan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the Asia-Pacific region, irrespective of the presence of climate change. The country is exposed to multiple hazards, most prominently flash floods, landslides, windstorms, earthquakes, forest fires, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In terms of relative exposure to flood risks (as % of population), Bhutan ranks fourth highest in the region. Although the direct human risks of landslides, windstorms, and forest fires are not particularly higher compared to other countries, the socioeconomic repercussions from these events are thought to be high due to the baseline poverty prevalence.

Climate change is likely to magnify the intensity and frequency of these hazards. In fact, according to the International Disaster Database, among the top 10 natural disasters in Bhutan between 1900 to 2012, in terms of the number of casualties and number affected, all of them occurred in the last two decades (except epidemic outbreaks), which makes certain degree of attribution of climate change to the increasing magnitude of such hazards plausible. The most pronounced consequences of climate change in Bhutan are two folds: disruptions in the monsoonal system and increasing/intensifying trends of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards, both of which are obviously closely linked. These disturbances will amplify the socioeconomic challenges for the Bhutanese society, especially in rural areas where the majority of the population is engaged in rain-fed agriculture and rampant poverty makes them least equipped to adapt to creeping changes in climate.

Monsoon rains generally arrive during the summer months (from late June to late September). Downscaled simulations undertaken in Bhutan’s SNC indicate that the mean annual rainfall will increase by 26-30% by 2069 compared to the baseline year of 1980. This increase occurs primarily during the summer monsoon season while the dry winter season rainfall is projected to decline slightly. In addition, accelerated melting of glaciers, which act as a gigantic natural water retention and dispensing mechanism to communities downstream, is disrupting the hydrological regime of the perennial river systems in the region. All in all, climate change will increase the uncertainty of water availability throughout the year, and rural farmers are likely to have to better manage high fluctuation of rainfalls – increasing volume of monsoonal rain so that they can sustain longer dry periods. This poses significant risks to development when built rural infrastructure to alleviate water shortages, such as communal rainwater harvesting, is minimally available. 

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Risks from climate-induced floods and landslides reduced in the economic and industrial hub of Bhutan
    • Output 1.1: Protection of Pasakha Industrial area from flooding events through riverbank protection, river training and development of flood buffer zones
    • Output 1.2: Slope stabilization to reduce climate-induced landslides in the Phuntsholing Township
    • Output 1.3: Integrated risk hazard assessment and mapping completed in 4 critical landslide and flashflood prone areas with data collection standards compatible with the national database
  • Outcome 2: Community resilience to climate-induced risks (drought, flood, landslides, windstorms, forest fires) strengthened in at least four Dzongkhags
    • Output 2.1: Climate-resilient water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in at least four Dzongkhags, based on observed and projected changes in rainfall patterns and intensity
    • Output 2.2: Community-level water resource inventory completed and maintained by Dzongkhag administration to increase the adaptive capacity of communities in the face of increasing water scarcity
    • Output 2.3: Disaster Management Institutions at various levels established and trained in four Dzongkhags to prepare for, and respond to, more frequent and intense floods, storms and wildfire events
  • Outcome 3: Relevant information about climate-related risks and threats shared across community-based organizations and planners in climate-sensitive policy sectors on a timely and reliable basis
    • Output 3.1: Enhanced quality, availability and transfer of real-time climate data in all Dzongkhags which experience increasing frequency of extreme hydo-meterological events
    • Output 3.2: Increased effectiveness of National Weather and Flood Forecasting and Warning Center through improved capacity to analyze, manage and disseminate climate information in a timely manner

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 


  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.


  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.


  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 


Ugyen Dorji
Yusuke Taishi
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Funding Source Short Code: 
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Reducing the Vulnerability of Cambodian Rural Livelihoods through Enhanced sub-national Climate Change Planning and Execution of Priority Actions

Cambodia is one of the poorest nations in South-East Asia. Approximately 70% of Cambodian households derive all or an important part of their income from agriculture and the majority of agricultural production is dependent on the monsoon rain and natural floods/recession of the Tonle Sap River and Lake. Climate change is likely to disrupt the natural cycle of the monsoonal system and the hydrological function of the interconnected Mekong-Tonle Sap River drainage system and therefore cause a significant impact on the livelihood and welfare of rural Cambodians.

This project has been designed to reduce the vulnerability of rural Cambodians, especially land-poor, landless and/or women-headed households. This will be achieved through investments in small-scale water management infrastructure, technical assistance to resilient agricultural practices, and capacity building support, especially targeting poor women, for improved food production in home gardens. Importantly, these services will be delivered by sub-national administrations (communes, districts and provinces) with a view to strengthen their overall capacity to plan, design and deliver public services for resilience building. The objective of the project, therefore, is to improve sub-national administration systems affecting investments in rural livelihoods through climate sensitive planning, budgeting and execution. 

Outcome 1, Climate Sensitive Planning, Budgeting and Execution at Sub-National Level Strengthened, builds on the existing system of development planning at District and Commune levels. In particular, mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in the plans and investment programmes of ten Districts and their constituent Communes will be supported. Technical capacity for climate sensitive agriculture extension and for planning and implementation of climate resilient infrastructure investments will also be developed.

Outcome 2, Resilience of Livelihoods of the most vulnerable improved against erratic rainfall, floods and droughts, will facilitate investments in small scale water management infrastructure which will contribute to resilient agricultural production, in particular by overcoming unpredictable rainfall during the wet season. Beneficiaries will be members of vulnerable communities identified through the sub-national planning process and a detailed, participatory Farmer Needs Assessment will be carried out to identify suitable improvements to resilient agricultural livelihoods. Groups of poor and vulnerable women will be assisted to develop livelihood activities requiring only limited amounts of land and will receive complementary support for social capital building activities including leadership training and formation of savings groups.

Outcome 3, Enabling environment is enhanced at sub-national level to attract and manage greater volume of climate change adaptation finance for building resilience of rural livelihoods, will result in an improved system of performance assessment for climate change adaptation by sub-national governments, linked to the Performance Based Climate Resilience Grant awards that will co-finance infrastructure investments under Outcome 2. The capacity of the sub-national administrations to monitor, evaluate and plan improvements in capacity and performance for climate change adaptation will be strengthened.

