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Taxonomy Term List

Africa Adaptation Programme

The Africa Adaptation Programme was launched in 2008 by the United Nations Development Programme in partnership with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Programme (WFP) and with US$92.1 million support from the Government of Japan. The AAP was established under the Japan-UNDP Joint Framework for Building Partnership to Address Climate Change in Africa, which was founded at the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) in May 2008.

Over a 3 year period, concluding at the end of 2012, AAP instituted transformational changes in the 20 African countries in the areas of 1) long-term planning; 2) leadership and institutional capacity; 3) climate-resilient policies and measures; 4) innovative finance; and 5) knowledge generation and sharing.  AAP’s support helped enhance the adaptive capacity of the AAP countries, promote early adaptation action and lay the foundation for long-term investment to increase resilience to climate change across the African continent.

The 20 AAP countries were: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome Principe, Senegal, Tanzania, and Tunisia.

Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.2265625065 14.8173706265)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$92,100,000
Project Details: 

Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change. It will exacerbate the economic, political and humanitarian stresses that countries in the region already face, and greatly reduce their capacity to eradicate extreme poverty. The poorest segments of society will be the most severely affected because they are also the least able to adapt. Responding to the threat of climate change will require concerted action on an unprecedented scale. Systematic action will be required across all levels of development planning and implementation (regional, national, sub-national, and local) if development in a number of countries is not to be reversed.

Some African countries have identified key vulnerabilities and priority adaptation measures, and others have initiated demonstration adaptation projects. However, countries continue to face a number of challenges including the following: (i) adaptation initiatives are limited in scope and scale, and their impacts are neither cohesive nor sustainable; (ii) institutional capacities, relationships, policies and practices to assess and manage climate change risks are not developed sufficiently to create an enabling environment, with corresponding political and social champions to support the formulation and implementation of efficient solutions to a problem that has complex multi-sectoral effects; (iii) limited knowledge of the most appropriate adaptation policies and measures hinders countries from preparing themselves with the necessary institutional capacities to support climate risk management; (iv) limited financing options to sustain scaled-up adaptation remains a constraint; and (v) it is difficult for countries to learn from each other about their experiences with different approaches to adaptation.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

During the three years of its implementation (2010-2012), AAP laid the groundwork for an ongoing, dynamic adaptation process in harmony with each country’s social, environmental and economic priorities. In all 20 countries, AAP has nourished an environment in which decisions and activities in support of adaptation can be evidence-based, strategic and appropriate to the goals of sustainable development, resulting in long-term investment to increase resilience to climate change.

Strengthening Long-Term Planning Mechanisms

AAP’s Data and Information Management Component (DIMC) assisted countries to develop the infrastructure and capabilities needed to access, analyse and apply climate data and information for decision-making. Overall, over 10,000 people were trained in climate data analysis under AAP’s DIMC.  AAP’s support under DIMC helped increase countries’ capacity to support vulnerability and risk assessments and use climate data and information to integrate adaptation into national development planning.

Building Institutional and Leadership Capacity

AAP assisted in enhancing professional leadership capacity and institutional effectiveness in countries by increasing awareness of climate change issues, developing multi-stakeholder approaches and implementing national adaptation strategies that address the needs of men and women equally.   For example, under AAP, Kenya established a National Climate Change Secretariat to coordinate the different climate change focal points in key government ministries. Through this multi-ministerial coordination, Kenya has facilitated the National Climate Change Response Strategy and ensured adaptation interventions take a multi-sectoral approach.

Implementing Climate-Resilient Policies and Measures

AAP provided assistance to countries to implement policy measures that protect climate sensitive sectors and encourage private sector investment in adaptation, such as adaptation pilot projects and national climate change strategies.  For example, Nigeria, with the support of AAP, adopted a National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy, which will ensure a coordinated approach to addressing climate change.

Innovative Finance

Under AAP, innovative financing options to meet national adaptation costs were expanded at the local, national, sub-regional and regional levels. For example, AAP supported Morocco to expand public-private partnerships to mobilise funds for future climate change projects in local communities.  Through a public-private partnership developed through AAP, a solar lighting project was completed in a rural community.  Additionally, AAP trained stakeholders to undertake cost-benefit analyses of adaptation options.

Generating and Sharing Knowledge

Through AAP, knowledge on adjusting national development processes to fully incorporate climate change risks and opportunity was generated and shared across all levels across all 20 countries. For example, the production and broadcast of television and radio segments (e.g. Burkina Faso, Mauritius, Namibia, and Tunisia) and documentaries (e.g. Cameroon, Kenya, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal and Tanzania) effectively shared information and concerns on climate change adaptation.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Jen Stephens
Climate Specialist
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


 

Strategic Planning and Action to strengthen climate Resilience of Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timor province (SPARC)

The project will apply a holistic approach to improve rural livelihoods and food security by strengthening climate resilience. It will work simultaneously at the policy and grassroots levels. It will create continuous dialogue between these levels and stakeholders involved to ensure that policies to be developed or revised are based on needs and lessons learned from the grassroots.

The climate induced problem that this project is focused on is that the impacts of the ongoing and projected changes in climate will very likely exceed the coping capacity of many rural communities. This will result in decreasing security in terms of livelihoods, food and water, affecting rural development in NTT. Rural communities in NTT are highly dependent on the climate for their subsistence agricultural production and water resources. Ensuring food and water security is already a major challenge. Underlying causes of the problem include 1) Systemic vulnerabilities are high due to geographical and geophysical factors (remote and archipelagic area, with a naturally high climate variability); 2) Slow development progress in NTT (e.g. short term planning, reactive responses to problems, poor infrastructure and communication network); 3) Decentralization challenges (e.g. ineffective coordination, little attention to capacity development for sub-national institutions, 4) Community challenges such as low education levels, cultural perspectives on adopting new approaches and practices.

The project will focus on strengthening and developing climate resilient institutions and rural communities centred around livelihoods, food and water security. In particular, it will support the following long-term solution: 1) Local government (including both provincial and district governments) has integrated climate resilience principles in policy, planning and budgeting, and have the institutional capacity to develop, implement and monitor this; and 2) Communities will strengthen and diversify their livelihoods in anticipation of further changes in the climate and its impacts. Identified barriers that local government and the communities are facing to improve livelihoods, food security and water security in a changing climate include informational, policy, financial, individual, and institutional barriers, with gender cutting across these.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (120.695800781 -8.63100145604)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Villages in Nusa Tenggara Timor province
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
5,000,000 (GEF/SCCF), 100,000 (UNDP)
Co-Financing Total: 
6,337,332 (UNDP), 67,873,318 (Government of NTT)
Project Details: 

Rural communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur [NTT] are highly dependent on the climate for their subsistence agricultural production and water resources. Ensuring food and water security is already a major challenge. The climate-induced problem that this project is focused on is that the mpacts of the ongoing and projected changes in climate will very likely exceed the coping capacity of many rural communities. This will result in decreasing security in terms of livelihoods, food and water, affecting rural development in NTT.

