Green Climate Fund

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National Adaptation Plans in Liberia

The GCF-funded project "To advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia" will work to strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

National partners will include the Environment Planning Authority and the National Climate Change Secretariat. Other key partners are the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, Ministry of Agriculture, National Disaster Management Commission, National Port Authority of Liberia, Liberia Maritime Authority, Bureau of National Fisheries, Liberia National Department of Meteorology, Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services and University of Liberia.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-10.055053775392 6.4330353190148)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.3 million
Project Details: 

Liberia, like other developing countries, especially Least Developed Countries (LDCs), is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While Liberia has a low carbon footprint, the impact and effects of climate change may have severe consequences in multiple sectors and areas.  Changes in temperature and precipitation may affect several sectors and areas across Liberia, including agriculture, fisheries, forests, energy production related to the availability of water resources, coastal areas and health.

At the sectoral level, 70% of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods, while rural areas are as much as 80% vulnerable to food insecurity, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In the 350 miles of coastal areas, these are exposed to the combined effects of ongoing coastal erosion, climate change induced sea level rise, change in the frequency and intensity of storms, and increases in precipitation and warmer ocean temperatures. For health, climate change may lead to increased vulnerability to malaria, cholera and diarrheal diseases, as well as increased incidence of other diseases. Finally, climate change may negatively impact hydroelectric generation from the Mount Coffee hydropower plant.

Liberia began its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process in 2015 with the development of a Road Map in consultation with the main stakeholders in the country. This road map was based on an evaluation of the existing climate adaptation and mitigation initiatives, an assessment of the knowledge, capacity and implementation gaps, as well as an assessment of the capacity development needs. The road map provides a guideline for implementation of the NAP process in Liberia, and the areas to work in the short, medium and long term.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening of Institutional Frameworks and coordination for the NAPs process

1.1. Development of a climate change strategy and action plan for adaptation, in support of the on-going development of the Climate Change Policy

Prior to the NAP, the GoL has implemented a number of climate change related initiatives; including the NAPA in 2008, Initial National Communication in 2012, National Climate Change Policy and REDD+ in 2012. The lack of institutional and technical capacity on climate change adaptation in Liberia prevents the GoL and the stakeholders to integrate fully ACC into planning and budgeting processes, and to implement successfully adaptation strategies.

1.2. Development of sector-based climate change strategies and actions plans in agriculture and coastal management

The coastal development and management and agriculture have been identified as priority sectors for NAP in Liberia. The present project will focus primarily on these sectors. In order to integrate the CCA in sectoral policy, it is important to evaluate all current adaptation options and integrate adaptation into all sectoral policies. Updated and relevant climate vulnerability and risk assessment, studies on the economic impacts of climate change as it relates to the key sectors and most important resources give decisions makers and the most vulnerable population adequate tools/information to integrate climate change into their planning strategies. Also, it enables them to better plan their medium and long-term adaptation programs/policies/strategies.

Output 2: Expansion of the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation

At the moment, there is limited scientific data (resources, socio-economic indicators, meteorological, etc.) and information on climate impacts in Liberia, with limited knowledge of current climate variability, climate risks and no early warning system data. There is a need to develop and disseminate socio-economic scenarios to project the future impacts of climate change in Liberia and develop vulnerability studies at the sector and national level. Related to climate services, there is limited capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse and communicate hydro-meteorological and climate change information. The modelling capacity, infrastructures and human capacity of the meteorological department and other climate services need to be reinforced in order to identify climate change hazards and to explore/ evaluate suitable adaptation options in the vulnerable sectors.

2.1. Effective Climate data and related information knowledge sharing platform created

Actual and past climate data collection and analysis are essential to the NAP process. Furthermore, with climate change cutting across multiple sectors, it’s necessary for Liberia to implement a platform to make accessible climate data and related information across all sectors, and to engage all stakeholders in the process (producers and beneficiaries). Related to climate services, there is limited capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyze and communicate hydro-meteorological and climate change information.

2.2. Natural disasters risk management and reduction strategies developed

Climate related hazards (floods, windstorms, fire, and sea erosion) are likely to worsen with climate change in Liberia. This in turn will have significant impact on local communities livelihood, the key sectors and overall national economic performances. One possible entry point for NAP is the integration of natural disasters risk management and reduction strategies for in Liberia public financing.

Output 3: Development of guidelines and criteria for mainstreaming climate change adaptation in Government budgeting and planning, climate-proofing projects, and reporting

3.1. Development of technical guidelines for the personnel of Ministry of Finance & Development Planning (MFDP) and other relevant Ministries to include climate change into budgeting and planning.

The NAP process as a transversal process integrates multiple sectors. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into policy and budgeting processing (at the sectoral, national and subnational) implies identifying and evaluating all current and on-going CCA options and developing guidelines for the personnel of key Ministries to include climate change into all planning and budgeting processes.

3.2. Capacity building for the private sector, financial intermediaries and other stakeholders in the implementation of adaptation activities.

In addition to strong institutions and coordination mechanisms, adequate level of technical knowledge on climate change and ACC of staff of sectoral ministries, private sector, financial intermediaries and other stakeholders are needed to implement and prioritize adaptation options.

3.3. Development of tools (screening tools, scorecards) for climate proofing of investments in infrastructure and other areas that may be sensitive to the impacts of climate change, to be able to withstand those impacts.

Climate-proofing a project is to reduce the climate change potential impact on the project activities. The final goal is to increase resilience to climate change, protect investments and increase the project sustainability. Generally, it involves assessing the risks posed by climate change and modifying the project design to reduce those risks. In order to climate proof investments in infrastructure and other areas that may be sensitive to the impacts of climate change, it is important to develop and apply tools (such as, the Climate Proofing for Development, designed by GIZ) enabling the inclusion climate aspect into planning and designing of project at national, sectoral, and local levels.

3.4. Implement reporting system to track investments and other climate related finance in adaptation.

The NAP process being an ongoing process with iterative steps, it is essential to periodically monitor and evaluate the progress made. The guidelines of the LEG on the NAP insist on the importance of the M&E process (Axis D). Moreover, M&E is useful for reporting to the international and bilateral donors and as well as to the UNFCCC.

Output 4: Formulation of financial mechanisms for scaling up adaptation In Liberia, like many other developing countries, a significant handicap is the non-appropriation of processes at all levels and the lack of local funds to sustain previous investments.

4.1. Designing of procedures to scale up adaptation investments and address financial gaps.

The GCF resources will allow the GoL to identify and provide adequate alternative funding to support adaptations strategies implementation. Additionally, inclusion of climate change into the planning and national budget process at an early stage will secure co-financing of internationally funded projects by the GoL.

4.2. Fostering Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) to support adaptation investments

Public private partnerships (PPP) in identifying and managing climate variability and to manage climate change, is essential planning climate change adaptation actions. The private sector companies, for their own economic interest, collect and analyse climate data. To be cost effective, it is necessary to learn and capitalize the private sector’s experience in identifying climate variability and managing climate change. The importance of the private sector in supporting Liberia’s CCA actions is well established in its Initial National Communication (2013) and INDC (2015). With Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), the private sector (petroleum and industrial companies) is a major producer of GHGs in Liberia (the energy and agricultural sector GHGs production amount to 67.5% and 31.9% of the national total, respectively). The role of the private sector in CCA in Liberia can be summarized in the following: (i) identification and implementation of strategies to reduce GHGs emissions, (ii) provision and sales of climate-sensible technologies and services, and (iii) funding of CCA projects.

Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Liberia receives first instalment of US$2.2 million GCF grant for climate adaptation
10 July, 2015, Green Climate Fund
The Government of Liberia has recently received US$805,000 as part of a US$2.2 million Green Climate Fund grant to support its national climate adaptation planning process. The release of funds to the West African country represents GCF’s first transfer of adaptation resources to a least developed country (LDC). Supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the GCF-funded project "to advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia" will work to strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

GCF approves first grants for National Adaptation Planning in Liberia and Nepal
15 November 2016, Green Climate Fund
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) today announced the approval of its first grants in support of processes to develop National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). Under the GCF's Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme, Liberia will receive USD 2.2 million with UNDP acting as its delivery partner to implement its NAPs activities, whilst Nepal will receive a grant of USD 2.9 million via UNEP.

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Subtitle: 

To advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia

Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process

Output 2 - Expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation

Output 3 - Build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems

Output 4 - Formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia

The "De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia" project will build the market for energy efficient building retrofits in Armenia, leading to sizeable energy savings and Green House Gas emission reductions (up to 5.8 million tons of Carbon Dioxide of direct and indirect emission savings over the 20-year equipment lifetimes). It will also lead to green job creation and energy poverty reduction. It will directly benefit over 200,000 people and will catalyse private and public sector investment of approximately US$100 million.