The Ministry of Environment of the Royal Government of Cambodia will be the Implementing Partner, with a number of key technical Ministries providing support which will be coordinated through a Technical Advisory Group. To ensure cross-sectoral integration, responsiveness to local needs and sustainability, sub-national activities of the Project will be integrated with the NP-SNDD under the coordination of NCDD-S. The Project will be implemented in 89 Communes and ten Districts of Siem Reap and Kampong Thom Provinces over a four year period beginning in 2015.


Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
POINT (104.612 17.1595)
Funding Source: 

Kiribati: Enhancing National Food Security in the Context of Climate Change

Kiribati is a nation comprised of 33 atolls (21 inhabited) spread across a vast Pacific Ocean territory. The people of rural Kiribati are largely reliant upon a limited land base and coastal zone fisheries for both nutrition and livelihood.

As the population grows and climate change advances, the security of island resources will be challenged. Already, the ecosystem integrity upon which islanders depend for climate change resilience is being eroded. This is evinced by many factors including deteriorating quality of near-shore fisheries, degraded lagoon health, and reduced freshwater quality. The primary reason for this is that current management regimes for both atoll and lagoon resources are defined by open resource access. There is very little active management, research, and/or regulation to make certain use of lagoon resources is maintained within sustainable limits. The nation has very little experience with the design and implementation of community-based management regimes to incentivize improved and more innovative management techniques. There are few tools in place to support better management of lagoon resource in light of expanding economic use and demand for these resources. This situation challenges resource management both within the lagoon and on the atoll. Climate change will certainly exacerbates an already very high level of vulnerability.

The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.

To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
POINT (-157.357 1.88243)
Funding Source: 

The project objective is to build the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Kiribati communities to ensure food security under conditions of climate change.

To address these challenges and reach the project’s objective, the LDCF investment will support the realization of two components and related activities. Both components will be closely aligned so that national and site-based activities are designed to build synergies, increase awareness, and generate much more informed and strategic use of natural resources so that ecosystem integrity is able to continue to function as the foundation of food security needs.

Under Component One, the project will assist Kiribati to address urgent institutional capacity building needs primarily on the national level. This will include helping to set in place an improved regulatory environment, strengthened institutional planning and policy frameworks, and generation of data required to support informed decision-making.

Under Component Two, the project will assist Kiribati to address climate change vulnerabilities by implementing and demonstrating community-based adaptation measures. The project will work on a select number of atolls to set in place models for land and lagoon resources management that is predicated upon informed planning and management processes. The general awareness of rural communities regarding fisheries management and climate change impacts will be increased.  Community-based monitoring systems will be established. This will be used to inform decision-making, serve as an early warning system for climate change impacts, and be linked to island-wide vulnerability assessments. The monitoring system will linked to national level programming so that national level decision-making benefits from more broad-based information sources. The project will support the generation, adoption, and implementation of model council by-laws designed to be ecosystem inclusive and enhance ecosystem integrity. This will include model regulations for the management of fisheries, including permit and reporting mechanisms for both subsistence, commercial and tourism use of lagoon resources. The project will work with extension officers responsible for both agriculture and fisheries resources. This will include building the capacities of officers, responsible government agencies, island councils, and rural stakeholders through formal training programs utilizing fisheries field schools. Model programs for more sustainable and climate resilient practices will be tested, assessed, and ready for national replication.

All project activity will target the reduction of food security issues by setting in place capacities required for local communities to maintain and enhance ecosystem integrity. By project close, Kiribati should have operational models showing that food security, ecosystem integrity and climate change resilience can be enhanced through improved management approaches.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Expected Outcomes
Expected Outcome
Institutional capacity development to reduce vulnerability to climate change-induced food shortages
Implementation of community adaptation measures to increase food security
Project Management

Expected Outputs
Expected Output
1.1 Development of Climate Early Warning and Information System, and the capacity to use the system nationally including (i) Extended meteorological and hydrological observations by National Meteorological Service; (ii) identification of critical areas for agro-ecological, hydrological and coastal services in relation to livelihoods, and overlay of likely climate change impacts under modelling scenarios; (iii) development of coastal fisheries spatial database and GIS including predicted impacts of climate on species population and distribution; and (iv) Use of state radio and TV for dissemination of climate risk information, seasonal forecasts related to food production, and warning of extreme events.
1.2 National policy and planning framework and capacities emplaced to integrate decision making tools to increase adaptation to changed climatic conditions and preparedness for extreme events, and to deploy funds and human resources as needed, including: (i) Training of officials and community groups in the Tarawa Atoll and seven main outer islands to use climate risk information to undertake vulnerability assessments, integrated land/ marine resource-use planning taking into account climate risks, development of management framework for inshore/lagoonal ecosystems under changing cliimate, prioritization of adaptation actions for fisheries and food security; and (iii) Review and amendment of fisheries legislation and guidelines to implement measures that enhance resilience to climate impacts, including draft community protocols or by-laws for community-sanctioned set-asides to protect refugia and recruitment areas.
2.1 Demonstration of climate resilient fishery practices, including, including i) public works to restore vegetative cover in degraded coastal areas to reduce erosion and siltation of coral reefs under changing climate conditions, and monitoring of coral reef siltation levels in pilot sites; (iii) building artificial coral reefs in pilot sites,; (v) training community members to participate in monitoring lagoon and coastal ecosystems
2.2 Increasing effective processing and storage to act as food buffer during times of shortages at community level because of drought or disruption of transport by storms, including: (i) constructing storage and processing facilities where needed on the seven main outer islands; (ii) feeding information from the Climate Early Warning and Information System into the surplus food collection and distribution system; and (iii) undertaking extension work with communities to promote traditional local preservation methods


Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 

Reducing Vulnerability from Climate Change in Lesotho's Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin

Lesotho is a mountainous, landlocked country located in Southern Africa, prone to natural disasters, and liable to drought and desertification. The country is already paying high premiums as a result of the impacts of global warming. This is evidenced by the increasing frequency of natural disasters, devastating droughts and emerging signs of progressive desertification. The fragile soil/terrain characteristics, erratic climatological conditions, difficulties of realizing the full potential of agro-ecological conditions, the growing level of poverty which is currently estimated at more than 50% of the households, and the relative deprivation of the inaccessible mountain region which makes up more than 60% of the country, ranks Lesotho as one of the most highly vulnerable developing countries.