SCCF funding will focus on strengthening and developing climate resilient institutions and rural communities centred around livelihoods, food and water security, to pave the way for climate resilient development in NTT. In particular, it will support the following long-term solution with regard to:

1. Local government and climate resilient development
2. Climate resilient rural communities

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

At the national level, the project will address climate resilience in terms of food, water and livelihood security in NTT, serving as a model for climate resilient development in an increasingly decentralized Indonesia. The project will thus contribute to MDG 1– Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Progress on this is of particular importance to NTT because the province has the highest prevalence of underweight children under five years of age, and almost a quarter of the NTT population is below the national poverty line.

Expected project outcomes are:
1. Institutional capacity developed to integrate climate resilience in sustainable development at provincial and district level
2. Livelihoods of vulnerable rural communities strengthened in a changing climate

At the provincial level, SCCF resources will be used to raise awareness, develop institutional capacity, and to integrate climate resilience in development planning, programmes and budgeting. This will indirectly benefit the whole population of NTT, which are 4.7 million people (about 960,000 households).

At the district level, SCCF resources will be invested in 3 districts for integrating climate resilience in district level development planning and programmes and access to knowledge and information, reaching out to all villages and households in these districts:
• Sabu Raijua which has a population size of 91,870 people (18,869 households), living in 58 villages (Desa) and 5 urban neighborhoods (Kelurahan). 
• East Sumba which has a population size of 225,906 people (46,465 households), living in 140 villages and 16 urban neighborhoods
• Manggarai which has a population of 512,065 (105,323 households) living in 132 villages and 17 urban neighborhoods

Out of these 330 villages, SCCF resources will be directly invested in 120 villages (approximately 34,000 households) to develop community vulnerability reduction assessments, community action plans, strengthen resilience of existing livelihoods, introduce alternative livelihoods, and develop climate resilient water resources management, to integrate climate resilience in community development plans, and to develop community based climate risk information system.
 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project will be monitored through the following M& E activities:

Project start: 
A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.

The Inception Workshop should address a number of key issues including:
a) Assist all partners to fully understand and take ownership of the project. Detail the roles, support services and complementary responsibilities of UNDP CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team.  Discuss the roles, functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures, including reporting and communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms.  The Terms of Reference for project staff will be discussed again as needed.
b) Based on the project results framework and the relevant SOF (e.g. GEF) Tracking Tool if appropriate, finalize the first annual work plan.  Review and agree on the indicators, targets and their means of verification, and recheck assumptions and risks. 
c) Provide a detailed overview of reporting, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements.  The Monitoring and Evaluation work plan and budget should be agreed and scheduled.
d) Discuss financial reporting procedures and obligations, and arrangements for annual audit.
e) Plan and schedule Project Board meetings.  Roles and responsibilities of all project organisation structures should be clarified and meetings planned.  The first Project Board meeting should be held within the first 12 months following the inception workshop.

An Inception Workshop report is a key reference document and must be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements and plans decided during the meeting. 

Quarterly:
Progress made shall be monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Managment Platform.
Based on the initial risk analysis submitted, the risk log shall be regularly updated in ATLAS.  Risks become critical when the impact and probability are high.  Note that for UNDP GEF projects, all financial risks associated with financial instruments such as revolving funds, microfinance schemes, or capitalization of ESCOs are automatically classified as critical on the basis of their innovative nature (high impact and uncertainty due to no previous experience justifies classification as critical).
Based on the information recorded in Atlas, a Project Progress Reports (PPR) can be generated in the Executive Snapshot.
Other ATLAS logs can be used to monitor issues, lessons learned etc. The use of these functions is a key indicator in the UNDP Executive Balanced Scorecard.

Annually:
 Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR):  This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) reporting requirements. 

The APR/PIR includes, but is not limited to, reporting on the following:
• Progress made toward project objective and project outcomes - each with indicators, baseline data and end-of-project targets (cumulative) 
• Project outputs delivered per project outcome (annual).
• Lesson learned/good practice.
• AWP and other expenditure reports
• Risk and adaptive management
• ATLAS QPR
• Portfolio level indicators (i.e. GEF focal area tracking tools) are used by most focal areas on an annual basis as well. 

Periodic Monitoring through site visits:
UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-term of project cycle:
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point of project implementation (insert date).  The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  The organization, terms of reference and timing of the mid-term evaluation will be decided after consultation between the parties to the project document. The Terms of Reference for this Mid-term evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.  The management response and the evaluation will be uploaded to UNDP corporate systems, in particular the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC). 

The relevant SOF (GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the mid-term evaluation cycle.

End of Project:
An independent Final Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.

The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities and requires a management response which should be uploaded to PIMS and to the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC). 

The relevant SOF (e.g GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the final evaluation.

During the final three months, the project team will prepare the Project Terminal Report. This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lay out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and knowledge sharing:
Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects. Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this and related projects.

Audit: 
Project audit will follow UNDP Financial Rules and Regulations, and applicable Audit policies.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Alex Heikens
Regional Policy Advisor - Climate Change
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
SCCF
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Strengthening Liberia's Climate Information and Services to Enhance Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation

This project responds to priorities and actions identified in the Liberia's NAPA which articulate the need for securing, transferring and installing critical technologies, as well as developing the necessary systems for climate change-related information to permeate into decision-making processes. The technologies required to achieve these aims will increase the capacity of the national early warning network to forewarn and rapidly respond to extreme climate events. 

This project is fully in line with LDCF/SCCF focal area objective 2 “Increase adaptive capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change, including variability, at local, national, regional and global level”. Related expected outcomes include strengthening national hydro-meteorological capacities to provide information which can be used to reduce the risk of climate-induced economic losses, as well as increasing the knowledge and understanding of current climate variability and change-induced risks at both the country level and for targeted vulnerable areas. The central goal is to revitalize the main economic sectors of the country, notably agriculture, fisheries and primary industries, in order to contribute to inclusive and sustainable economic development and growth, and to provide food security and nutrition, as well as employment. 

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects in Africa, visit the UNDP-EWS Africa Blog.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-10.7958776844 6.32529240663)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
6,730,000
Co-Financing Total: 
28,428,289
Project Details: 

The project complies with the urgent needs identified in the NAPA, all of which are relevant for supporting the national development goals of achieving MDGs 1, 3, 6 and 7. The project is also aligned with the framework of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) I, which calls for sustaining the environment for the present generation and at the same time not compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, and for which the central goal is to revitalize the main economic sectors of the country, notably agriculture, fisheries and primary industries, in order to contribute to inclusive and sustainable economic development and growth, and to provide food security and nutrition, as well as employment. 