Through this project GCF will invest a US$14 million loan to make energy efficiency loans for building retrofits more affordable. The Municipality of Yerevan will add US$8 million in co-financing. In addition, GCF will provide US$6 million in technical assistance to remove market and policy barriers to building retrofits, with UNDP providing US$1.4 million and the Ministry of Nature Protection US$0.4 million co-funding. The technical assistance will seek to overcome lack of information and awareness about the benefits of retrofitting through the establishment of measurement, reporting and verification measures, the development of policy frameworks. The cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives will address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for EE building retrofits that can attract private investments.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
210,000 direct beneficiaries, 1700 jobs will be created, 1.4 million tons of carbon will be offset
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$20 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9.8 million (US$8 million from Municipality of Yerevan, US$0.4 million from Ministry of Nature Protection, US$1.4 million from UNDP according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Armenia is a small, poor, land-locked country in the heart of Eurasia, and is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Unsustainable energy use in buildings underpins Armenia’s closely intertwined development, security and climate-related challenges. Approximately 30% of Armenian households are energy-poor, where energy poverty (often called ‘fuel poverty’) is defined as households spending more than 10% of their budgets on energy. Some 45% of apartments in multi-family buildings have indoor temperatures in winter below 19°C (i.e. below established international standards for human occupancy). About 50% of energy use in buildings depends on imported fossil fuels, and 4% of CO2 emissions come from energy use in buildings. With this in mind, over 50% of energy can be saved via energy efficient retrofits

Improving energy efficiency (EE) in buildings has been assigned the highest priority in Armenia’s housing, energy and climate strategies, including the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC and its UNFCCC Technology Needs Assessment.

UNDP will work with the Government, city administrations, the European Investment Bank, private sector stakeholders, ESCOs and local banks to deploy the most cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives to address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for energy efficient building retrofits that can attract private investments. The project builds on UNDP’s long experience supporting the Government of Armenia and on UNDP’s de-risking framework for low-carbon investment. It has the full backing of Armenia’s National Designated Authority (NDA) for the GCF, the UNFCCC National Focal Point, and the Municipality of Yerevan (home to one-third of Armenia’s population). The project is fully consistent with Armenia’s INDC.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 will establish building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and knowledge management. One of the identified barriers is a lack of information and awareness: energy efficiency is not a major concern for most people in Armenia. There is a low level of awareness among building owners, real estate agencies and occupants about operational costs and potential energy- and money-saving opportunities. There is also a misinformed perception that full compliance with efficient building codes and energy-efficient buildings would be prohibitively expensive in Armenia. The market for EE products and services is immature. Robust MRV will build the investment case for energy efficiency retrofits and, together with the dissemination of information, will support the communication of the financial and development gains to be made from energy efficiency investments, thus improving information availability and awareness of the benefits of buildings with improved energy performance.

Component 2 will support national, sub-national and local authorities to adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for energy efficiency retrofits. This will remove a number of policy, legal and institutional barriers through supporting legal reform, the introduction and implementation of regulation, and the modernisation and enforcement of standards. Component 2 will also remove technical and capacity barriers by providing technical assistance to selected market players, such as building owners / managers / owner associations and local government.

Component 3 will provide access to affordable capital for energy efficiency retrofits. This will help remove financial barriers, such as the fact that home-owners and public sector entities lack the financial resources necessary to undertake EE building retrofits without loans and the reluctance of local commercial banks to provide loans for EE renovation.

Component 4 grants from the GCF will be offered as a temporary targeted incentive. They will be targeted and will address the needs of the most vulnerable households. The financial analysis shows that, for those earning less than the median household income of US$400 per month, building retrofits are not affordable. For middle- and higher-income households, grants are not needed from an affordability point of view, and will only be used at a low level to overcome early-mover barriers. The grants will support poor and vulnerable households to secure access to improved thermal comfort and cost / energy savings. Incentive grants for low-income households are also needed to unlock building-level investments, as these households might otherwise block building-level investment decisions in multi-apartment buildings.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Establishment of building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV): Robust MRV for the building sector established

Component 2: Policy de-risking: National, sub-national and local authorities adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for EE retrofits

Component 3: Financial de-risking: Access to affordable capital for EE retrofits provided

Component 4: Financial incentives: Affordability of EE retrofits for the most vulnerable households ensured through targeted financial incentives to building / apartment owners (directly or via private-sector ESCOs)

Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda

The "Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda" project will support the Government of Uganda in the management of critical wetlands that are being affected by a changing climate. The project will restore wetlands and their eco-system services, based on the wise-use principles and guidelines  outlined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It also supports sustainable land management practices and reforestation, resilient agricultural practices and alternative livelihoods for communities living in these areas. This support will reduce the pressures on the wetlands. Finally the project seeks to strengthen the climate information and early warning systems to support these communities to make climate-resilient decisions.

The impact of climate change, coupled with other human and environmental stressors, is increasing degradation of wetlands and their associated ecosystem services in Uganda. This is negatively affecting the livelihoods of the people living in and around the wetlands – around 4,000,000 people. In fact, over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs. Given that wetlands are highly vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of their water supply, climate change will most likely substantially alter ecologically important attributes of wetlands and will exacerbate the impacts from human activity. On the other hand, the loss of wetlands could exacerbate the impact of climate change in as they provide fundamental services that contribute to mitigation of such impacts.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (32.695312486957 0.89058628208695)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
800,000 people living in and around the wetlands of Southwestern and Eastern Uganda.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$45 million total, US$24.9 million from Green Climate Fund, US$20.1 million from Government of Uganda and UNDP
Project Details: 

Uganda, wetlands provide many important functions to the people, particularly in the context of food security. This is in addition to its role as a habitat for biodiversity that is also important for the economy. According to a recent 2013 study on the value of wetlands in Uganda, several market and non-market benefits are identified: “The market benefits include water for domestic use and watering of livestock, support to dry season agriculture, provision of handicrafts, building materials, and food resources such as fish, yams, vegetables, wild game, and medicine. The non-market benefits include flood control, purification of water, and maintenance of the water table, microclimate moderation, and storm protection. Wetlands also serve as habitats for important flora and fauna, have aesthetic and heritage values, and contain stocks of biodiversity of potentially high pharmaceutical value. Over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs.” In addition to supporting food and water security, wetlands also support income generation and employment. “Of a total population of 34 million Ugandans, it is estimated that wetlands provide about 320,000 workers with direct employment and provide subsistence employment for over 2.4 million.”

Wetland health and resilience can easily be compromised by climate change impacts. Climate change models for Uganda predict that temperatures will continue to increase, and there will be changes in the seasonal distribution and amount of rainfalls, more frequent extreme weather events, and increases in the frequency of heavy rainfalls. Increases in temperature and erratic rainfall will result in more frequent and intense floods, droughts and heat waves, which will directly threaten wetlands and livelihoods that rely on its healthy ecosystem services. Hydrologic and drainage maps of the project targeted sites (the eastern and southwestern Wetlands Basin) indicate that most of the freshwater inflows pass through the wetlands and natural forests. These systems have played an integral role in maintaining the quality of water over the centuries. However, over the last three decades, climate change impacts, as well as other baseline (non-climate) issues such as excessive sedimentation and non-native species invasions, have resulted in substantial water quality deterioration.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests
Under this sub-component, at least 760 km2 of degraded wetlands and its associated catchment will be restored and the lives of 500,000 people will be improved in selected districts of Eastern and South Western Uganda. The overall aim of the intervention is to restore the ecological and hydrological integrity of the wetland and support the development and implementation of a community-based framework for wetland management plans. This will help support climate risk management and resilient livelihoods through enhanced ecosystems services in the area.

Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment
This output will target at least 150,000 farmers including those who currently do not have secure access to irrigation, land-poor farmers, women-headed households, and the landless, to build more climate-resilient livelihoods. Investments in small-scale rural infrastructure (shallow bore wells, drip irrigation, tilling tools) for agricultural purposes, especially on-farm water management infrastructure such as dams, canals, drip irrigation systems, as well as farming best practices and crop diversification will be implemented to realize high economic return given their coverage. In addition, the output will focus on technical skills training for employment in key economic sectors viable in wetland areas, such as tourism, health and construction. Most of the beneficiaries have very low levels of education and no skills that can help them find a job. Beneficiaries will be trained in specific skills with high employability potential (e.g. earth mover, driver, assistant nurse, reception clerk in hotels, desktop publishing).Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management

Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management
This output will focus on strengthening access to reliable climate-related information and scaling up advisories for farmers and other target communities in the two wetland target areas, to improve the adaptation capacity of the entire population in and around the wetlands – around 1 million people. This will include the expansion of networks that generate and process climate-related data into relevant information to the scale and location of local districts, villages or communities, as well as dissemination of climate-related information/services, advisories and early warnings to communities. A strong focus of this output will be on delivering actionable climate-related information to communities, taking the form of agro-met advisories for agriculture, as well as the dissemination channels for making information available to the “last mile.”

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
Green Climate Fund
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 6 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 July 2017

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About (Summary): 
The Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda project will support the Government of Uganda in the management of critical wetlands that are being affected by a changing climate. The project will restore wetlands and their eco-system services, based on the wise-use principles and guidelines outlined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It also supports sustainable land management practices and reforestation, resilient agricultural practices and alternative livelihoods for communities living in these areas. This support will reduce the pressures on the wetlands. Finally the project seeks to strengthen the climate information and early warning systems to support these communities to make climate-resilient decisions. The impact of climate change, coupled with other human and environmental stressors, is increasing degradation of wetlands and their associated ecosystem services in Uganda. This is negatively affecting the livelihoods of the people living in and around the wetlands – around 4,000,000 people. In fact, over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs. Given that wetlands are highly vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of their water supply, climate change will most likely substantially alter ecologically important attributes of wetlands and will exacerbate the impacts from human activity. On the other hand, the loss of wetlands could exacerbate the impact of climate change in as they provide fundamental services that contribute to mitigation of such impacts.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

 

Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests 

 

Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment

 

Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management

 

 

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2025

Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa

As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) in the Pacific, Samoa has been heavily impacted by increasing severe tropical storms. In response, the Government of Samoa has adopted a programmatic approach to address the issue of climate change induced flooding in Samoa. As part of this programme, the Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa project will enable the Government of Samoa to reduce the impact of recurrent flood-related impacts in the Vaisigano river catchment. The river flows through the Apia Urban Area (AUA), Samoa’s primary urban economic area.
 