In response to those vulnerabilities, the project seeks to mainstream climate risk considerations in the Land Rehabilitation Programme of Lesotho for improved ecosystem resilience and reduced vulnerability of livelihoods to climate shocks through i) Knowledge, skills and institutional capacity support land rehabilitation programme to factor in additional risks from climate change, increase resilience and reduce vulnerability; and ii) Climate change adaptation mainstreamed into local and regional development planning and finance.

Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26th, 2014) and Lesotho - National Communication on Climate Change.

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (28.9325 -29.7584)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The project aims to reach approximately 7,000 households in Lesotho's Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
8,398,172 (As detailed in the CEO Endorsement, 14 January 2015.)
Co-Financing Total: 
27,600,000 (As detailed in the CEO Endorsement, 14 January 2015.)
Lesotho is a landlocked country completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. The land area of Lesotho covers 30,352 square kilometers dominated by rugged topography of the Maloti and Drakensberg mountain ranges. This position exposes the country to the influences of both the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans, with wide differences in temperature. The variations in topography and the microclimatological influences shape the ecological zones of the country: the lowlands, the foothills, the high-lands, and the Senqu River Valley.
Lesotho is generally known as a country that is one of the least forested in Africa, which leads to the country having less protection against climatic changes and natural disasters. The importance of the soil resource in Lesotho derives from the fact that close to 85% of the population derive all or part of their livelihood from agriculture. However, the suitability of these soils is greatly influenced by topography, the highly variable rainfall pattern that includes both droughts and floods, animal and human pressure, the cultivation of marginal lands, and poor land management practices, factors which have combined to expose the country to severe forms of soil erosion. It is estimated that the country losses close to 40 million tons of soil every year.  

The population of Lesotho is estimated at 2 million people (1996 census) a majority of which earns their livelihoods from agriculture. Many Basotho (Lesotho's majority ethnic group) pursue rainted agriculture and are thus highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. The agricultural sector accounts for about 10 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). It's the primary source of income - as well as an important supplementary source of income - for more than half of the population. The agricultural sector is subject to multiple shocks and stresses that increase household vulnerability. Climate change is one of the pervasive stresses that rural communities have to cope with. The situation is worsened by declining employment opportunities and rising staple food prices that adversely affect household resilience to the shocks brought by climate change.

The project will increase the effectiveness of the baseline being invested by the government on land rehabilitation and policy implementation (related to rangeland management and rural development), by increasing the resilience of the natural resources and ecosystems to climate-induced disasters; thereby reducing the vulnerability of the people dependent on these resources to climate variability and change. The LDCF portion of the project will finance the additional costs of maintaining natural assets and related agro-ecological and hydrological services essential to sustaining the productivity of the natural resources in the face of climate change. Community and District Councils will also be assisted to mainstream climate change considerations into local development strategies. Additionally, training communities to rehabilitate and manage ecosystems in a climate-smart manner will increase their resilience to climate shocks as well as improve their livelihoods through greater income-generating opportunities. Without the project, local communities and the ecosystems upon which they depend will be increasingly at risk from the impacts of climate change. 

The project will also provide practical tools, technologies and capacities for an adaptation programme that promotes ecosystem management by communities. This will be done through practical demonstrations over 50,000 ha to improve the maintenance and enhancement of ecosystem functioning, integrity and resilience. At least 7,000 households in the Mohale’s Hoek District will directly benefit from LDCF resources. These benefits will accrue because improved soil quality and ground cover will lead to increased water infiltration and reduced run off, as well as a decrease in soil erosion. These benefits include: i) improved water quality; ii) increased groundwater recharge; iii) reduced surface water runoff during intense rainfall events; and iv) mitigating the impact of extreme weather events and natural disasters. The combined effect of improved soil and vegetation cover will also increase rangeland productivity. In addition, rehabilitation of degraded rangeland and wetland ecosystems would increase the potential for local communities to increase or diversify household income by supporting alternative livelihoods generated by ecosystem goods and services. The development of sustainable alternative livelihoods would reduce the pressure placed on natural resources by traditional livelihood practices such as agriculture, thereby increasing the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Lesotho. Strengthening the livelihood assets on which communities depend – such as rangelands – safeguards household income as households are less prone to – and in a better position to recover from – climate-induced disasters. In addition, the project will upscale the lessons learned to enable replication elsewhere in Lesotho. 

Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014), Lesotho - International Food Policy Research Institute, and Lesotho - National Report on Climate Change

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1. Increased technical capacity of the Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation and relevant departments to apply up-to-date climate science for the management of evolving risks and uncertainty linked to climate science. 

A geo-based climatic, agro-ecological and hydrological information system will be implemented to support better planning for climate change adaptation under the Land Rehabilitation Programme (Output 1.1), so will a socio-economics unit in the Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation (Output 1.2)Climate-driven vulnerabilities in the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils and cost-benefit analysis of specific adaptation interventions will be assessed (Output 1.3). And technical guidelines for these climate change adaptation interventions will also be established (Output 1.4).

Outcome 2. Communities empowered with skills, knowledge, partnerships and institutions for managing natural resources to reduce vulnerability to climate change and increase resilience of natural and social capital.

Training of technical staff of the District Technical Teams, Community Council staff and land managers on restoring and managing ecosystems and agro-ecological landscapes using a climate-smart approach (Output 2.1), as well as training of engineering, planning and monitoring sections of the MFLR on climate science will be done (Output 2.2)Local community members farmers, pastoralists and rural households) from Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils will be trained in construction and maintenance of climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions (Output 2.3). An operational inter-council land rehabilitation committees operational in Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils will be established (Output 2.4), so will a strategy for maintaining technical capacity in the MFLR and relevant departments (Output 2.5).