The overarching goal of the project is to safeguard hard won gains, resulting from ongoing and planned development efforts, from expected climate change impacts, and especially to reduce the vulnerability of local communities to increasing climate change induced risks. This goal is consistent with, and underpinned by, a number of important policies and strategies governing Liberia's national development and its specific responses to climate change. 

Background

Fourteen years of civil war and decades of low investment in infrastructure have left the Liberian hydro-meteorological services with very little capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse and communicate environmental information related to climate and water, including the impact of extreme climate events and disasters. This situation undermines efforts across a range of sectors to understand, quantify and plan for historical and current climate fluctuations, as well as develop tools to help plan adaptation to future climate changes. This is particularly important given that many of the key economic sectors in Liberia, namely agriculture, fisheries, forestry and energy are highly vulnerable to climate variability and change, yet little is known on how climate is already changing within the region, nor how it may be expected to change in the future.

Efforts to remedy this situation will therefore have positive consequences for the local economy. The proposed project aims to address these deficiencies by implementing the rollout of new infrastructure for monitoring current climate and extremes, as well as building capacity to use this information for communicating climate-related risks, and improve planning and decision-making in key economic sectors.

The Project

The following outlines briefly how climate affects the different sectors (NAPA,2008) and where the proposed project can usefully support climate sensitive short and long-term planning. In line with the NAPA, the proposed project will necessarily provide targeted support to the agriculture sectors. However, it is possible that the scopeed by the sparse observational network. Satellite observations of land use and wildfires have the potential to aid planning and emergency responses (when threatening communities) but are not incorporated into an effective early warning strategy. As forests take several years to mature long term (multi-year to multi- decadal) projections are also useful for long-term planning. However, the available fine resolution climate projections for Liberia are limited by both the observational network and local-regional capacity to generate such scenarios.

Coastal management and fisheries: Over 20,000 workers nationwide earn their livelihoods from fishing activities and fish represent the main source of animal protein in the typical Liberian diet.

  • Lack of data on water temperatures, rainfall, river outflow and coastal ocean dynamics currently limits understanding the vulnerability of fisheries;
  • Changing water temperatures and rainfall patterns may be adversely affecting fish stocks of some species;

Hot nights have increased by 15.7% between 1960 and 2003 and mean annual rainfall has on average decreased since 1960 (http://country-profiles.geog.ox.ac.uk/). It is noteworthy that many aspects of climate change, particularly changes in extremes, were not able to be calculated due to a lack of weather data for the country. Consequently these changes only provide an overview of changes for regions where data was available.

Accurate wind and wave forecasts for the coastal zones are either not available or not routinely communicated to users e.g.... fishing vessels. Whilst there are internationally available wind, wave and temperature forecasts for the globe, these do not account for subtleties of the Liberian coastline so efforts to produce locally applicable forecasts are warranted. The ongoing LDCF financed project “Enhancing Resilience of vulnerable coastal areas to climate change risks in Liberia” includes components to both set up an early warning system for the coast and develop future projections of sea level rise..

Public Health: Changes in rainfall and temperature patterns are expected to lead to increased infections of water-borne diseases e.g.... cholera, dysentery, giardiasis, amebiasis, typhoid fever, and malaria.

  • Malaria is the number one cause of in-patient deaths (42%) and poses the most significant threat to public health, particularly among infants, pregnant mothers and their unborn children.
  • Increases in temperature combined with poor hygienic practices, a scarcity of safe drinking water, limited public health facilities and flooding, will likely increase infection rates.

The predictability of disease outbreaks depend on several climate and non-climatic factors. Of those mentioned above cholera can be monitored/predicted by being related to zooplankton blooms seen in remotely sensed imagery, and malaria is predictable (through monitoring of rainfall and temperature) where it is seasonal in nature. The latter would have direct benefits for the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and the UNDP GoAL WASH water and sanitation programme would clearly benefit from the former. The introduction of climate forecasts, satellite and climate observation capabilities, will therefore benefit these programmes and the state of public health in Liberia, by forewarning where and when environmental conditions are suitable for disease outbreaks.

Underlying causes

In Liberia the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (NMHS) were severely disrupted for many years due to civil unrest that caused destruction of meteorological infrastructure, facilities and the loss of important meteorological data and information. As a result, the NMHS does not have the capability of providing the weather and climate information products and services necessary for science-based decision making such as:

  • estimating hazard risks and vulnerabilities for e.g..... floodplain and agricultural land etc;
  • development of an early warning system for droughts, floods and storms;decision making in weather and climate-sensitive economic activities such as agriculture, forestry and construction;
  • coastal zone management, including fisheries;
  • conducting feasibility studies for major developments (e.g.... highways, dams, bridges);
  • analysing climate change risks and developing adaptation strategies.

This project is fully in line with LDCF/SCCF focal area objective 2 “Increase adaptive capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change, including variability, at local, national, regional and global level”. Related expected outcomes include strengthening national hydro-meteorological capacities to provide information which can be used to reduce the risk of climate-induced economic losses, as well as increasing the knowledge and understanding of current climate variability and change-induced risks at both the country level and for targeted vulnerable areas.

Source: Liberia's Project Identification Form (June 19, 2012)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Increased capacity of hydro-meteorological services and associated networks to monitor and predict extreme weather, climate-related hazards and climate trends.

  • Output 1.1: Installation of hydro-meteorological weather and flow gauge stations in critical areas across the country with communications and centralized archiving technologies at the Meteorology Division and Hydrological Service.
  • Output 1.2: Technical capacity of staff in Meteorology Division developed to produce daily to seasonal, seasonal to annual, annual to multi-decadal, climate forecasts, using numerical weather prediction models, seasonal prediction models and internationally produced forecasts
  • Output 1.3: Installation of satellite receivers and other infrastructure (e.g. radar, etc.) for monitoring and assessing the changing state of the environment and the impact of current and future climate on key environmental variables for planning food security, water, and land management.
  • Output 1.4: Staff in Ministry of Land, Mines, and Energy (encompassing Meteorology and Hydrology) trained in the use of climate monitoring equipment, tailored forecasts of climate hazards and use of satellite monitoring for assessing crop production, water resources, wildfires, etc.

Outcome 2: Climate, environmental and socioeconomic data are tailored and combined to produce appropriate information which can be communicated to government entities and communities to enable informed decision making.