The primary direct beneficiaries include approximately 26,528 people in the Vaisigano river catchment who will benefit from upgraded infrastructure and drainage downstream, integrated planning and capacity strengthening, including planning for flooding caused by extreme weather events, and flood mitigation measures especially riverworks and ecosystems solutions in the Vaisigano River Catchment. Overall, 37,000 people will also benefit indirectly from project interventions. The economic net present value of the proposed investment project has been estimated to reach approximately US$15.6 million, and to yield an economic internal rate of return of approximately 15.5%. The project is expected to run from 2017-2023.
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-168.57421877011 -13.228535498555)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
26,528 people living in the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa
Funding Source: 

Managing floods and enhancing climate resilience in Samoa

As a small island developing state in the Pacific, Samoa has been heavily impacted by increasing severe tropical storms. In response, the Government of Samoa has adopted a programmatic approach to address the issue of climate change-induced flooding. With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the Government-led, UNDP-supported project 'Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa' will enable the Government to reduce the impact of recurrent flood-related impacts in the Vaisigano river catchment. 
Financing Amount: 
US$65.7 million total. US$57.7 million from Green Climate Fund, US$8 million from Government of Samoa (as detailed in the ProDoc, Dec 2016)
Project Details: 

GCF resources will be used to implement a combination of integrated watershed and flood management works including both hard and soft measures. This includes upgrading river works to cater to increased water flows during flood events (taking into account the likelihood of the increased frequency of extreme events), ensuring that infrastructure works, and home dwellings, government and private-sector buildings are made more secure and provide adequate shelter in case of floods and their aftermaths. Additionally, the project will ensure that when floodwaters occur, the excess waters are channeled away through an effective, efficient, and fit-for-purpose drainage system. The project will consequently play a critical role in assisting the urban population and economy to effectively manage the inevitable increased intensity and frequency of flooding.

Direct benefits from these interventions include reduced risk of damage to public and private infrastructure/assets; reduced possibility of loss of life; and enhanced land value in flood-prone areas. Indirect benefits include reduced losses in income/sales; reduced costs of clean-ups, maintenance and repairs; reduced costs of relief and response efforts; and reduced possibility of health hazards. In addition to these 26,000 direct beneficiaries, the general population of Samoa will benefit from the safeguarding of critical economic assets and learning that will be generated.

In addition, mid and upstream ecosystem and community-based adaptation measures will enhance capture, infiltration, storage and delayed release of rainwater in soils and biomass, and water retention ponds will serve both climate-smart agribusiness development and combat degradation of vulnerable ecosystems through appropriate agro-forestry land-use practices.

Addressing Climate Change in Samoa

Recent extreme events have resulted in approximately US$200 million worth of damages during each event. Climate projections for Samoa suggest that the risk of climate induced events will increase, potentially undermining development progress in urban Apia where the majority of the population and economic activity is located.

Given the topography of the country, extreme events result in significant river discharge that results in flooding of lowland areas. Recent tropical events such as Cyclone Evan have caused significant damage to both public and private assets as a result of flooding, resulting in serious health impacts. Urban infrastructure has suffered considerably from the recurrence of flooding and is unable to cope as climate change-related events are expected to become more frequent and intense.

Projected climate change scenarios cited by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) suggest that Samoa is expected to have more frequent and extreme rainfall events; more frequent and longer drought events; increased air and water temperatures; sea level rise; and more frequent extreme wind events.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project represents the Government of Samoa’s initial steps in operationalizing a comprehensive flood management solution for the likely consequences of extreme events in Apia, the capital with about 80,000 people. In this project, three interlinked project outputs will be pursued:

  • Capacities and information base strengthened for the Government of Samoa to pursue an integrated approach to reduce vulnerability towards flood-related risks;
  • Key infrastructure in the Vaisigano River Catchment are flood-proofed to increase resilience to negative effects of excessive water; and
  • Upgraded drainage in downstream areas to increase capacity and allow for more rapid outflow of flood waters.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Specialist - Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
gcf
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 14 December 2016

Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017

Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 4 July 2017

'Every dollar counts in fight against climate change - New GCF Funding for Samoa' - Samoa Observer, December 16, 2016. Op-ed celebrating Somoa's recently approved US$58 million Green Climate Fund project.

'Director General hails meeting outcome' -  Samoa Observer, December 15, 2016. The Director General of the Vailima-based Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (S.P.R.E.P), Leota Kosi Latu, has hailed the outcome of Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Apia. With three multi-million projects proposed by Pacific...
 
 

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Learn more about the climate challenges facing Samoa, and how UNDP is working to address those challenges and reduce risks.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


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Subtitle: 

Flood Management in Samoa

About (Summary): 
As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) in the Pacific, Samoa has been heavily impacted by increasing severe tropical storms. In response, the Government of Samoa has adopted a programmatic approach to address the issue of climate change induced flooding in Samoa. As part of this programme, the Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa project will enable the Government of Samoa to reduce the impact of recurrent flood-related impacts in the Vaisigano river catchment. The river flows through the Apia Urban Area (AUA), Somoa’s primary urban economic area.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1. Strengthening capacities and mechanisms for integrated approach to reduce flood-related risks in place.

 

Output 2. Key infrastructure in the Vaisigano River Catchment are flood-proofed to increase resilience to negative effects of excessive water.

 
 
Output 3. Drainage in downstream areas upgraded for increased regulation of water flows.
 

 

Civil Society Engagement: 


Scaling up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood risk reduction in Northern Pakistan

Rising temperatures have melted glaciers, creating glacial lakes in Northern Pakistan. These carry the risk of outburst flooding events, threatening over 7 million people. Early warning systems, engineering structures and disaster management policies will reduce risk, protecting local communities and providing early warning of devastating flood events.

The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures have created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods. Such flooding releases millions of cubic metres of water and debris in just a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan.

In response to these risks, the "Scaling-up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) risk reduction in Northern Pakistan" project will build 250 engineering structures including damns, ponds, spill ways, tree plantation and drainage to reduce risk. At the same time, the development of disaster management policies and the introduction of weather monitoring stations, flood gauges, hydrological modelling and early warning systems will increase the ability to respond rapidly to flood scenarios.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (70.664062480156 30.225848324545)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
29 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$37 million (GCF financing according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$500,000 (Government of Gilgit - Baltistan according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures has created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Such outbursts have occurred in the past and when they do, millions of cubic metres of water and debris is released in a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Currently 7,101,000 people remain at risk in GB and KP. Most recently, in July 2015, over 280,000 people in GB and KP were affected, a combination of heavy rains and GLOFs.

At present, the country faces a critical gap in technical and technological capacity to monitor the status of glaciers through hydrological monitoring and forecasting. Current early warning systems (EWS) do not have the capacity to support the management of risks posed by rising water levels in the lakes, including failure to issue early warnings to communities. The design and implementation of medium- and long-term disaster management policies and risk reduction and preparedness plans are also not fully geared to deal with the specifics of GLOF threats. 

The Government of Pakistan has recognized the threat from GLOFs in its National Climate Change Policy and in its National Determined Contribution to monitor changes in glacier volumes and related GLOFs. The Government of Pakistan is seeking GCF resources to upscale ongoing initiatives on early warning systems and small, locally-sourced infrastructure to protect communities from GLOF risks. The interventions proposed for scale up by this project will be based on activities implemented in two districts on a trial basis that have proven to be impactful. In particular, engineering structures (i.e. gabion walls) have been constructed; automatic weather stations, rain gauge and discharge equipment were installed to support rural communities to avoid human and material losses from GLOF events. The proposed GCF project will expand coverage to twelve districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces. The proposed project will strengthen the technical capacity of sub-national decision makers to integrate climate change and disaster risk management into medium- and long-term development planning processes.

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change -resilient development pathways

This output responds to the need for systematic integration of GLOF risk management into the processes, policies and plans of institutions that have a stake in avoiding human and material losses from GLOF events in vulnerable areas in the Departments of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). GCF resources will be used to strengthen the capabilities of local level institutions (Disaster Risk Management, Agriculture, Livestock and Water sector in the Departments of GB and KP and federal level institutions (Ministry of Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Environment and National Disaster Management Authority) to incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into development plans in GB and KP. The incorporation of climate change adaptation measures into the planning instruments will also be based on progress made at the national level under NCCP and by other regions in including climate change measures in sectoral, territorial, and environmental planning instruments. More specifically, the project will make use of the lessons learned from the recently completed UNDP/Adaptation Fund supported project: “Reducing Risks and Vulnerabilities from Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Northern Pakistan”. In addition, GCF resources will be used to promote the inclusion of information generated from early warning systems and hydrological modeling (Output 2) to generate flood scenarios that then can better inform local development plans and, by extension, budgeting.

Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity

A key result that GCF resources will finance focuses on the scaling up of interventions that have been tested with other financing to increase adaptive capacity of communities in target valleys. GCF resources will expand the climate information surveillance and discharge measuring network in the region. GCF resources will be used to procure and install 50 automatic weather stations (AWS) and 408 river discharge gauges/sensors. These monitoring instruments will provide the requisite data to conduct hydrological modeling to generate flood risk scenarios that will feed into a flood early warning system to enable the dissemination of flashflood warning signals on a 24-hour basis generated by PMD through cellphones. AWS and river discharge sensors will provide information to capacitate village hazard watch groups that will be part of a local-level early warning system. Small-scale hard adaptation structures will be constructed (gabion walls, spillways, check dams) to protect human lives and household’s assets in combination with bioengineering interventions to stabilize slopes slides, reducing the risk of debris slides. In Pakistan EIAs are not required for smaller infrastructure projects. The protective capability of these structures will be amplified by additional resources channeled to the communities ex ante and following a GLOF event through the scale up of already established, revolving community-based disaster risk management fund. In addition, ecosystem-based adaptation interventions will be promoted in order to increase resilience against GLOFs events while supporting livelihoods.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the Reporting Period in accordance with the AMA. UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the implementation period.

The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The Project Manager will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project. The Project Manager will inform the Project Board and the UNDP Country Office of any delays or difficulties during implementation, including the implementation of the M&E plan, so that the appropriate support and corrective measures can be adopted. The Project Manager will also ensure that all project staff maintain a high level of transparency, responsibility and accountability in monitoring and reporting project results.  

The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office is responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP. Additional M&E and implementation quality assurance and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E. 

A project inception workshop will be held after the UNDP project document has been signed by all relevant parties to: a) re-orient project stakeholders to the project strategy and discuss any changes in the overall context that influence project implementation; b) discuss the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; c) review the results framework and discuss reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities and finalize the M&E plan; d) review financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agree on the arrangements for the annual audit; e) plan and schedule Project Board meetings and finalize the first year annual work plan. The Project Manager will prepare the inception report no later than one month after the inception workshop. The final inception report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board.   

 

The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) for each year of project implementation.  The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR.  The annual PIR will be shared with the project board and other stakeholders.  The UNDP Country Office will coordinate the input of the NDA Focal Point and other stakeholders to the PIR.  The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of the next PIR.  The final project PIR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.   

An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final MTR report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The final MTR report will be available in English. 

 

An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.  The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The TE report will be available in English. 

The UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (http://erc.undp.org).  Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.  

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

A detailed M&E budget, monitoring plan and evaluation plan will be included in the UNDP project document.  UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the reporting period in accordance with the AMA and Funded Activity Agreement (FAA).  UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions.  In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the project and will prepare a post-implementation monitoring plan and budget for approval by the GCF Board as necessary.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Advisor in Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 
Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change-resilient development pathways

Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity

Civil Society Engagement: 


Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam

The "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" project seeks to scale-up interventions that have already been tested, to increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change.

Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods.

To support and sustain the impacts of this project - as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities - climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application will be systematized in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (107.66601559196 16.405787866187)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
30 million coastal residents will benefit from improved planning integrating climate risk information, 20,000 people will benefit from climate-resilient housing, and 3,8 million people in the target coastal provinces will benefit from the protection offered by healthy and robust mangrove regeneration. An estimated 1.9 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided.
Funding Source: 

NetViet TV coverage on the GCF-funded project to improve resilience of coastal vulnerable communities to climate change impacts

Financing Amount: 
US$29.5 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$11 million (US$8 million from the Ministry of Construction, US$1.4 million from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and US$1.6 million from UNDP according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios.

Resultant economic impacts make it increasingly difficult for vulnerable families to escape the cycle of poverty. With funding from the Green Climate Fund, this project will scale-up already tested interventions to increase the resilience of target communities. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people.

As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, the project will systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1:  Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000  poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes

  • In the flood and typhoon prone areas of coastal of Viet Nam. This project will provide for the additional cost of safety features and improved monitoring (approximately US$2,000/house), to 4,000 houses constructed under the broader government housing programming benefitting the poor. Specifically these include (a) a concrete roof with strengthened bracings and fittings (US$900), (b) reinforced windows, doors and sealing (US$400) (c) improvements to drainage, siting and raising plinths (US$400) and (d) improved monitoring to ensure that the finished product is one that reflects all of the resilience features of the house design (US$300). This will be fully coordinated with the government housing programme, and grant support to beneficiaries will follow the government’s monitoring and disbursement schedule.
  • Risk assessments will be conducted through the established CBDRM mechanism, to ensure that house siting is on a safe location. Links will be made to existing information such as the storm surge maps generated by the Disaster Management Center.
  • The 100 target communes selected for this work will serve as learning hubs for broader dissemination in adjacent communes and provinces. Selection of communes and households to receive support will follow existing government criteria. Criteria and prioritization criteria are further detailed in Annex II: Feasibility Study.
  • Training on engineering innovations for flood and storm resistant housing technologies, and to deliver hands-on advice and guidance to local authorities and affected households on safe and affordable house designs and construction.

Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of coastal mangrove storm surge buffer zones using successful evidence-based approaches

  • This project will support regeneration of approximately 4,000 hectares of mangroves, in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change impacts. This project will enable scale up of good practices from various pilots and integrate field proven best practices. Supplementary funds will allow for the application of improved planting and maintenance technologies outlined above, and implement the measures to ensure that livelihoods are maintained (such as relocating communal shrimp ponds to where the pressures on the mangrove stands will be minimized and the shrimp production can be well maintained).
  • Specific sites within the province for project intervention will be identified/assessed through various criteria, namely (a) exposure to climate change induced events (i.e. typhoons, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal flooding), (b) potential for mangrove restoration, and (c) complementarity with ongoing government or partner support to maximize the impact of combined resources. Regeneration and rehabilitation efforts will be implemented in phases. While the techniques to be used are based on best practices of previous mangrove rehabilitation efforts, a phased approach will allow time for further monitoring and assessment of techniques, as well as review of risk mitigation measures. Adjustments will be made as needed to maximize the survival rate.
  • Target communes will set up a community committee incorporating both local government and a cross-section of residents to complete a CBDRM risk assessment and planning process. Additional sessions on coastal mapping, mangrove regeneration and livelihoods maintenance will be added. The community CBDRM plans will therefore include location specific actions to support implementation and maintenance of the mangroves. The project will then roll out mangrove regeneration actions to enable application of improved techniques to increase survival rates. This will be community driven process as part of the commune planning and implementation using the CBDRM process for community mobilization and engagement.

Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for  private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam

  • MARD with assistance of UNDP has worked to establish the first natural disaster loss and damage database, strengthening early warning system design and meteorological service capacity. MONRE with assistance of UNDP has strengthened climate change data and analysis and has completed the Special Report on Extreme Events (SREX) submitted to the IPCC in 2014.  The government has recently developed Viet Nam’s first coastal storm surge maps to improve coastal inundation mapping.
  • MARD and MONRE will make improved information more accessible to government decision makers especially at the sub-national level, on-going national programs and the private sector. This will be done by developing integrated risk maps at the sub-national level using the established methodology that Viet Nam has already been applied to produce maps in 20 out of 63 provinces. Viet Nam will be able to produce risk mapping of the entire coastal area, combing local level knowledge with the best scientific data. Data quality will also be improved by including super-storm and storm surge data based on 2014-2015 models and more accurate sea level rise projections included in the fifth IPCC assessment report. Additional analysis of salt water intrusion zones using new satellite based technology will also be included. Although this data has been developed, or is near finalization, it is not currently being systematically applied by the government at any level.  This would be a transformative change in Viet Nam’s ability to analyze and compare climate change risks in coastal areas.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Ms
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016

VTV4 News covers project, enhancing the resilience of coastal communities to the impacts of climate change, featuring visit of GCF Executive Director, Howard Bamsey. July 5, 2017.

'Green Climate Fund announces $29.5mn project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Tuoi Tre News, June 26, 2017. The $29.5 million project was announced during a dialogue between GCF executive director Howard Bamsey and Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment in Hanoi. Bamsey, who was on his first-ever Vietnam visit, joined local officials in discussing how the Southeast Asian country could take action to achieve climate-resilient development and green growth.

'Green Climate Fund announces project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Nhan Dan Online, June 26, 2017. Viet Nam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment, UNDP and the Green Climate Fund announce GCF-funded project to increase the climate resilience of coastal residents.

'Global Green Climate Fund helps coastal communities improve climate resilience' - UNDP, June 26, 2017. More than 500,000 people living in coastal zones in Viet Nam are annually affected by typhoons, many of them very poor and living in unsafe houses. In response, UNDP and the Government of Viet Nam have announced a $29.5 million project, 'Improving the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to cimate change related impacts in Viet Nam'. “This is a really exciting project with benefits to communities, benefits to the country, and benefits globally,” said H.E Howard Bamsey, GCF Executive Director, who joined leaders of MPI and UNDP to announce the project during his first visit to Viet Nam.
 

Call for public consultation and review of the Environmental and Social Management Plan, UNDP, April 29, 2016.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" project seeks to scale-up interventions that have already been tested, to increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain both the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, resources will be used to systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000  poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes

Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of costal mangrove storm surge buffer zones 

Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for  private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam 

Civil Society Engagement: 


Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project

The "Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project" (TCAP) will enable the Government of Tuvalu to implement measures to reduce the impacts of climate-induced sea level rise and intensifying storm events on key infrastructure.

The project will build coastal resilience in three of Tuvalu’s nine inhabited islands, managing coastal inundation risks. A total of 2,780m of high-value vulnerable coastline, with houses, schools and hospitals and will be protected, reducing the impact of increasingly intensive wave action on key infrastructure. The investments will build upon existing initiatives, using a range of measures for coastal protection including eco-system initiatives, beach nourishment, concrete and rock revetments, and sea walls.