Outcome 3. Over 50,000 ha of land across the Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin rehabilitated through operationalization of the climate-smart Land Rehabilitation Programme.

Climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions in Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils implemented, including: i) protection of critical fens and bogs; ii) adoption of conservation agriculture and agro-forestry practices; and iii) strategic interventions in sensitive areas, including construction of check dams and rehabilitation of old gulleys and rills (Output 3.1)A long-term strategy for monitoring and evaluating climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions for the MFLR and relevant departments, including an experimental design to evaluate the impact of interventions using grass cover as a proxy for rangeland productivity will be established as well (Output 3.2).

Outcome 4. National strategies for rangelands and wetlands management strengthened by the integration of climate change/variability and ecosystem management.

Policy guidelines for incorporating climate science in the review/formulation processes of national sectoral strategies established by the Departments of Rangelands Management and Water Affairs (Output 4.1).

Outcome 5. NSDP mainstreamed into local development strategies to support the constituency-wide adoption of the climate-smart Land Rehabilitation Programme.

Strategy for improved coordination between regional and district development teams to reduce vulnerability to extreme climatic events in the Foothills, Lowlands and Lower Senqu River Basin established (Output 5.1)Revised local policies across productive sectors set up – particularly agriculture, infrastructure development, and rural development – include identified best practices for climate-smart interventions (Output 5.2)Policy recommendations for the integration of climate risk considerations into the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils’ development plans, as well as the Mohale’s Hoek District development plan established (Output 5.3)Training on climate-resilient construction, climate-smart land use and water resource planning, and climate risk management for the relevant officials. Trained staff will include: structural engineers; urban and rural infrastructure planners; local authorities; district planning units; officers of the Ministry of Development Planning; and teaching staff from technical colleges and vocational training institutes (Output 5.4)Best practices and documentation on climate-smart land management in the Lithipeng, Khoelenya and Thaba-Mokhele Community Councils disseminated through existing national and international platforms (Output 5.5)

Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be in accordance with established UNDP procedures and will be carried out by the Project team and the UNDP Country Office. Periodic monitoring of implementation progress will be undertaken by the UNDP-CO through quarterly meetings with the project proponent, or more frequently as deemed necessary. This will allow parties to take stock and to troubleshoot any problems pertaining to the project in a timely fashion to ensure smooth implementation of project activities.

The budgeted M&E activities and timeframe are as follows:

Inception Workshop and Report (Within first two months of project start up); Measurement of Means of Verification of project results (Start, mid and end of project during evaluation cycle) and annually when required); Measurement of Means of Verification for Project Progress on output and implementation (Annually prior to ARR/PIR and to the definition of annual work plans)ARR/PIR (Annually)Periodic status/ progress reports (Quartly)Mid-term Evaluation (At the mid-point of project implementation)Final Evaluation (At least three months before the end of project implementation)Project Terminal Report (At least three months before the end of the project)Audit (Yearly)Visits to field sites (Yearly).

Source: Lesotho UNDP Project Document (November 26, 2014).

Funding Source Short Code: 

Economy-Wide Integration of Climate Change Adaptation and disaster risk management/reduction to Reduce Climate Vulnerability of Communities in Samoa

This project aims to enhance a more efficient integration and management of adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction into national development planning and programming and the resilience of communities’ physical assets and livelihoods across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters.

This will be accomplished through three major components:

1. Strategic integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management in national policy frameworks and development planning through an economy‐wide approach (estimated budget: 825,000 USD): this component will result in CC Adaptation, DRR and DRM mainstreaming in relevant policies, sectoral strategies, sub‐ national strategies and budgeting processes through enhanced coordination of government institutions and in increased public finance management at the national and village level, with stronger capacity to access, manage, implement and monitor use of climate change funds at the national and village level.

2. Enhanced resilience of communities as first responders of climate change‐induced hazards (estimated budget: 10,560,000USD) : this component will result in increased resilience, and decreased exposure and susceptibility of communities to climate change and natural disasters by protection of household and community assets and promoting resilient livelihoods and in CCA/DRR plans development and implementation

3. Knowledge about CCA and DRR is captured and shared at the regional and global level (estimated budget: 350,000 USD): this component will develop a knowledge management strategy, including national awareness campaigns and information sharing through existing international platforms and new multimedia platforms and a M&E system to strengthen institutional coordination and enhance the effectiveness of the interventions on adaptation with an economy wide approach.

Linkages with Related Initiatives, Policies, and Frameworks

This project closely aligns with efforts being undertaken for and climate change adaptation and disaster risk management by the Government of Samoa, UNDP, NGOs, and other organizations. It will also bolster gender‐sensitive national policies on sustainability by providing needed resources and livelihoods interventions to increase technical understanding and raise public awareness.     Internal and External Collaboration This project will be implemented through the active engagement of the communities involved and various line ministries in the Government of Samoa as well as other development partners including JICA, AusAID, Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Conservation International.  This will ensure cross‐sector coordination for policymaking, capacity building, and implementation activities.    Project‐level activities will rely upon technical expertise at the regional and local levels.   Descriptions and lessons learned from demonstration projects will be widely disseminated to local communities, national and regional stakeholders.    Academia will also be informed about projects so knowledge is incorporated into relevant curricula.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
POINT (187.927 -14.0467)
Funding Source: 

In 2012, UNDP supported Samoa with undertaking a Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review which examined recent public expenditures related to climate change adaptation, and relevant policy and institutional frameworks for managing anticipated risks and opportunities. The analysis led to recommendations on how to integrate climate change in national development planning and budget management.  Building on the CPEIR and other findings of various nationally led initiatives, UNDP in partnership with the Government of Samoa has outlined a programme that would, if successfully implemented, promote catalytic changes aimed at advancing adaptation to climate change at all levels. In brief, the focus of the programme is to advance an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation, aiming at efficient integration and management of adaptation and DRR/DRM into the national development policy, planning, and budgetingas well as enhancing the resilience of important economic assets and livelihoods for communities across Samoa to climate change induced disasters. Financing for this programme has been committed from the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF).



Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Expected Outcomes
Expected Outcome

Expected Outputs
Expected Output
1.1 Policy Strategies/Institutional Strengthening: Climate change adaptation and DRM mainstreamed in relevant policies, sectoral strategies, sub-national strategies29 and budgeting processes through enhanced coordination of government institutions.
1.2 Public finance management at the national and village level: Capacity to access, manage, implement and monitor use of climate change funds is enhanced at the national and village level.
2.1 Protection of com mu n it ies’ p h ysic al ass ets and livelih o o d s : Increased resilience, and decreased exposure and susceptibility of communities to climate change and natural disasters by protection of household and community assets and promoting resilient livelihoods.
2.2 CCA/DRM plans and implementation: Increased adaptive capacity of communities for implementation of effective risk management and protection of household and community assets.
3.1 . Knowledge about CCA and DRM is captured and shared at the regional and global level.


Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Samoa starts cross-sectoral response to climate change adaptation

07 Nov 2014

Country to take critical steps to incorporate medium and long-term climate change and disaster-risk management priorities into the planning and budgeting processes of key economic sectors

Apia, Samoa —Samoa is set to adopt a whole-of-government approach to climate change adaptation through a US$12.3 million initiative, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

With financing from the Least Developed Country Countries Fund (LDCF), the Government will take critical steps to incorporate medium and long-term climate change and disaster-risk management priorities into the planning and budgeting processes of key economic sectors. It is expected that this will enable Samoa to better manage fast changing climate conditions that are eroding development gains achieved in the past decade.

“We can no longer grow or develop as a nation unless we ensure that every investment, whether it is in infrastructure, food security, watershed management, health improvement, or tourism, is informed by the most up-to-date data on climate change projections and expected impacts, particularly related to extreme weather events and resultant disasters.” said Suluimalo Amataga Penaia, CEO of Samoa’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Climate change is already affecting all economic sectors in the country and may cause more frequent and extreme rainfall and longer drought, increased air and water temperatures and sea level rise. About 70 percent of Samoa’s population and infrastructure are located in low-lying coastal areas.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Ministry of Finance will lead the initiative and ensure that comprehensive approaches to climate change risk management are strengthened and effective.

The project is the largest national project ever funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and it is considered a strategic move for Samoa as it shifts out of its least developed countries (LDC) status.

“For every tala invested in climate change adaptation and mitigation today, there will be savings of thousands of tala tomorrow.” said Tupa’imatuna Iulai Lavea, CEO of the Ministry of Finance.

“The UNDP is cooperating with the Government of Samoa to reduce vulnerability to climate change while focusing on women and youth. Small businesses supported with LDCF financing can thrive despite climate change, providing opportunities and employment for the future,” said Lizbeth Cullity, UNDP Resident Representative in Samoa.

“Through the project, women, youth and other vulnerable population groups will have a chance to express their views on how this can be done. Their participation in decision-making will be a priority,” she added.

The Least Developed Countries Fund of the GEF focuses on reducing the vulnerability to climate change of those sectors and resources that are central to development and livelihoods.
Financing from the Fund will serve to advance Samoa’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, as established under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which integrates climate change adaptation into national development plans, budgets, and strategies.

Samoa is among the vulnerable Pacific nations exposed to climate change. The most recent catastrophic event, cyclone Evan hit Samoa in 2012, affecting 7,500 people and destroying about 2,000 houses.



Display Photo: 

Supporting Sao Tome and Principe to advance their NAP process

Status of assistance to Sao Tome e Principe for their NAP process:

  • A Government delegation from Sao Tomé and Principe attended the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Une délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe a assisté à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

NAP - experiences in climate change adaptation planning / PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique

Presentation by the Government of Sao Tomé e Principe at the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Sao Tomé e Principe à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

> MORE NAP-GSP COUNTRIES / En savoir plus sur les pays PAG-PNA

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
POINT (6.7315864126942 0.33863561401163)
Funding Source: 
Project Status: 

Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA)

Climate stresses and low adaptive capacity are increasing Africa´s vulnerability to climate change. Climate related shocks to the economy, vulnerable populations, ecosystems and infrastructure threaten development goals and poverty alleviation strategies. The ability of decision-makers to understand and communicate the likely impacts of climate change is of critical importance in adapting development plans to new climate realities. However, the lack of access to reliable climate information and the lack of capacity of disseminating it prove to be significant obstacles in allowing governments and populations to develop the correct tools to address the changes that will be brought on as a result of climate change.

The Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) will enable vulnerable countries in Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia) to strengthen national climate information systems as well as to benefit from regional coordination and draw upon a platform of knowledge management.

The CIRDA Programme will coordinate among different stakeholders needs and capacities in collecting, generating, analysing and disseminating relevant climate information. It will also provide capacity building on: meteorological, climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems, disaster risk management and viable communication systems/processes for disseminating alerts, and the use of alternative cost-effective technologies. The Programme will provide special consideration on reaching end user populations such as farmers as well as strategies to engage with the private sector as a service provider and as an end user of climate information.

The multi-country programme is being implemented by UNDP with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and is an example of the concrete actions that the UN is taking to reduce the impacts of climate change in all development sectors.

For the latest information on the Programme and to engage in an ongoing discussion on relevant topics, make sure to check out our blog.


Level of Intervention: 
POINT (38.320312491284 10.328754533132)
Funding Source: 
Knowledge Products
Communications Products
Training & Tools
Reports and Publications by country teams
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
News article
Board Meeting Reports
Planning Meeting Presentations
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Nairobi Round Table on Strengthening Development of Climate Information and Early Warning Systems
Launch Workshop CIRDA

The Multi Country Programme will support the following countries in Africa use climate information as a key tool in long term planning fundamental for economic development.