  • Output 2.1: Systems and communication with National Disaster Relief Commission are enable to use the forecasts (Output 1.2), environmental monitoring data (Output 1.3), tailored forecasts (Output 1.4), and current vulnerability assessments, to forecast where climate induced risks are high.
  • Output 2.2: Communication channels for issuing warnings (through both governmental and non-governmental agencies) are enabled (e.g. radio, mobile phones, television etc), as well as the procedures and legal basis for the issuing of warnings.
  • Outcome 2.3: Three applications of the early warning system (e.g. coastal, agriculture, floods, health etc) are identified and outputs from 2.1 and 2.2 are tested for their effectiveness.

Outcome 3: Government, private sector and communities are aware of the major risks associated with climate change, and consider them when formulating development policies and strategies

  • Output 3.1: Regional climate change scenarios are developed for Liberia and used to enable identification of ‘hotspots’ where climate change is expected to have high biophysical impacts.
  • Output 3.2: Adaptation options for the most vulnerable communities and livelihoods are made aware to communities in light of projected climate change and current vulnerabilities.
  • Output 3.3: A system for inter-ministerial dialogue on incorporating climate change considerations into government policies is established as well as a mechanism for discussing public and private financing of the EWS system.
  • Output 3.4: Engagement of the private sector to develop paid-for services through the EWS and climate change adaptation options.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mark Tadross
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Dominic Sam
Country Officer
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Sudan's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Major adaptation activities and needs that have been identified in Sudan include: community-based forest and range land management and rehabilitation and replacement of household goat herds with sheep herds to reduce pressure on fragile range lands. The unreliable nature of rainfall, together with its concentration in short growing seasons, heightens the vulnerability of Sudan’s rain-fed agricultural systems. The most extreme temperatures are found in the far northern part of the country, where summer temperatures can often exceed 43oC and sandstorms blow across the Sahara from April to September.

To view progress on Sudan's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (32.5489562261 15.5822755839)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Adaptation to climate change is a very compelling subject for the people of Sudan, burdened as they already are with devastating and recurring droughts, as well as severe hardships in the ability to coping with even current climatic variability.

Major adaptation activities and needs that have been identified across the five ecological zones include, Community-based forest and range land management and Rehabilitation and Replacement of household goat herds with sheep herds to reduce pressure on fragile range lands.

Sudan is the largest country in Africa. Its total area is over 250 million hectares, much of which is comprised of arid lands and desert.

Sudan lies within the tropical zone between latitudes 3o and 22o North and longitude 22 o to 38o East. Mean annual temperatures vary between 26oC and 32oC across the country. Rainfall, which supports the overwhelming majority of the country's agricultural activity, is erratic and varies significantly from the northern to southern ranges of the country.

The unreliable nature of rainfall, together with its concentration in short growing seasons, heightens the vulnerability of Sudan’s rain-fed agricultural systems. The most extreme temperatures are found in the far northern part of the country, where summer temperatures can often exceed 43oC and sandstorms blow across the Sahara from April to September.

These regions typically experience virtually no rainfall. In the central area around and just south of Khartoum, average annual temperatures are around 27oC, with rainfall averaging about 200 mm/year and rarely exceeding 700 mm/year.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Hanan Mutwakil
Country Officer
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Sierra Leone's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Climate Change is known to have adversely affected the environment, agriculture, food security, and even the lives and livelihood of large communities. Fishermen are known to have lost their lives in storms and passenger boats have encountered weather-related accidents, even though some go unreported. Flooding is known to have affected agriculture and habitats of people in Sierra Leone and their suffering has been aggravated by the attending health problems of water-borne diseases (typhoid dysentery cholera and diarrhea) due to lack of safe drinking water.

To view progress on Sierra Leone's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-13.2515124618 8.49054923935)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Sierra Leone has a tropical climate with two distinct seasons. The Dry Season (December to April) is dominated by winds from the northeast (i.e. the North-east trades), and the rainy season (May to November). Both seasons may have some variations in the commencement and duration.

Sierra Leone has developed many adaptation projects to address adverse effects of climate change based on existing coping mechanisms and practices such as Develop and enact appropriate policies and regulations relevant to the development of coastal communities, urban growth planning, and critical coastal ecosystems preservation and the Establishment of a National Sea- Level Observing System for Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone has an area of 72,325 km2 between latitudes 6055’ and 10000’ North and between longitudes 10014’ and 13017’ West. The coastal zone of Sierra Leone extends for a distance of about 465 km. The configuration of the coastline and international boundaries of Sierra Leone encloses a very compact country. Sierra Leone is bordered in the northeast by the Republic of Guinea, in the south and southeast by the Republic of Liberia and in the west by the North Atlantic Ocean.

Climate Change is known to have adversely affected the environment, agriculture, food security, and even the lives and livelihood of large communities. Fishermen are known to have lost their lives in storms and passenger boats have encountered weather-related accidents, even though some go unreported. Flooding is known to have affected agriculture and habitats of people in Sierra Leone and their suffering has been aggravated by the attending health problems of water-borne diseases (typhoid dysentery cholera and diarrhea) due to lack of safe drinking water.

Key Vulnerabilities:

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Fisheries
  • Land Resources
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Soils
  • Biodiversity
  • Energy
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Establish seed banks

Water Resources

  • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
  • Improve or develop water management
  • Alter system operating rules, e.g. pricing policies, legislation

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Develop planning/new investment requirements
  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
  • Retreat
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP [nid:57]
Keith Wright
Country Officer
Government of Sierra Leone
Dr Reynold Johnson
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Guinea-Bissau- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities identified in Guinea-Bissau's Second National Communication (2011):

  • Agriculture and food security
  • Water resources
  • Coastal zones and marine ecosystems
  • Forestry
  • Tourism

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-15.5786071727 11.8526507852)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 

Potential adaptation measures identified in Guinea-Bissau's Second National Communication (2011):

Agriculture and food security

  • Improved water management (through the promotion of irrigation and integrated water resources management). 
  • Sustainable development of agriculture (components: Integrated management and soil fertility, strengthening of support services to producers and dissemination of improved technologies).
  • Improved management of other natural resources (components: organization of transhumance and route planning, sustainable management of forest resources and sustainable management of fisheries’ resources).