National capacity for resilient coastal management will also be developed, and the project will help to catalyse additional coastal adaptation finance from other donors.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (173.84765619275 -5.6105189170041)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The project will benefit about 3,100 people directly and about 3,499 indirect beneficiaries. This is about 62% of the population of Tuvalu. The project can potentially reduce annual losses (including statistical value of life) worth up to up to $667,000 over 40-year time period (period of analysis for the economic analysis)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$36 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$2.9 million (Government of Tuvalu according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

 

Tuvalu is the fourth smallest nation in the world, comprising nine inhabited islands with a population of 10,640. With an average elevation of only 1.83 meters, it is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the impacts of climate change. The combination of two manifestations of climate change – continually intensifying cyclone events and sea level rise – threaten to have dire impacts on Tuvalu. In 2015 Cyclone Pam displaced 45% of the population. The purpose of this project is to reduce the impact of increasingly intensive wave activity, through the compounding effects of sea-level rise and intensifying storm events, that is amplifying coastal inundation and erosion. It is evident and well accepted that the effects of climate change will only worsen coastal inundation and erosion in Tuvalu. This project will increase the coverage of coastal protection from the baseline 570m to 2,780m benefiting nearly 29% of the entire population. Investments on coastal protection are directed at coastlines in three islands (Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga) along areas that have a high concentration of houses, schools, hospitals and other social and economic assets (henceforth referred to as “high-value” coastline).

Despite the extreme level of vulnerability, Tuvalu currently does not have a single engineered coastal protection infrastructure project that is designed to withstand current and future impacts of sea-level rise and intensifying tropical storms. The only exceptions are two interventions that are currently being designed for a length of 570 m in Funafuti and Nukufetau. The combined factors of high upfront investments required for coastal protection, the public good and non-revenue nature of the required solutions, and the inability of the Government to service loans, have permitted the Government and the community to implement the recognized solutions only at a slow pace and in a highly fragmented manner in the past. Because available resources are generally far smaller than what is required for implementing appropriate response measures, the past initiatives have often resorted to community-scale interventions that hardly withstand the current wave energy, let alone integrating climate change risks into the design. Without support, this sub-optimal practice is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. This project is proposed so that Tuvalu can, finally, take comprehensive and systemic steps to manage coastal inundation risks.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.

  • Technical capacity, knowledge and awareness strengthened for monitoring, protection and maintenance of coastal protection infrastructure.

    The jurisdiction of coastal protection is shared across the Department of Lands and Survey (DoLS), Public Works Department (PWD) and Department of Environment (DoE). However, none of these departments currently have the technical capacity to monitor the dynamic processes of coastal change over time nor the capacity to design potential coastal interventions. Nor is there sufficient capacity within the Climate Change Policy Unit (CCPU) to coordinate the work of these departments for effective coastal protection. Due to this limitation, the Government is not able to carry out vulnerability assessments, site assessments and coastal design, make informed decisions about pragmatic solutions for coastal protection, and identify potential funding sources for implementation. Instead, they generally have to wait for a donor, often with particular areas of financing priority, to approach them. This lack of ability to carry out a preliminary technical assessment contributes to an increasing sense that the issue is out of their control and eventually to limited ownership. Further, although the CCPU was newly established in 2015 to coordinate government’s actions for climate change adaptation and mitigation, medium- to long-term capacity building efforts are needed in the technical areas of climate change, coordination, project design and management, financial management, knowledge management and reporting.

  • Long-term national human resource capacity and awareness enhanced for sustainable coastal protection

    In the specific context of Tuvalu, the capacity building support conventionally delivered in donor-supported projects has been insufficient to establish a foundation for sustainability. This is because typically the capacity building support in these projects is exclusively targeting the existing government staff, which is small in number, and the progress is immediately undone if the staff members leave the government system. This approach to capacity building represents numerous missed opportunities for transforming the country. Climate change adaptation is defined by UNFCCC as a series of “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts” and by nature, it is an iterative, long-term process. Adaptation efforts in SIDS like Tuvalu must embrace, in their core principle, a strategy to build capacity of the entire country that goes well beyond that of the government system.

Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.

  • Coastal protection design, site-specific assessments and ESIA undertaken in all islands in a participatory manner

    A detailed, participatory design and site-specific assessment will be carried out in all the islands in Tuvalu. This process is needed not only to make final adjustments in the design of the coastal protection measures (such as the angle of the structure and protection of the toe of the structure) to maximize the effectiveness and longevity of the structure for the three targeted islands, but also to equip the other, non-targeted islands, with the necessary information for attracting donor resources in the future, including from GCF. The multi-stakeholder, gender-responsive planning and design process will take place to ensure that beneficiaries are fully informed and are able to contribute to the detail design and functionality of the coastal protection measures in each of the islands. The process will, for example, look into how the target community (men, women, youth, and elderly) interacts with the ocean and coastline, which is an important design element of coastal protection infrastructure. The assessment will result in a set of adaptation options, detailed technical drawings, bill of quantity, tender documents and detailed costing of the interventions. As described earlier, this process will be used as an opportunity to provide hands-on trainings for government staff from the DLS, PWD and DoE.

    Resources will be used to put in place a robust coastal protection infrastructure along 2,210m of vulnerable coastlines of Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga to defend high value assets of the targeted islands. This translates to targeting nearly 28% of the high value zone of the country, which currently has no protective measures. Also this represents 10% of all vulnerable coastlines in the country. The design criteria are set such that the design will reflect the projected sea level rise and notional 200-year return period storm surge events. Geo-textile container revetments in Nanumea and Nanumaga will have minimum design life of 25 years; but, with the appropriate selection of vandal resistant bags for the top layer walls and, training of PWD and community members for monitoring and simple repair, the life expectancy is expected to be longer.

Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.

  • All Island Strategic Plans and annual budgets integrate island-specific climate risks through gender sensitive, participatory processes

    Successful climate risk mainstreaming into ISPs and effective use of available domestic financing will facilitate island-led actions, enhance planned and autonomous adaptation, and ultimately, increase resilience at the island level. In the context of coastal interventions envisaged in the GCF project, a strengthened ISP process will improve longer-term impact and replication potential of the GCF investments as domestic resources, allocated through ISPs, are expected to be used to maintain the GCF investments and to expand the coastal protection coverage. For the expansion of coastal protection measures beyond donor-assisted projects, lower-cost ecosystem-based approaches are a more realistic option given the limited available finance domestically. This activity will strengthen the critical foundation to facilitate this process.

  • Capacity of Kaupules, Falekaupules and community members strengthened for monitoring coastal adaptation investments

    This project will also be used to strengthen the capacity of both outer island administrations and community members for monitoring, reporting and verifying the progress of adaptation investments as an integral element of ISP support. Due to the special geographical condition of Tuvalu where islands are several days away from the central government, upward accountability to the central government and downward accountability to citizens can easily be diluted among kaupules. Thus, nurturing the sense of oversight among community members becomes critical for ensuring transparent, sustainable, demand-driven service delivery. Support to ISP formulation, budgeting and execution, the focus of Activity 3.1, and support for community members for an independent oversight of the ISP process, the focus of Activity 3.2, must go hand-in-hand. At the same time, outer island administrations also need to develop their capacity to report the use of resources and progress of investments to their constituents.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Yasuke Taishi
Mr
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 15 February 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 7 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 14 June 2017

'Tuvalu signs financing agreement to access Climate Fund' - Tuvalu Government, July 5 2017. Tuvalu has become the first Pacific Island country to sign the Financing Framework Agreement to access funds for coastal protection activities from the Green Climate Fund. The elated Prime Minister said the financing agreement, worth almost US$39 million will fund the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project on the three islands of Nanumea, Nanumaga and Funafuti. The process will begin in August with a workshop where Tuvalu Government and UNDP will coordinate logistics.  

'Government of Tuvalu launches new coastal protection project to bolster resilience to climate change' - UNDP, July 6, 2017. A signing ceremony took place in Suva on 14 June between the Tuvalu Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga and UNDP Resident Representative Osnat Lubrani. “The protection of our country’s vulnerable coastlines is an urgent priority of the Government of Tuvalu,” said the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Hon. Enele Sosene Sopoaga.

'Green Climate Fund finance allocation builds Tuvalu’s resilience' - Green Climate Fund, July 3, 2017. The Green Climate Fund is transferring funds to help strengthen the island nation of Tuvalu against the double climate threats of rising sea levels and destructive cyclones. GCF is sending the first USD 2 million tranche of its USD 36 million contribution.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The purpose of this project is to reduce the impact of increasingly intensive wave activity, through the compounding effects of sea-level rise and intensifying storm events, that is amplifying coastal inundation and erosion. It is evident and well accepted that the effects of climate change will only worsen coastal inundation and erosion in Tuvalu. This projectt will increase the coverage of coastal protection from the baseline 570m to 2,780m benefiting nearly 29% of the entire population. Investments on coastal protection are directed at coastlines in three islands (Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga) along areas that have a high concentration of houses, schools, hospitals and other social and economic assets (henceforth referred to as “high-value” coastline).
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.

Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.

Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.

Civil Society Engagement: 


Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events

The project "Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events" will address water quality and quantity issues impacting people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka.

With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka is paying the highest attention to this intensifying crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu), for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector.