The Programme will strengthen the capacity of these countries and the region to develop and operate modern climate information and early warning systems by making available technical assistance and provide access to new technologies. Countries will also benefit from regional coordination and a knowledge sharing platform.

For up to date information on the CIRDA Programme and to engage in our ongoing discussions, make sure to check out our blog: http://undp-cirda.blogspot.com/

For a brief snapshot of the Programme, download the CIRDA Fact Sheet.

Bonizella Biagini

Dr. Bonizella (Boni) Biagini currently manages the UNDP’s Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA).

Prior to joining UNDP in 2014, Dr. Biagini worked at the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for 12 years, leading the creation and development of the GEF Adaptation program and project portfolio. She was the senior official responsible for mobilizing resources for the first two dedicated adaptation funds: the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), which together have received donor support of $1.5 billion.  Before joining the GEF, Dr. Biagini worked at several NGOs including the Climate, Energy and Pollution Program at the World Resources Institute and the international office of Legambiente, a leading Italian environmental research organization.

A physicist by training, Dr. Biagini has worked on climate change and other global environmental issues for 25 years in Europe, the United States, Africa, Asia, and several small island states. In addition to her technical skills, her background encompasses an unusual combination of operational experience on the ground and high-level participation in international environmental meetings including the Earth Summit and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Learn more about Dr. Biagini's work with the GEF Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) in the May 2016 publication "Time to Adapt: Insights from the GEF's Experience in Adaptation to Climate Change." Dr. Biagini is also a contributor to the IPCC Third and Fourth Assessment Reports on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, and the author of numerous publications on climate change science and policy, including the report “Confronting Climate Change, Economic Priorities and Climate Protection in Developing Nations.” (Biagini, 2000).  She is the lead author of three recent articles documenting experiences resulting from climate change adaptation projects:  “Engaging the Private Sector in Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries” (Biagini, Miller, 2013), “A Typology of Adaptation Actions: A Global Look at Climate Adaptation Actions Financed Through the Global Environment Facility” (Biagini, Bierbaum, Stults, Dobardzic, McNeeley, 2014); and “Technology Transfer for Adaptation” (Biagini, Kuhl, Sims Gallagher, Ortiz, 2014). (Photo Courtesy Margherita Mirabella)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Climate Data Digitization

At the request of the governments of The Gambia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, the UNDP Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) is taking steps to assist in the preservation of historic climate data in these six African Least Developed Countries.

In its initial phase of support, two experts were commissioned by the CIRDA Programme to meet with National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) to provide guidance on digitization efforts and create a plan to capture digital records, particularly data used to manage climate impacts on agriculture, fishing and floods. With new training support, three countries are now scaling up efforts to capture historic records and digitize tens of thousands of pages of historic climate archives.

Types of Climate Data
Climate data generally falls into two categories: historical data and data from recent and current observations.

While most people understand the importance of current and recent climate data, fewer appreciate the equal importance of historical climate data. Historical data allow one to establish long-term trends, which in turn helps us understand and better plan for future changes in climate. They also help in developing and refining climate models and seasonal forecasts, as well as provide the foundational datasets used for adaptation studies at local, national and regional scales.

Climate models are mathematical representations of the interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, ice and the sun. Once a climate model is developed, it has to be tested to find out if it works. And since we can’t wait for 30 years to see if a model is any good or not, the models have to be tested against the past in a process that is called “hindcasting” that rely on historical observations. The simple assumption of hindcasting is that if a model can correctly predict current trends from a starting point somewhere in the past, one can expect it to predict what might happen in the future.

History of Climate Data
Meteorological data observations in most African countries date back to the early 19th Century (for example, in Tanzania the first meteorological observation was made along the coast in 1850). Once recorded on paper, the observations are kept in various formats in data archives usually located at meteorological agency headquarters or even still at the stations where the measurements were originally taken. But this historical data is recorded largely on paper and, depending on the age of the paper and the condition of the archives, some of the data is unreadable or is wearing out at dramatic rates, due to handwritten ink that fades over time. 

Initial Needs Assessment
During an initial needs assessment, only Malawi reported having partial access to digitized historic data, with other countries often reporting no central digital archive of these data existing. One reason for this is that historic climate data sets are often held by other agencies aside from the NHMS. Alternative agencies holding historic data sets often include the Ministries of Agriculture, Water, Transport and Education.

Why Digitization is Important
Climate data is an essential ingredient needed to develop weather/climate-based early warning systems and a cornerstone for resilience building efforts. It not only allows us to monitor adverse impacts across development sectors, populations and ecosystems, but it also helps countries to prepare for and adapt to the realities of climate change. This information can be analyzed and applied to protect development gains and aid in the achievement of National Adaptation Plan goals. It is also an essential ingredient in creating more accurate forecasts that can be used to track storms, protect lives and build more resilient livelihoods. Unfortunately, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, these important data – often recorded with pen and paper – is being lost at a remarkable rate. Civil War, material decay and the sands of time are literally erasing the historical record of climate in the region.

The Strategy
National digitization strategies depend on a number of factors, including where and how data is stored, legal frameworks, in-house capacity, budgets, and equipment. Generally speaking, and often utilizing external funding, governments electronically capture paper records into a database with the first step being to record digital images of the data using a scanner or digital camera. This ensures that a digital copy of the record is preserved and can be be shared. However, the data itself is not yet in a digital form where it can be used to make calculations or for computational analyses. This requires either manually keying the records into a digital database, using software such as ClimSoft or Excel, or using automatic character recognition software to read, analyze and warehouse the new digital archive. Each variable and data set is important for improved weather forecasting and historical climate tracking, with different variables being used in different applications e.g. wind speed, humidity, temperature and incident radiation all important to calculate evaporation which is used model hydrological flows and crop development. An example of some of the main data useful for climate applications are given below:

Top Level Data Sets

  • Rainfall
  • Temperatures
  • Wind speed and direction
  • Humidity
  • Sunshine duration
  • Incident solar radiation
  • River Discharge
  • Salinity
  • Surface Water levels

Resources and Further Reading


From top to botton: Historic records in The Gambia, where the archive is not in a good state, but recent records are intact; handheld data recue efforts in Uganda; and the Tanzania Meteorological Department's historic archive.