Forestry

  • Monitoring of forests, based on research and application of credible technologies;
  • The productive potential of the site, the extent of the growth period and the duration of the dry season should be the determining factors in the choice of species for use in reforestation and drought tolerance;
  • The best places should be reserved for demanding species with regard to soil moisture;
  • Reforestation with advisable orientation may increase the likelihood of survival of trees;
  • In the scenario of temperature increase, which imply an increase of forest fires, we should promote the early warning system for risks of fire;
  • Establishment of a regulatory and effective tax on wood for energy;
  • Plantations of species with high calorific value and high growth

Water Resources

  • Promote studies to evaluate the possibilities of building dams to retain rainwater in order to avoid the loss of these into the rivers, seas and ocean;
  • Conduct a comprehensive study on the capabilities and characteristics of the river system (tributaries and small flowing streams) with the intention of its use for irrigation and construction of small dams to hold water for agriculture and livestock breeding;
  • Construction of small ramps on the banks of the tributaries of the Geba River, in order to allow animals to drink the waters of these rivers;
  • Organization and awareness to change mentality (creation of water user associations), to improve the level of knowledge of water resources (hydrology and hydrogeology) and its operation (training);

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Guinea-Bissau
Alexandre Cabral
Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Democratic Republic of Congo- Second National Communictation

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo's Second national Communication (2009):

  • Water Resources
  • Coastal Area
  • Health
  • Agriculture
  • Land and Ecosystem Degradation
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (15.336907954 -4.42017564498)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 

Potential Adaptation Measures identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo's Second national Communication (2009):

Water Resources

  • Evaluation and monitoring of the water resources, particularly those of the River Congo system and its tributaries.
  • Evaluation of the impact of this system on the quantity and quality of underground water.
  • The characterization and development of the watersheds identified in the city of Kinshasa for control of the surface run‐off.
  • The protection of the water resources against pollution.
  • Recourse to adaptation infrastructures capable of supporting the projected hydrological variations, and the economic, social and ecological costs of the adopted measures.
  • The establishment of communities on the Kinshasa hill areas, after development, and on the BatÈkÈ Plateau in order to protect them from the injurious effects of floods. 

Coastal Area

  • Regulation of mangrove development
  • Coastal Area Development Policy
  • Delineation of building and residential areas
  • Diversification of activities and rationalization of farmers/fishemen

Health

  • Reinforcement of the medical personnelís professional capacities,
  • Identification and destruction of the pathogensí hideouts,
  • Organisation of preventive actions against  vectorial diseases,
  • Reinforcement of the cleansing system,
  • Organisation of the populationís education and training, and the raising of its awareness, 
  • Improvement of the food supply system. 
  • Popularisation of the use of anti‐mosquito grids,
  • Use of impregnated window screen,
  • Eradication of mosquito deposits, 
  • Mosquito eradication on a national scale 
  • Reinforcement of the populationís nutritional capacities,
  • The fight against social exclusion and community promotion
  • Mapping of the habitat areas at climatic risk  

Agriculture

  • Use short‐cycle varieties, maize, rice and beans in particular
  • Develop livestock breeding
  • Upgrade alternative crops (peanuts and beans)
  • Reinforce soil conservation activities
  • Build reservoirs and water retention ponds
  • Develop intensive livestock breeding
  • Integrated crop protection  

Land and Ecosystem Degradation

  • Develop reforestation and soil conservation programmes 
  • Development of more efficient agro‐sylvo pastoral management methods
  • Promotion of renewable energies and domestic fuels as substitution for ligneous fuels
  • Participative and community management of natural resources by the civil society and the rural communities 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of theDemocratic Republic of Congo
Aime Mbuyi Kalombo
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Dominican Republic- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions

Key Vulnerabilities identified in the Dominican Republic's Second National Communication (2009):
  • Agriculture
  • Water Resources
  • Health
  • Tourism
  • Biodiversity
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-69.8950103684 18.5070370473)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 
Potential Adaptation Measures identified in the Dominican Republic's Second National Communication (2009):

Agriculture

  • Climate scientific studies in agricultural production;
  • Regionalization of crops;
  • Introduction of varieties resistant to unfavorable climatic conditions;
  • Improvement technologies and technological discipline in agricultural production;
  • Redistribution of sowing areas between different crops;
  • New techniques in agricultural production;
  • Adopting new nutritional habits;
  • Adaptation to new conditions as related to the integrated fight against pests and diseases in agricultural crops.

Water Resources

  • The country must continue to receive economic and technical support in order to deepen its knowledge of priority objectives and support those strategies that will lead us to the desired scenario, both locally and worldwide.

Health (Malaria)

  • Availability of a malaria epidemiological vigilance system, integrated and decentralized, which will allow for timely decision-making at all levels.
  • An integrated and decentralized laboratory network which allows for fast and trustworthy diagnosis for an opportune and efficient treatment, based on health services.
  • An integrated and decentralized entomological vigilance network which allows for information analysis for an efficient and timely vector control.
  • Implementation of a health education strategy and an effective community participation, where all sectors of society would come together to optimize actions for the prevention and control of malaria.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of the Dominican Republic
Juan Mancebo
Coordinador of Climate Change Project
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Nigeria's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, has identified several priority adaptation actions which include: diversification and extension of protected areas for the conservation of ecosystems that are most vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise; maintaining ecological structure and processes at all levels and reducing existing pressure on natural ecosystems; reducing population and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change and reorientation of their evolution towards higher resistance to the changes; incorporating biodiversity conservation into adaptation strategies in the other sectors of the Nigerian economy; establishment and maintenance of protected area, and the active management of wild populations outside of protected areas; development and implementation of programmes for restricted areas and buffer zones, resource harvesting on a sustainable basis, ecological restoration, sustainable management and agro ecosystems; and monitoring to evaluate species and ecosystems stability from climate change perspective.

To view progress on Nigeria's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (7.48824923671 9.06578574665)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
470,000
Co-Financing Total: 
460,000
Project Details: 

In order to minimize the negative impact of climate change on the ecosystems, water resources, socioeconomic domains, a number of adaptation measures are open to Nigeria. They range from education to inform and encourage behavioural change to changing location and use, preventing effects, modifying threats, and sharing loss.

Key Vulnerabilities:
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Fisheries
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Tourism
  • Energy

In Nigeria, in addition to autonomous adaptation, there must also be planned adaptation and adoption of strategies. These will include, among others: Diversification and extension of protected areas for the conservation of ecosystems that are most vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise; Maintaining ecological structure and processes at all levels and reducing existing pressure on natural ecosystems; Reducing population and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change and reorientation of their evolution towards higher resistance to the changes; Incorporating biodiversity conservation into adaptation strategies in the other sectors of the Nigerian economy; Establishment and maintenance of protected area (in situ preservation), and the active management of wild populations outside of protected areas (ex situ management); Development and implementation of programmes for restricted areas and buffer zones, resource harvesting on a sustainable basis, ecological restoration, sustainable management and agro ecosystems; and Monitoring to evaluate species and ecosystems stability from climate change perspective.

With an estimated population of over 170 million, the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Its 923,800 square kilometres occupies about 14% of West Africa. The country lies between 4oN and 14oN and between 3oE and 15oE. It is bordered on the north, east, and west by Niger, the Cameroon, and Benin Republic, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean forms the southern boundary. The total length of the coastline of the country is about 850 km.