By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (80.661621054605 7.586113268882)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2 million, especially smallholder farmers in the Dry Zones in Sri Lanka
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$38.1 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$ 14 million (co-financing from the Government of Sri Lanka according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Sri Lanka’s recent economic gains, following the end of a debilitating 30 year war and the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, are being threatened due to its increasing vulnerability to climate change which is characterized by increasing temperatures and unpredictability of rainfall. Almost 80% of poor Sri Lankans live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture for food and income. IPCC’s fifth assessment report predicts that South Asia, including Sri Lanka, is vulnerable to drought, flood, food shortages and heat-related mortality. The country has been experiencing severe shifts in its seasonal rainfall patterns accompanied by increased flood and drought in the last decade directly impacting rural food security and incomes.

While categorized as a middle-income country, Sri Lanka masks a complicated situation with deep regional disparities in wealth and wellbeing. About 5.2 million people — equivalent to a quarter of the population — were estimated to be undernourished in 2014. This persistence of rural poverty, indebtedness and vulnerability, high youth unemployment at 19%, low participation of women in the labour force and large-scale migration in search of employment all indicate a high level of unevenness in growth and opportunity across the provinces and districts.  Poverty and social exclusion are most prevalent in under-developed rural districts where agriculture is the major livelihood. The conflict-affected districts in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and peripheral districts are most deprived where many years of exclusion from the benefits of a steady economic growth and development resulted in greater social vulnerabilities.

Dry Zone Context – agricultural livelihoods, poverty, and conflict

The Dry Zone is one of three climatic zones (dry, intermediate and wet) that divide Sri Lanka on the basis of variations in rainfall. It receives less rainfall than average and has pronounced dry periods. The Dry Zone covers 70% of the island’s land area and is the country’s agricultural heartland and the main area where the staple rice is grown. Small-scale farmers with land holdings of less than 2 hectares dominate agriculture in this region.  Many other forms of employment in the Dry Zone are also related to agriculture – e.g. agricultural marketing, transport, and financial services. About two-third of the cultivated area in the country is rain fed or irrigated by numerous semi-rainfed minor reservoirs and diversions, collectively referred to as village irrigation schemes. A number of studies confirm that smallholder farmers cultivating under village irrigation systems are poorer and more vulnerable than their Dry Zone counterparts who have access to major irrigation. Such farmers are much more vulnerable to impacts of climate change than farmers cultivating under larger irrigation systems. As productivity and crop yields decline with low water availability and unseasonal rains resulting from climate variability and extreme events, farmers are dragged deeper into poverty and face food deficits, which have to be met by buying food for consumption, increasing the level of indebtedness and further eroding their capacity to cope with climate risks.

While the impacts of the conflict were experienced throughout the country (eg. suicide bombing and attacks on public places, economic downturn, social issues with war casualties), several districts in the Dry Zone were directly affected by the fighting and resultant large-scale displacement. The five districts of the Northern Province, three districts in the Eastern Province and peripheral districts such as Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Moneragala and Polonnaruwa were directly impacted by the war. This is about 60% of the country’s land area and around two thirds of the coastline of the country. The end of the war in 2009 has allowed many of these districts to re-enter the economic mainstream. However, serious challenges remain in completing resettlement and meaningful resumption of economic activities in this region, complicated by frequent and recurrent climate-induced disasters and extreme weather events in the last five years. Recurrent floods and droughts in the last 5-6 years have battered all the districts struggling to overcome the direct impacts of conflict with severe impacts on food security, income, and water for drinking and sanitation of displaced/resettled communities as well as those living in remote border districts.

A paradigm shift in addressing adaptation needs among farmers in the Dry Zone lies in developing an integrated, holistic approach to water security that considers the entire ‘cascade’ or sub-basin system and the inter-connectedness of the village irrigation systems, agricultural practices, and water supply and management techniques for multiple uses, including drinking water. Village irrigation systems (VIS) provide communities with a means of coping with seasonal variability; and, improving their functionality is seen as a means of adaptation to climate change. Increased resilience to floods and droughts require cost-effective design changes and enhancements to the system to reduce flood damages and improve dry-season storage. Efficient, planned, climate-risk informed water management at field and sub-basin level should complement improved availability and access to water. This includes resilient and ecologically sustainable agricultural practices, which substantially deviate from current field practices. Introduction of improved, short duration rice and other crops, simple micro irrigation techniques, semi-mechanisation for water efficiency etc. can ensure longer water storage and availability for multiple uses. Many villages secure their drinking water from wells that are immediately downstream of the village reservoir. Increased water capture and storage will improve both year round access to drinking water and improved agricultural practices, including the reduction of agro-chemical use, will in the long-term improve the quality of drinking water. Harvesting rainwater at household-level can also improve access to quality drinking water as rainwater is considerably safer and of better quality than ground water in the Dry Zone. In addition, early warning information, based on meteorological and seasonal forecasts, is a key part of the water management system. It enables preparation and mitigating measures to be enacted ahead of climate-related disasters and variability ensuring the optimal management of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1:Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone

  • Activity 1.1 Improve technical capacity and knowledge management targeting ASCs, local field officials and community organisations for climate-risk informed water management and climate-smart agriculture

    This activity will support the development of cascade level water management plans and guidelines that incorporate climate risks and impacts in a participatory, multi-stakeholder approach. It will include training for FOs and other CBOs (women’s groups) to implement and maintain the project investments in light of a changing climate. The activity will improve collaboration for planning and equitable water sharing between users in a cascade. ASCs in the river basin will be developed as knowledge and communication hubs including supporting cross-district, cross ethnic experience sharing through exchange field visits and field training programmes. It will address the barriers of limited technical capacity, institutional coordination, and knowledge for integrated approach to climate-risk informed water and agriculture management.

  • Activity 1.2 Improve resilience of and upgrade village irrigation systems in the identified cascades including restoration of upstream watersheds

    GCF resources and government co-financing will be used to support the design and upgrades of VIS, incorporating elements to enhance the resilience of these systems to climate change risks and impacts. About 325 village irrigation systems, including the upstream catchments, will be upgraded based on the cascade level water development plans. The interventions to upgrade the irrigation systems include: i. reforesting the watershed and re-introducing the vegetative interceptor to trap contaminants: ii. Restoring the reservoir bund (dam), spill, sluice and canals supplying the fields, and iii. Desilting the reservoir bed. These upgrades will incorporate climate risks and combine traditional and new design elements and practices including partial de-silting to deepen reservoirs close to the bund and retain more water during dry seasons, intensified reforesting of the catchment with multi-purpose trees, creating ponds and diversions for run-off capture in the catchment, upstream soil conservation practices like hedgerows, contour drains to prevent erosion, and creating small ponds in home gardens to capture intense rainfall.

  • Activity 1.3 Develop and disseminate climate resilient agricultural practices with targeted enterprise development for women

    The activity will support government extension services to develop and widely disseminate demand-driven, tested, climate change risk informed agriculture support packages which includes drought/flood resilient crops (seeds), organic inputs, soil and water management technologies and market oriented agro-processing technologies. Together with the seasonal climate forecasts (Activity 3.2) and improved marketing options for the recommended crops (supported by market mapping undertaken through this activity; crop recommendations co-financed by Department of Agrarian Development and Department of Agriculture), the climate resilient agriculture package will provide more food, income and improve ability of farmers to cope with seasonal variability and improve rational use of water. Based on the past experiences from other similar initiatives (e.g. IUCN/HSBC project and SAPSRI Project—refer to Annex II, Feasibility Report, Section 5.3), recommended practices include using short-term and climate resilient traditional rice varieties; landscaping/vegetative barriers for erosion control; crop diversification and composting in home gardens; use of organic fertilizers; crop diversification during the minor season; rational use of chemical inputs based on soil condition; agronomic and crop establishment techniques such as dry sowing in paddy fields in between seasons; and micro irrigation, with due regard to the agro-ecological regions. Resilient agriculture practices recognize the need to address climate-related factors (drought and flood resistant crops, shorter duration field crops) along with non-climate drivers for safe and chemical-free agriculture that contributes to long-term improvement of water quality.

Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities

  • Activity 2.1 Improve capacity of water-supply support staff at district/divisions, selected partner organisations (NGOs) and CBOs to implement and maintain community-based climate change risk informed drinking water related interventions

    Village irrigation reservoirs are a key source of drinking water in the Dry Zone. As such, the expected risks on drinking water on both the supply and demand side as climate change needs should be incorporated into the cascade water management plans in Output 1. The activity focuses on planning and capacity building to address the barriers of technical capacity and institutional coordination related to provision of safe drinking water to the Dry Zone communities. The capacities of local officials and women-led CBOs will be strengthened for climate-risk management related to drinking water sources, supply systems, and quality monitoring and management. The activity will support training and mobilization to ensure the drinking water needs in light of a changing climate are incorporated into cascade development plans implemented through cascade-level water committees and water source protection committees. It will also build capacities for climate-risk informed planning for water source protection and quality monitoring coordinating with NWSDB. These will inform the selection of climate-risk informed treatment methods appropriate for the water sources.

  • Activity 2.2 Implement sustainable, climate-resilient drinking water solutions through CBOs and government agencies

    GCF resources and government co-financing will be invested to establish climate-resilient, community water systems (with simple treatment) for water extracted from irrigation systems and domestic rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems to supplement drinking water during prolonged dry periods. In addition, advanced purification and filtrations systems will be established to supplement long-term measures such as ecological agronomic practices (Output 1) that impact drinking water quality. This activity addresses the technical and financial barriers related to investments in rural water supply schemes, improved water treatment and purification schemes and domestic rainwater harvesting units. The design and operation of these systems will incorporate climate risks and information (including advisories and forecasts generated under Output 3) and will be fully integrated into the cascade water management planning (Output 1).

Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods

  • Activity 3.1 Establish effective monitoring systems for drought, floods and water management

    This activity expands the meteorological and hydrological observational network coverage by installing, operating and maintaining monitoring equipment in key catchments and VIS systems. This will enable DAD, ID and FOs to better understand and monitor current conditions within the cascade systems, as well as streamflow, which may cause flooding of agricultural areas further downstream. Agrometeorological data will be used to estimate a suite of products including evapotranspiration and soil moisture, which will help detect the onset of agricultural droughts. Along with 10 automatic rainfall gauges the rainfall data will be used to support the development of satellite-based estimates in activity 3.2. Additionally these data can help refine MOS-based forecasts (see 3.2), once a suitably long time-series (approximately 3-5 years) becomes available. Automated water level sensors (50) will be used by DAD and ID to monitor water levels at critical points in the three river basins, which along with 8 streamflow gauges, will allow early detection of rising flood waters. Water levels and rainfall will be monitored in VIS systems by FOs and farmers using 330 manual staff (water-level) and rainfall gauges.

  • Activity 3.2 Co-develop and disseminate weather- and climate-based advisories for agricultural and water management through ASCs and FOs to farmers and village water managers

    This activity address institutional capacity and financial barriers related to provision of early warnings and forecasting. It supports the eestablishment of protocols and SOPs for generating, sharing and using weather data and information between national agencies (DoM, DAD, ID and DMC) and ASCs/FOs. It will involve the sensitization of communities and FOs to the availability of weather and climate information, as well as the function of any local equipment, which will be used to generate data used in the advisories. Through this activity a sense of ownership will be cultivated to avoid vandalism of equipment etc. The sense of ownership will be further promoted through co-development of information requirements for agriculture and water management. A training of trainers to use and adapt weather/climate based advisories will be undertaken to enable FOs and lead farmers to understand the historical context of climate information as a basis for understanding the implication of and using weather and seasonal forecasts.

  • Activity 3.3 Develop climate-risk management response measures based on advisories and forecasts for agriculture, water management and flooding in cascade systems

    This activity will develop and plan appropriate climate risk management responses to the advisories developed through activity 3.2, including the additional impacts expected through climate change. This will involve inundation area mapping of areas in the three river basins prone to flooding in order to set the baseline flooding scenarios expected without climate change.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Ms
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


Map Caption: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 16 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 28 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 July 2017

'UN commences $38.1 million green climate project in Sri Lanka' - Ceylon News, 18 October 2016. The UN on Tuesday officially commenced the Green Climate Project (GCP) to support Sri Lanka dry zone communities to adapt to climate change. UN Resident Coordinator for Sri Lanka, Una McCauley officially on Tuesday presented President Maithripala the commencement of the new USD 38.1m GCF project which will be implemented by UNDP. At the 13th GCF Board Meeting in Colombo in July, Sri Lanka secured climate finance of USD 38.1 million for its proposal titled, 'Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka'.

'Sri Lanka Secures Climate Finance to Strengthen the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone' - UNDP, 18 July 2016. At the 13th Board Meeting of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the main international funding body for climate action, USD 38.1 million was approved in funding for Sri Lanka for its proposal titled Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka.

'Smallholder Farmers Vulnerable To Climate Change', Colombo Telegraph, June 18, 2016 - With changes in rainfall intensity, floods and with slow onset impacts of climate change such as droughts, Sri Lankans feel the daily impacts of climate change. In order to address the situation in which the farmers of the Dry Zone live, actions on adaptation need to be taken. And to do this, there needs to be finance allocations - such as via the Green Climate Fund.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
This project will address water quality and quantity issues that impact people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka. With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka, under the leadership of the newly elected President, is paying the highest attention to this mounting and worsening crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease, for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector. By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone.

Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities.

Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods.

Civil Society Engagement: 


Saving Lives and Protecting Agriculture Based Livelihoods in Malawi: Scaling Up the Use of Modernized Climate Information and Early Warning Systems

Climate change severely threatens sustainable development opportunities for Malawi. The country faces a number of climate-induced disasters including floods, droughts, stormy rains and strong winds. The intensity and frequency of climate-related hazards have been increasing in recent decades, due to climate change as well as other factors like population growth, urbanization and environmental degradation. Farmers and rural populations have been amongst the most affected. The impacts of climate hazards have severely disrupted food production, led to the displacement of communities, loss of life and assets, and caused an overall reduction of community resilience.

The “Saving Lives and Protecting Agriculture Based Livelihoods in Malawi: Scaling Up the Use of Modernized Climate Information and Early Warning Systems” project will support the Government of Malawi to take important steps to save lives and enhance livelihoods at risk from climate-related disasters. The project focuses on Malawi’s technical, financial capacity, and access barriers related to weather and climate information (CI). These barriers will be addressed by investing in enhancing the hydro-meteorological capacity for early warnings (EWs) and forecasting; developing and disseminating tailored products for different actors (including smallholder farmers and fishers); and strengthening capacities of communities to respond to climate-related disasters.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (33.771972633342 -13.982045844645)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2.1 million direct beneficiaries who will gain access to critical weather information
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$12.3 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$4 million (Government of Malawi US$2.2 million, UNDP US$1.8 million, according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Climate change severely threats sustainable development opportunities for Malawi. The country faces a number of climate-induced disasters including floods, droughts, stormy rains, and strong winds. The intensity and frequency of climate-related hazards have been increasing in recent decades, due to climate change as well as other factors like population growth, urbanization and environmental degradation. Farmers and rural populations have been amongst the most affected. The impacts of climate hazards have severely disrupted food production, led to the displacement of communities, loss of life and assets, and caused an overall reduction of community resilience.

The “Saving Lives and Protecting Agriculture based Livelihoods in Malawi: Scaling Up the Use of Modernized Climate Information and Early Warning Systems” project will support the Government of Malawi to take important steps to save lives and enhance livelihoods at risk from climate-related disasters. The project focuses on Malawi’s technical, financial capacity, and access barriers related to weather and climate information (CI). These barriers will be addressed by investing in enhancing the hydro-meteorological capacity for early warnings (EWs) and forecasting; developing and disseminating tailored products for different actors (including smallholder farmers and fishers); and strengthening capacities of communities to respond to climate-related disasters.

The project is aligned with the Government of Malawi's national strategies such as the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy and the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The design of the project followed extensive stakeholder consultations. This process allowed the project to gain the support of the relevant stakeholders including the community members from targeted districts, the civil society and local and international NGOs. The project is also supported by the pertinent government ministries and departments and local government with local offices in the targeted districts (DCCMS, DWR, MoAIWD).

Approximately 1.4M direct and 0.7M indirect beneficiaries (total 12% of the population) will gain access to critical weather information as a result of the project. It will reduce vulnerability of lives and livelihoods, particularly women’s, to impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. In addition, it will increase the resilience and enhance livelihoods of the most vulnerable people communities and regions.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expansion of networks that generate climate-related data to save lives and safeguard livelihoods from extreme climate events

  • Activity 1.1: Expanding coverage of Meteorological and hydrological infrastructure through installation of AWS, hydrological monitoring stations, lightning detection systems, and lake-based buoys.
  • Activity 1.2: Capacity-building of hydromet staff on operations & maintenance, data analysis, modeling, and forecasting.

Output 2: Development and dissemination of products and platforms for climate-related information/services for vulnerable communities and livelihoods

  • Activity 2.1: Develop tailored weather/climate based agricultural advisories for 14 food insecure districts and disseminate through ICT/mobile, print, and radio channels
  • Activity 2.2: Develop and disseminate tailored warnings and advisories for fishing communities of Mangochi, Salima, Nkhata Bay and Nkhotakhota around Lake Malawi
  • Activity 2.3: Develop and deploy the flood and water resource modelling and decision support system to enhance coverage for disaster risk and water resource management
  • Activity 2.4: Enablea demand-based model for climate information and services stimulating private sector engagement
  • Activity 2.5: Knowledge sharing and management for development, dissemination and use of EW and CI to enhance resilience

Output 3: Strengthening communities capacities for use of EWS/CI in preparedness for response to climate related disasters

  • Activity 3.1: Scale-up community-based EWS in flood-disaster prone areas of Karonga, Salima, Dedza, Nkhotakota, Nkhata Bay, Rumphi, Phalombe and Zomba
  • Activity 3.2: Capacity development of national, district and community level actors on disaster and climate risk management
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. The Project Manager that will be in charge of running the project on behalf of Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA) will be responsible for day-to-day project monitoring. S/he will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project.

The UNDP Country Office will conduct, within other monitoring activities, annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office will be responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed.

A Project Implementation Report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual PIR. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.

An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (www.erc.undp.org).The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Regional Technical Specialist – Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
GCF
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Scaling Up the Use of Modernized Climate Information and Early Warning Systems in Malawi
New UNDP-Supported Project Funded by the GCF Works to Reduce Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts

By Srilata Kammila

A recently approved project supported by the UNDP and funded through the Green Climate Fund is providing new opportunities to scale up the use of climate information and early warnings in Malawi. The innovative $11 million project focuses on building weather- and climate-related services and has the potential of reaching approximately 2 million people, providing farmers, fishers and communities impacted by a changing climate with the information they need to protect lives and build livelihoods. This includes investing in the use of climate information for planning agricultural and on-farm activities, providing warnings of severe weather for fishers on Lake Malawi, improving flood forecasting and monitoring, and fostering information exchanges through mobile platforms....