Programme Outputs

UNDP's CIRDA Programme provides support to 11 vulnerable countries African countries in their efforts to enhance their capacity to collect, analyze and disseminate climate information as a tool in adaptation planning. It does so by providing expert technical advice, promoting regional cooperation efforts, and capacity building.The support provided by the CIRDA Programme is in addition to each countries efforts to implement individual national climate information/early warning projects.

Click below to learn about some recent on the ground achievements:




Sao Tome and Principe


Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Implementation of the CIRDA Programme is carried out under the general guidance of a Project Board composed of senior-level representatives from UNDP-GEF, WMO, UN-SPIDER, and representatives from 3 UNDP Country Offices.

The Project Board is the strategic decision-making body of the project, providing overall guidance and direction to the CIRDA Programme Manager.

II Board Meeting- 2015

A CIRDA Project Board Meeting was held in Kampala, Uganda on March 5, 2015. The meeting was held to present the Programme's 2015 Annual Work Plan and Budget, both were approved by all board members.

Click here for Board Meeting Minutes

Click here for the Board Meeting Presentation

I Board Meeting- 2014

The first Project Board Meeting was held on July 8, 2014. The meeting's objective was the presentation of CIRDA's Annual Work Plan and Budget, both which were unanimously approved.

Click Here for the Board Meeting Minutes

Click Here for the Board Meeting Presentation

Bonizella Biagini
Montserrat Xilotl
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

‘The Last Mile’

Saving lives, improving livelihoods and increasing resiliency with tailored weather information services
for a changing climate

15-17 March, 2016, Livingstone, Zambia

Climate information and early warning systems can save lives, improve livelihoods and build resiliency across Africa. In order to seize this opportunity, timely, accurate and actionable weather and climate information must be delivered from data collection and creation sources across the “Last Mile” to uninformed and vulnerable end-users.

In this innovation-driven multi-country workshop, experts on cutting-edge technology, communications, public-private partnerships, meteorology and sustainable development will come together to explore new pathways to move from the collection of data to its application, with the end goal of creating actionable recommendations that UNDP-supported climate-information programmes can leverage to impact lives and build sustainability. For this to happen, national weather information services should not only have access to modern weather observation technologies and forecast information, but they must also be able to communicate and apply the content derived from these systems to those in need.

Interactive sessions will cover diverse topics beginning with the sharing of best practices on the application of weather data in the field, followed by sessions and panel discussions that explore important topics that will guide our journey toward the “Last Mile.” These include defining roles and responsibilities of public and private information goods, establishing key partnerships required for the design, development and potential commercialization of “Last Mile” products and services, and developing integrated communications strategies. A notable side event, The Climate Action Hackathon, will also take place in parallel to generate ideas for Last Mile products and services from the application development community and local media.

Ample time will be provided for interactive discussion between project managers, implementing agency officials and the Last Mile application development community in order to more deeply explore the development of workshop ideas within each national project.

Main Goals

  • Understand challenges and opportunities for UNDP-supported Climate Information and Early Warning Systems projects as we journey toward the last mile
  • Share best practices, innovative technologies and cutting-edge methodologies
  • Define actionable recommendations to cover the “Last Mile”
  • Build relationships and partnerships
  • Ensure long-term sustainability
  • Embrace innovation
  • Connect, listen, explore


Presentations - Day 1

Presentations - Day 2

Country Presentations

Mobile APP

Climate Action Hackathon

Big Ideas, Visionaries, Amateur Forecasters and Computer Developers Welcome at UNDP Climate Information for a Resilient Africa Event. Learn More



25-27 August, 2015, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

UNDP CIRDA Country Project Managers Workshop

This workshop hosted by the UNDP’s Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) brings together country project managers, technical advisories, meteorologists and hydrologists, and experts on public-private partnerships, communications and development to explore innovative approaches and new technologies to strengthen and sustain climate information and early warning systems in Africa.

The meeting offers an opportunity for collaboration and knowledge sharing between in-country leadership teams from 11 African nations. Sessions focus on technical support mission planning, reports from the Strengthening National Climate Information/Early Warning System (CI/EWS) Projects, public-private partnership market studies, support for the procurement of Hydro-Meteorological technology, and covering the “Last Mile.”

Unique country clinics bring country project managers together with experts from the CIRDA Programme to discuss innovative climate and weather information
technologies, new approaches and cutting-edge applications of climate data.

The meeting is hosted at the UNDP Regional Service Center for Africa (RSC). Powerpoint presentations and videos from the event will be shared on this page as they become available.



Introductions, Meeting Goals and Strategies

Reports from Strengthening National Climate Information/ Early Warning System (CI/EWS) Projects

Day 1

Day 2





3 March, 2015, Kampala, Uganda- Workshop on Creating Value Added Weather and Climate Services through Innovative Public Private Partnerships

The UNDP-CIRDA Programme and the Government of Uganda held a training workshop at the Golf Course Hotel in Kampala aimed at building sustainable climate change adaptation and economic development plans. The workshop will support National Hydrological and Meteorological Services (NHMS) in Africa create value added weather and climate services by engaging with the private sector and developing innovative public private partnerships. 

The workshop brought together government representatives, the private sector, international experts, representatives from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UNDP.  Discussions were held with representatives from agriculture, financial, aviation and telecommunication sectors on how to  meet their needs and best engage them through the use of new technologies to communicate timely and reliable climate information to support national development. 

Long term financial sustainability of national weather and climate services was a key topic  addressed during this two day event.  As governments deal with budget constraints on many fronts, limited budget resources are a challenge for NHMS in their attempts meet the information needs of local populations. Conversations were centered on analyzing the potential for generating revenue to support the sustainability of weather and climate services, including opportunities for collaboration with mobile phone companies and establishing succesful public private partnerships. These discussions led to the development of country action plans to provide a pathway forward in CIRDA's 11 partner countries.

Workshop Agenda

Workshop Logistic Note

Official Press Release

Workshop Minutes

Action Plans


Day 1

Day 2

CIRDA Partner Country Presentations



14 October, 2014, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania- Workshop on a Systems Approach to Designing, Implementing, and Utilizing Observing Networks

UNDP’s Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information and Resilience Development in Africa (CIRDA), in close collaboration with the UNDP Country Office in Tanzania, held a training workshop on a Systems Approach to Designing, Implementing, and Utilizing Observing Networks from 14 to16 October, 2014, at the Hotel White Sands in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

The workshop provided training to Directors of the National Meteorology and Hydrology Services (NHMS), Directors of the NHMS Observation Networks, CIRDA country managers, and other interested CIRDA partners, by introducing a systems approach to the design, implementation, and utilization of observing networks. Training sessions were led by international professionals in the fields of meteorology, surface observations, data quality, private sector engagement, and climate technologies. The event also provided an opportunity for country representatves to present their progress on implementing local and national early warning systems (EWS) with the support of the Programme. The workshop discussion resulted in the development of country posters that detailed national observing networks.

Click here for the agenda workshop

Workshop Participants

Links to Presentations:

Click here to see a video on the EWS in Benin and its success in alerting local populations on hazardous floodings.

Click here for a fact sheet on Sao Tome and Principe's EWS

Country posters detailing national observing networks



20 May, 2014, Nairobi, Kenya- Roundtable on Strengthening Development of Weather, Climate and Hydrology related Early Warning Systems in Africa

Development banks, intergovernmental agencies and meteorological services working in Africa to support the development of climate information and early warning systems across Africa met in Nairobi to communicate and raise awareness of ongoing and planned iniatives.  This event is an example of the ongoing  coordination between programmes and agencies to assure that all iniatives are in keeping with development and adaptation needs. Discussions served to highlight the complementary nature of regional activities directed at enhancing climate information systems. 

CIRDA Programme Manager, Bonizella Biagini, presented the aims, objectives, actions and scope of the CIRDA Programme.

Click here for presentation.

Presentations were also made by representatives from UNESCO, WMO, AFDB, Kenya's Metorological Service, ICPAC, NDMA, UNEP and the UN's International System for Disaster Reduction.

For a full summary of the event, click here.



13 April, 2014, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia- Launch of the Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information Systems in Africa

Representatives from UNDP's GEF Unit met in Ethiopia on April 13-14 with high level representatives from Benin, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia to launch the Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information Systems in Africa. The Honorable Ministers of Environment from Uganda, Sao Tome and Principe as well as the Executive Chairperson of the Environment Protection Agency of Sierra Leone were present to celebrate the Programme's onset.

As a highlight to the workshop, an Expo with 13 meteorological companies and service providers was held to introduce government representatives to the cutting edge technologies available in the collection, processing and dissemination of climate information.


Links to Presentations

Workshop Participants


Map Caption: 

The CIRDA Programme is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and provides technical support and expertise to Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems Projects in 11 African least developed countries.



News and Updates: 

Livefeed - Climate Action Hackathon - Leveraging Weather and Climate Data to Create Solutions for Adaptation

May 24, 2016, 18:30 (CEST) Bonn, Germany | Post questions on Twitter @unfccc_ccstudio
With obsolete or malfunctioning technologies, dozens of local languages, high-levels of illiteracy, and limited electricity and access to media, many vulnerable communities in Africa do not receive reliable weather reports, and only a few nations possess the ability to issue early warning messages and reach the “last mile.” In response to this challenge, this past March in Zambia the UNDP’s CIRDA Programme launched a Climate Action Hackathon. The event engaged young African developers to create innovative software focused on communicating directly with end users. The livestream of the side event at the May Bonn Climate Change Conference will present a practical demonstration of the innovative solutions that were developed by the hackers to provide weather information for specific end users, including farmers, vulnerable communities and policymakers to inform adaptation actions. The side event will also introduce the results of a Market Study on revenue generating opportunities for weather services in Africa.

CIRDA and CI/EWS Projects In The News

New GEF Least Developed Countries Fund Project Supported by UNDP to Detect Lightning in Uganda - 20 May 2016
...The Uganda National Meteorological Authority (UNMA) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have joined hands to strengthen climate information and early-warning systems [in Uganda]. Their initiative would, among other things, detect lightning and inform people to move away from known lighting hotspots...


Procurement Assistance

As part of the CIRDA Programme’s objective to enhance national capacities in monitoring and forecasting extreme weather, hydrology and climate change, UNDP-GEF and UNDP's Procurement Support Office (PSO) have established a collaboration framework under the CIRDA Programme to support  partner countries in the procurement of weather, climate and hydrological monitoring infrastructure and new technologies.

Procurement support includes: a) reviewing technical specifications and Terms of Refrence (ToRs) developed by requisitioning units & projects; b) feedback and recommendations pertaining the suitability of technical specifications/requirements to conduct procurement processes; c) market research and sourcing activities to ensure awareness and interest of relevant supplier base; d) review of procurement documents submitted by requisitioning units/projects; e) assistance to Country Offices (COs) & projects with procurement related clarifications during tender processes; f) reviewing submissions to contract review committees and provide recommendations to COs and projects; g) assistance and backstopping support to ensure satisfactory completion of vendor’s contractual obligations and; h) developing managing and maintaining, suitable procurement tools, systems, mechanisms, agreements and contracts to ensure reliable on-going supply chain mechanisms.

In collaboration with CIRDA experts on alternative technologies, the PSO Unit has developed a fact sheet to serve as a support guide to partner countries in their efforts to procure new technologies.

The PSO Unit has also created an online platform with various resources to help country offices and partners. This information is available at the following websites:

UNDP-GEF Procurement Tools & Knowledge Sharing

Long Term Agreements (LTAs) and their corresponding Standard Operation Procedures (SOP)

For any questions please feel free to contact Mettelena Herring at mettelena.herring@undp.org

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