The highest areas are in the east, north, and west, where land is generally over 1,500 metres, 600 metres, and 300 metres respectively. The low-lying areas, which are generally below 300 metres, lie along the coast and along the valleys of the main rivers. (Fig. 1.3). The Udi Plateau, which lies to the east, however attains a height of over 300 meters and this breaks the monotony of the coastal lowlands, which are also characterized by creeks and lagoons on both sides of the Niger Delta. West of the Niger Delta, the coastal areas consist of lagoons and swamps, separated from the open sea, by a strip of sandy land, which varies in width from 2 to 16 kilometres. The Lagos entrance is the only major outlet through which the lagoons and creeks drain into the sea. The section which lies in the east of the Niger Delta consists of creeks and swamps which stretch from Opobo town through the Cross River estuary to the border with the Cameroon.

The Niger Delta is a low-lying region, cut up by a complicated system of natural channels through which the River Niger finds its way to the sea. It is made up of three distinct subregions. They are (a) freshwater zone (b) the mangrove swamps, and (c) the zone of coastal sands and beach ridges. The freshwater zone, which starts from the apex of the delta, just below the town of Aboh, is essentially an extension of the lower Niger floodplains. The numerous water channels in this zone are bordered by natural levees, which provide the sites for most of the settlements and farmlands in the zone. The mangrove swamps, covering about 10,360 square kilometers and located to the south of the freshwater swamps, are sparsely settled. Strips of sandy beaches and ridges, which vary from a few meters to 16 kilometers, separate the mangrove swamps from the open sea. In addition to natural levees, ox-bow lakes are common landforms in the Niger Delta. The high rainfall in the region, coupled with the abundance of surface water and the flat terrain, create a serious drainage problem and makes road construction very difficult.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Muyiwa Odele
Country Officer
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Montenegro's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Montenegro has identified several priority sectors at risk from climate change related events, these include: water resources, coastal areas, agriculture, forestry, bio-diversity, and public health. Temperature rises in the Mediterranean are expected to lead to significant disruptions in local ecosystems due to severe weather events and the migration of invasive species into warming waters. These effects will likely lead to reduced productivity and public health concerns.

To view progress on Montenegro's SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.2590668001 42.4558628542)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
390,000
Co-Financing Total: 
390,000
Project Details: 

Montenegro is a mountainous country in the Southeast Europe which regained its independence in 2006. The total length of its land borders is 614 km. The section of the Adriatic Sea coast in the country is 293 km long. The total surface of the state territory is 13,812 km2, and of the territorial sea approximately 2,540 km2.

Geographic Characteristics

The northern part of the country is dominated by high mountains, descending through a karst segment in the central part with large depressions/plains, to a coastal plain varying  in width from several hundreds of meters to several kilometers. The lowest part of the central inland area are the valleys of the Zeta River and the lower Moraca River, comprising the Zeta-Bjelopavlići plain with the Lake Skadar, the largest lake in the Balkans. The mountain ranges in the north include 37 peaks with heights above 2,000 meters.  The deepest canyon in Europe, the Tara River Gorge with a depth of up to 1,300 m, is also located in the northern mountainous region.

Climate

The southern region of Montenegro and the Zeta-Bjelopavlići plain have Mediterranean climate, with long, hot and dry summers and relatively mild, rainy winters. The central and  northern regions of the country have certain characteristics of mountain climate, although the influence of the Mediterranean Sea is also evident. The continental climate in  the far north is characterized by large daily and annual temperature ranges, in addition to low annual precipitation, rather evenly distributed over all months.The average annual air  temperatures vary from approximately 15.80 C in the south to 4.60 C in Žabljak. The duration of the sunny periods varies from 2,400 to 2,600 hours per year on the coast, i.e.  from 1,600 to 1,900 hours in the mountains. Annual precipitation is very uneven, ranging from approximately 800 mm in the far north to about 5,000 mm in the far south. On the  slopes of Mount Orjen, at the village of Crkvice (940 m above the sea level), precipitation may even reach 7,000 mm in record years.

Land Use

Agricultural land covers approximately 5,145 km², which is 37% of the total country area; about 6,225 km² or 45% is covered by forests, while the settlements, roads, rocky areas and other categories encompass the remaining 2,442 km² or 18% of the total territory.

Water Resources

The water resources distribution and abundance vary significantly in Montenegro. Generally speaking, with an average annual runoff of 624 m3/s (i.e. the volume of 19.67 billion m3), the territory of Montenegro falls among the water rich areas.

Forests

Forests occupy approximately 620,000 hectares or 45% of the total land area, while non-overgrown forest land takes up another 123,000 hectares (9%). The forest cover ratio is 0.9 ha/person. An overall timber stock is estimated to about 72 million m3, out of which 29.5 million m3 or 41% are conifers, and 42.5 million m3 or 59% are deciduous trees.

Coastal Area

The coastal zone (six coastal municipalities) encompasses approximately 11% of the national territory. This region includes a zone designated as special purpose coastal area (public maritime domain – “morsko dobro”), which is a narrow coastal belt with the surface of approximately 60 km2, including inland waters and the territorial sea covering  altogether approximately 2,540 km2.

Environment

Significant sources of air pollution are the main industrial and energy complexes using old technologies, which as a rule apply no adequate mitigation measures. The transport-related air pollution is increasing, especially in city centers. The air quality, evaluated from the aspect of global indicators, is satisfactory. For particular pollutants and at particular  locations, it is necessary to take some pollution prevention measures. In addition to communal wastewater (which is mostly discharged into the natural recipients  without prior treatment), untreated industrial wastewater and inadequately disposed waste also make a significant contribution to the pollution of water bodies. The quality of  surface waters is generally assessed to be good, with occasional non-compliance with the prescribed standards. Montenegro has a very rich flora and fauna, as well as diverse ecosystems. With approximately 3,250 plant species, the country is viewed as one of the floristically most diverse regions of the Balkan Peninsula, whereas the species-to-area  ratio of vascular plants is very high, amounting to 0.837. The total share of protected areas in the national territory is 9.21%, and it mainly refers to the five national parks. The data on the generated, collected, treated and disposed volumes of waste, as well as on specific waste streams, are either incomplete or entirely missing, so the planning of waste  management is still largely based on estimates.

Climate Change Pressures

Water Resources

Analysis show that in the territory covering approximately 90% of the country there is a reduction – deficit of annual precipitation that ranges even up to 20% in certain areas. As water resources have a high degree of correlation with rainfall amount and regime, identified reduction in rainfall will also generate changes in water resources. Changes in water resources are reflected in a pronounced amplitude and oscillations, yield reduction, a sharp increase in flood waters and longer periods with reduced capacity. 

In the climate period 2071-2100, according to the model of correlation between the volumes of rainfall and runoff, the trend of change in flow of the Morača river water resource through Podgorica will be reduced by 31% compared to the climatological normal for the period 1961-1990.

Considering the scenario for the changes in precipitation and temperature until 2100, a strong disturbance in the balance of water resources is expected. given that there is a high degree of correlation between precipitation and the volume of flow and yield, in accordance with future climate scenarios, in which the precipitation is expected to decrease by different percentages ranging up to 50% in certain period (A2 scenario for the period 2071-2100), it can be expected that an overall water balance (water potential) will be reduced in certain areas even by as much as 50%. Climate change, especially in the precipitation regime, will determine the changes in water resources, as follows: in the first place a reduction of overall water balance, and then an increase of amplitudes of hydrological cycles.

Accordingly, even in the years with low overall water balance and expressed fluctuation, there will be periods with severe deficit and those with a high surplus in rainfall. Flood waves will become more common due to the increased intensity of rainfall.  The most significant adaptation measures for water resources would include the establishment of a registry of water resources, individual water resource mapping, including all characteristics, and identifying areas of potential danger; water resources of fundamental importance, such as water sources, would have to be protected against any uncontrolled exploitation; establishment of high-level information exchange amongst institutions dealing with water resources as well as procurement of state of the art automatic masurment and control equipment.

Coastal Area

One of the consequences of global warming concerns increasing of the sea level. There are more reasons that lead to the sea level rising. In the first place, this is due to thermal expansion of water, caused by increasing sea temperatures. According to the estimates of the fourth IPCC report, the sea level is projected to rise by approximately 75% until the end of the century, as a result of thermal expansion, and only by 25% due to the melting of glaciers and the areas under the eternal ice.

The upper limit for the sea level increase in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, including the Adriatic-Ionian basin, was +35 cm for the period 2071-2100 and the A2 scenario, of which +13 cm as a result of thermal expansion, +18 cm as a result of melting glaciers and permafrost, -2 cm as a result of changes in atmospheric pressure fields over the Mediterranean and +6 cm as a result of changes in circulation in the basin itself.

Rising of the Adriatic Sea level by approximately 35cm will provoke serious consequences. The water will continuously flood a large part of the coast that is now on the verge of flooding, and the tidal flood wave area will significantly increase, even in places that have never been targeted by the flood wave before. The naturally established equilibrium will be disturbed by the sea level rising. A large part of the beach area will be reduced, and some beaches will disappear, while the Bojana river will not be able to retain its natural flow to point where it joins the sea; the Bojana river delta will disappear; the torrential flows will not be discharged normally into the coastal waters, so that those will spread across the surrounding environment well before the imagined natural coast line, and this will lead to the flooding of areas which have not had such flood characteristics before.

The most important adaptation measures would include the development of a very high quality and operational service for monitoring the condition of the shore and the waves and warning about the existence of any danger a few days in advance, as well as the preparation of spatial planning documentation which should also include the effects of climate change on the coast, so as to prohibit the construction and urbanization in any zones that may be potentially exposed to dangerous tidal waves as a result of the new situation.

Agriculture

The analysis of agriculture as a vulnerable sector includes the effect of climate change on land, crop production and animal husbandry. Special attention is focused on the impact of the results of climate scenarios on crop production. The study included the calculation of reference evapotranspiration (eto), as well as of water demand by plants.

Looking at the obtained values of summary reference evapotranspiration in the winter period for 3 different scenarios, it can be seen that the scenario A1B (2001-2030) shows an increased value of eto as compared to the base climate scenario (1961-1990), by 3.6% to 8.7%. Lower values of eto increasing correspond to the coastal sectors with the Mediterranean climate, while the higher ones correspond to the mountain and continental climate. An increase in the reference eto for two scenarios relating to the period 2071-2100 amounts to 10.3-20.2% in the A1B scenario, and from 12-23.5% in the A2 scenario. The same increasing trend appears, as in the previous scenario, in case of the sectors with the Mediterranean, mountain and continental climate. expressed in absolute values (mm of water column), this increase is the greatest in the A2 scenario (2071-2100) amounting to 12 mm.

The most important adaptation measures include irrigation and drainage systems in regulating the water content in the zone of root systems, reduced tillage, deep tillage, surface covering with crop residue, soil spreading, or the density of planting may be modified, all in order to preserve a certain volume of moisture in the root zone system.

Forestry

The sensitivity of forest ecosystems to climate change impacts is commonly observed in the context of social capabilities and capacity of natural ecosystems to remain resistant or easily adaptable to the changed conditions in nature. The expected climate changes will result in the shifting of certain vegetation zones (forest types), both in terms of latitude and altitude. In some areas an increased drying of trees may be expects, as a result of stress and attacks of pests and plant diseases, as well as reducing weight gain, slower natural regeneration and greater damages caused by forest fires and atmospheric disasters.

On the basis of the results of climate scenario for the territory of Montenegro, expected changes in climate factors would have an adverse impact on the forest ecosystem, demonstrated by reducing moisture in the soil (particularly during the growing season when the plants need it the most), a prolonged duration of the growing season and hampered natural regeneration. Expected climate change will influence the disappearance of sensitive forest types (species with narrow ecological valence), shift climate zones, and thereby shift the borders of certain forest types (vegetation zones) in relation to latitude and altitude.

The most important mitigation measures include implementing forest management systems that support and protect sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of forests, increasing forest area, care and protection of existing forests, conversion of coppice forests into high forests; reconstruction of degraded forests; sanitary felling in forests affected.

Biodiversity

It is very difficult to evaluate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity because the changes occur slowly and the effects of these changes are always in interaction with other influences that have already caused certain consequences and reactions. In line with the expected climate change (increased temperature and reduced humidity), a reduction in and loss of species is expected, primarily those related to freshwater ecosystems, as well as species vulnerable to significant fluctuations in temperature and humidity environments (amphibians).

It is estimated that this may reduce and fully endanger the populations of amphibians and reptiles in karst areas of old Montenegro and karst regions of Kuča-Žijovo, as well as in the coastal mountains of rumija, Lovćen and orjen. A temperature increase in the continental part of Montenegro would eventually lead to acceleration of eutrophication of mountain lakes, and then to their withdrawal and complete disappearance.

Data on the phenology of woody species already indirectly indicate the presence of the consequences of climate change on the productivity of some ecosystems in Montenegro. Available data show that the listing of some species (black locust, linden, oak, maple, ash, beech, poplar, alder, pine, and maritime pine) begins a few days earlier than usual. Listing of given species begins around 12 days earlier than on average.

In relation to the marine ecosystem, the foreseen climate change would lead to faster eutrophication of shallow and confined parts of the sea waters, as well as the introduction of new thermophilic (invasive) species from southern marine biogeographic zones. Also, one of the main problems may be migration of marine species through the Suez canal, mainly from the red Sea, the Pacific and Indo-Pacific areas into the Mediterranean.

Significant measures to mitigate the consequences of climate change on biodiversity would cover the establishment of scientific infrastructure for the purpose of investigation of the impact of climate change on biodiversity, terrestrial ecosystems and the sea, training of experts; establishment of an intersectoral group which will deal with issues of water resources management and protection of biodiversity, etc.

Public Health

Climate change and weather conditions are related to human health in a complex manner. The changed climate has direct and indirect and predominantly negative effects on human health, causing changes and events in an organism which can cause injury, illness and disease with a fatal outcome. In addition to direct impacts on health and disease, climate change leads to a rapid growth, development and propagation of disease vectors (mosquitoes, ticks) that transmit malaria, leishmaniasis, sandflies fever, dengue, viral encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.

Climate change directly affects the availability of water, crop yield, production and quality of food, + as a consequence causes a higher frequency of disease due to impaired water supply and unsafe food leading to diarrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, salmonellas, hepatitis and others. The effects of air pollution and soil lead to a number of diseases and premature death.

There are no reliable health statistics in Montenegro on the effects of climate change on population health, illness and dying there, because no attributes necessary for such a complex evaluation are contained in the mandatory health records

Source: Initial National Communication on Climate Change of Montenegro, 2010.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Vulnerability and Adaptation Measures

In order to improve assessment of vulnerability and adaptation, as well as proposed measures for the next Communication, it would be useful to:

  • Establish an expert/ advisory body for climate change and/or a separate body for vulnerability and adaptation;
  • Establish particularly vulnerable areas by sectors, where more significant effects of climate change can be expected, and pay special attention to such areas in the formulation and implementation of sectoral policies;
  • Strengthen the support to scientific research and improve cooperation/exchange of information among all stakeholders, and
  • Establish databases by sectors and ensure their regular updating.

For the implementation of adaptation measures, the following needs were identified:

  • Prepare the cadastre of water resources, protect the most important water resources, and improve water information system (including modeling, simulation, early warning).
  • Provide for adjustment of spatial planning documentation to the effects of climate change in coastal area; preparation of a coastal zone management strategy, taking into account the impacts of climate change.
  • Determine the sensitivity of particular agricultural regions to climate change, identify the most vulnerable ones; strengthen research and training of agricultural producers;  disseminate information about the appropriate adaptation measures.
  • Adjusted fertilizer application (control of mineral, promoting organic), reduced tillage, raising farmers’ awareness, reforestation, adapted techniques of irrigation, changing cultures and ways of cultivation; analysing suitability of regions for specific breeds and species of livestock, breeding livestock species that are resistant to heat stress and disease.
  • Application of sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of forest resources,enhancement of forest stocks in general and of forests in the karst areas, increase in the area under protective forests; monitoring and risk assessment, are of crucial importance for adaptation.
  • Collection of necessary data for the assessment of impacts of climate change on biodiversity, training of experts, awareness raising.
  • Education, information dissemination to encourage changes in behavior and build awareness on the impacts of climate change on health and thus reduce the effects in the  future; strengthening of information systems and systems for managing health risks from climate change, elaboration of preventive measures.

Potential Adaptation Measures

Coastal Zone Management

  • Developing high quality and very operational services for monitoring the condition of the shore and waves, as the biggest potential danger, and early warning of the existence  of danger, several days in advance;
  • Amendments to the applicable legislation in the field of spatial planning in order to include the problem of climate change in coastal during the preparation of spatial planning documentation, so as to prohibit the construction and urbanization of the areas that will be exposed to potentially dangerous tidal waves as a result of the new situation;
  • The existing infrastructure facilities should be resized to stand the load of new extreme climatic parameters and waves. This means that the existing buildings should be further strengthened and a maximally adapted to new climatic parameters and the new state of the sea level;
  • Provide for maximum possible protection of water sources from the penetration of sea water.
  • If possible, specific reservoirs should be moved to higher elevations, where only a few meters more would be enough to keep the situation completely under control;
  • Some buildings should be demolished and the inhabitants relocated, thus allowing for an unimpeded propagation of strong tidal waves, with no consequences for the environment and the people;
  • Some parts of the coast, will be completely flooded several times a year, and no life or existence will be possible to be established there. According to the present situation regarding the level of population and urbanization, it is expected that between 10% and 20% of the urbanized coast will be relocated, as a measure of adaptation.

Agriculture

Climate Change Impact: Reduction of organic matter in soil due to increased temperature and aridity that affect its faster decomposition.
Adaptation Measures: Application of organic fertilizers; System of recommendations for the application of mineral fertilizers on the basis of analysis of plant body-parts; Growing of leguminous plants and their plowing; Reduced cultivation

Climate Change Impact: Accelerated soil erosion, primarily through increased soil erodibility, a change in land use, increased rainfall intensity and longer dry periods.
Adaptation Measures: afforestation; implementation of new irrigation techniques; increasing awareness of farmers

Public Health

What needs to be done as a priority, through education and continuous information, is to encourage a change in behavior, build awareness of population about the impact of  climate on health, and how to reduce the impact of future climate change. Necessary primary measures of adaptation for the purpose of prevention, preparedness and action to prevent, mitigate and adapt to climate change include:

  • Permanent surveillance and control of health safety of drinking water;
  • Maintaining and improving water and sewer infrastructure, with special emphasis on the coastal part;
  • Air monitoring;
  • Quality control and improvement of the food chain; production and implementation of national action plans for food;
  • Strengthening of surveillance and control of communicable diseases;
  • Strengthening of the already existing public health measures of disease control and health protection, especially for high-risk groups;
  • Development and implementation of legal regulations concerning the environment and health;
  • Strengthening of regional and international cooperation to manage the risks carried by climate change;
  • Reform and strengthening of the public health sector for the coming climate change, its early organization and professional training in extreme situations, and especially well  organized emergency medical services;
  • Preparation of national action plans, strategies for the prevention of effects of climate change on human health, their mitigation, adaptation to new conditions, especially for  extreme heat;
  • Establishing a national system for early warning of impending disasters;
  • Inter-sectoral collaboration, research, pilot projects and studies on the influence of meteorological parameters on health, which will help finding the correlation between climate change and health.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Milica Begovic
Country Officer
UNDP
Milica Begovic
Country Officer
UNDP
Snezana Marstijepovic
Program Coordinator
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