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Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
Climate change severely threats sustainable development opportunities for Malawi. The country faces a number of climate-induced disasters including floods, droughts, stormy rains, and strong winds. The intensity and frequency of climate-related hazards have been increasing in recent decades, due to climate change as well as other factors like population growth, urbanization and environmental degradation. Farmers and rural populations have been amongst the most affected. The impacts of climate hazards have severely disrupted food production, led to the displacement of communities, loss of life and assets, and caused an overall reduction of community resilience.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expansion of networks that generate climate-related data to save lives and safeguard livelihoods from extreme climate events

 

Output 2: Development and dissemination of products and platforms for climate-related information/services for vulnerable communities and livelihoods

 

Output 3: Strengthening communities capacities for use of EWS/CI in preparedness for response to climate related disasters

 

Supporting Vulnerable Communities in Maldives to Manage Climate Change-Induced Water Shortages

The “Supporting vulnerable communities in Maldives to manage climate change-induced water shortages” project will be implemented by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The project targets 49 islands across of 13 atolls of the country that continue to experience water shortages linked to low rainfall and extended dry periods, brought on by a changing climate.  It aims to provide safe and reliable freshwater to 105,000 people, roughly 30 percent of the island nation's residents. A 90-day reserve of clean water will also be secured, reducing the exposure to health risks from untreated water

The project will establish water desalination facilities in four islands across the most vulnerable regions in the North. These islands would then serve as water production and distribution hubs for all seven Northern atolls during the dry season, lifting their dependency on Male’ for emergency drinking water. The remaining 45 islands in both the North and South of Maldives will benefit from improved rainwater collection infrastructure combined with groundwater protection and improvements to foster long-term resilience.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (73.509521431144 4.1834422899354)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
295,000 (105,000 people in the outer islands of Maldives)
Funding Source: 

Waters of Paradise - Adapting to Climate Change in the Maldives

The Maldives is one of the wonders of the world. Located in the Indian Ocean and made of 1192 coral islands, it is also the world’s lowest lying country. The highest natural point is just 2.4 meters above sea level. Today, one of the main problems for Maldivians is water. And it is likely to get worse with Climate Change.

Financing Amount: 
US$23.6 million (GCF funding according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$4.6 million (Ministry of Environment and Energy US$4.5 million, UNDP US$100,000)
Project Details: 

The Maldives consists of 1,190 small, low-lying coral islands spread across 90,000 square kilometers. Its estimated population of 399,000 is scattered over 194 main islands. With high-end tourism as the main driver of economic growth, the country has made significant development progress since its independence in 1965.

However, national aggregate indicators of progress conceal underlying inequalities. A significant disparity between people living in the capital, Malé, and those living in other atolls is reflected in conspicuous differences in their human development indices. The outer island communities are especially vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather events, rainfall distribution anomalies, and sea level rise.

Observed experiences during the last decade bear out the risks of climate change. In 2004, an estimated 30 percent of the outer islands’ population experienced water shortages, and since 2005 an average of 81 islands had requested emergency shipments of water to be delivered from Malé during the annual dry season. The calls for emergency shipments have intensified as the rainfalls become more erratic and dryer seasons dryer, and as a result, islands’ stored rainwater reserves become depleted. This has resulted on an average of 3,500 liters shipped out from Malé annually during the last ten years. During 2005-2012, the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) spent US$2.4 million (annual average of US$300,000) to provide desalinated water to over 90 islands.

Difference in geography (land availability), hydro-climatic characteristics (rainfall amounts and distribution patterns) and socio-economic conditions (population size, density, growth trends, and socio-economic status) suggest the need for decentralised and fully customised approaches to water production and distribution to achieve island and atoll level self-sufficiency.

The Maldivian government faces severe constraints in responding to the country’s present and future water security challenges.  Firstly, the precarious fiscal status limits the response options to largely reactive emergency measures. Longer-term solutions, without additional financial support, are out of reach. Secondly, a dispersed and small population prevents the possibility of economies of scale in providing water and sanitation services, as well as capital infrastructure.

In response to climate change risks and challenges, the proposed project will provide sufficient water to supply the potable water needs of island residents year round for a 35 year design period (to 2050). Project finance will be used to establish an integrated water resources management system that integrates the three main sources of water (rainwater, groundwater, and desalinated water) into a least cost delivery system. The project will: (i) increase rainfall collection capacity in target 49 islands at least threefold; (ii) improve groundwater management, including monitoring, effective replenishment and controlled extraction; and (iii) increase water production capacity through solar-based desalinization to secure sufficient back up resources for timely distribution to island households during extended dry periods. This system will be able to maintain service levels against a context of rainfall variability and sea level rise.

Ultimately, the project will achieve an uninterrupted water supply on islands that currently experience chronic 90-day water shortages during the dry season. As a result of the project, 49 priority islands will have increased rainwater collection capacities. Out of these, 4 of the larger islands will also install desalination-based water production systems. These systems will secure sufficient water production capacity, enabling decentralised and timely water distribution across all northern outer atolls during the extended dry periods, when shortages may occur.

Finally, early water alerts, based on forecasted meteorological information will feed into the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for system management. In addition to actual investments in water production and distribution the project will support more advanced management capabilities of the utilities for greater efficiency that anticipated climate change driven challenges and complexities demand.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The main outputs and concrete results of the project will be as follows:

Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 32,000 people

  • 11,5023 rainwater harvesting systems for 26,000 residents in 45 islands installed;
  • Standard operating Procedures (SOPs) prepared and used by utilities, local councils and households;
  • 4 RO desalination water plants in 4 islands installed and made operational, using a grid-tied and / or off grid solar PV technology to provide backup capacity in times of water stress;
  • Groundwater recharge system installed for excess rainwater from the RWH collection system on 49 islands, including grey water recycling on selected islands;
  • Tariff evaluation criteria and tariff setting guidelines designed and introduced;
  • Training programmes in integrated water resource management, planning and budgeting, water economic modeling, expenditure management and performance monitoring developed and delivered for relevant atoll and island councils and the ministries (MEE, MoH); and
  • Certification courses for the utilities and sector specialists in the areas of water engineering, capital construction, operation, maintenance, financial management and planning introduced at the Maldivian Polytechnic training institute (MP).

Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution

  • 4 sub-national water production and distribution locations to serve all Northern atolls established;
  • Institutional coordination and accountability mechanisms between the utilities, the NDMC, MEE and LGA/ councils to facilitate cost-effective and timely water supply during dry season;
  • Regulatory framework for competitive and wholesale water distribution services established;
  • Early warning system established on the basis of forecasted meteorological information for water emergency alerts and for effective operation of integrated water system.

Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected

  • Baseline assessment (hazards inventory and catchment characterization) completed;
  • Groundwater monitoring protocols with associated equipment and training delivered;
  • Regulatory framework established for coastal land use, including zoning to protect coastal catchment areas and enable natural recharge of groundwater lenses.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. The Project Manager that will be in charge of running the project on behalf of Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA) will be responsible for day-to-day project monitoring. S/he will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project.

The UNDP Country Office will conduct, within other monitoring activities, annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office will be responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed.

A Project Implementation Report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual PIR. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.

An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (www.erc.undp.org). The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Adviser
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 5 November 2015
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 12 April 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 23 May 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 29 May 2017
 
'Head of UNDP Achim Steiner welcomes flow of GCF funds to the Maldives' - June 30, 2017. UNDP Programme Administrator says the Maldives will benefit from the current transfer of GCF funds to an adaptation project run by the UNDP. “We are delighted that the Green Climate Fund’s first disbursement to UNDP will help realise this exciting project, which will see almost a third of the population of the Maldives becoming freshwater self-sufficient over the next five years.”
 
'UNDP signs water project supported by the green climate fund with Maldives'  - May 15, 2017. The Government of Maldives and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has formulated a project to support vulnerable Maldivian communities to manage climate change-induced water shortages. Speaking at the function held to sign the project, Minister Thoriq Ibrahim said that this achievement is remarkable and the government has high hopes for this project as it will address the country's water issues.
 

'Towards a climate resilient future in the water sector: Government of Maldives Signs Project Document with UNDP' - May 12, 2017. UNDP Maldives announce official signing with the Ministry for the delivery of safe and secure freshwater for vulnerable communites via the 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages'

Protecting (scarce) fresh water in the Maldives’  - April 15, 2016. Keti Chachibaia, Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP’s Bangkok Regional Hub, throws light on water security in the Maldives and how funding from the Green Climate Fund will help make vulnerable communities more resilient in the face of climate change.pulation) in the islands of Maldives in the face of climate change risks.

Green Climate Fund approves first 8 Investments’ - November 2,2015. The Green Climate Fund announces the approval of funding for eight new projects, including the Maldives proposal for 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages' (GCF funding: 23.6 million) 

Information in French / Informations en français: 


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About (Summary): 
Climate change impacts on water sector is already discernable in Maldives. Increase in rainfall variability, which is extending the dry season period, and sea level rise will have profound impacts on water security in the country. Unless anticipated climate change risks are urgently addressed, the water stress is going to be the main limiting factor for human development in the country. In response to the climate change challenge, this project will ensure the delivery of safe and secure freshwater to 105,000 people in the outer islands of the Maldives through the scale up of an integrated water production system, the introduction of decentralized and cost-effective dry season water distribution mechanisms and the improvement of groundwater quality. As a result, the project will reduce the human, environmental and social impacts of drinking water shortages experienced during the dry season and will build a long-term resilience to climate change impacts.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 105,000 people

 

Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution

 

Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected

 
Civil Society Engagement: