Drought/Water Scarcity

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Regional project for the conservation and sustainable development of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is home to a growing population that has urgent needs to address the impacts of climate change on the water resources and the ecosystem of the basin. It provides for millions of people living in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a diverse range of environmental services. It is also an important center for the provisioning of food and water, supporting land and nutrient cycling, regulatory ground water replenishment, carbon sequestration, air purification, as well as a wonderful spot for simple recreation.

Over the last 45 years, Lake chad has lost 90 percent of its volume and surface area, creating serious environmental, economic and social challenges for people whose lives and livelihoods depend on the lake. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and economic growth. The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of a better life. In 2008 a previous UNDP-supported GEF-financed project assisted the countries and the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in preparing a regional transboundary diagnostic analysis leading to a regionally endorsed Strategic Action Programme (SAP).

The “Improving Lake Chad management through building climate change resilience and reducing ecosystem stress through implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the Lake Chad basin” project has a focus to initiate the implementation of the SAP with the overall objective to achieve climate resilient, integrated ecosystem-based management of the Lake Chad Basin through implementation of agreed policy, legal and institutional reforms, and investments that improve water quality and quantity, protect biodiversity, and sustain livelihoods. Meeting this objective will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and its member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies and to address unsustainable land/water practices responding to the SAP and the regionally agreed Water Charter.

The project will focus on developing and implementing policies, investments and improved integrated ecosystem-based lake management through enhanced basin-wide monitoring, and developing and managing regional projects in accordance with the basin’s priorities expressed in the Lake Chad SAP and other relevant strategic documents for the Lake Chad Basin.

Project outputs include: Strengthened and harmonised approaches to implementing sustainable legal and policy instruments across the Lake Chad Basin countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria) leading to greater water availability through effective conjunctive use management of surface and groundwater; technical capacity and awareness of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to contribute to the sustainable management practices of the natural resources in the Lake Chad basin at both national and basin levels; LCBC and member states operating and utilising data and information from management information system for effective and sustainable land, water, and biodiversity resources management; LCBC, national governments and local communities gain practical experience and upscaling validation on sustainable ecosystem management and alternative livelihoods; assessment of stress reduction and livelihood strengthening activities identified in the SAP leads to a broad investment programme to further assist SAP implementation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (14.527588299127 13.044161588787)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$236 million (US$1.9 million UNDP, US$5.8 million LCBC, US$216 million partner governments, US$9.4 million GIZ, US$2.5 million IUCN)
Project Details: 

The relationship between environmental (natural) resources, livelihood and conflicts has long been established in literature. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and for economic growth. The basin’s population live mostly in rural areas and are strongly dependent on their natural resources. Desertification and the effects of climate change exacerbate the overexploitation of these natural resources.

The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is further exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of more secure lives and livelihoods.

In the long term, it is crucial to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, through long-term and co-ordinated management responses to the scale of the environmental challenges. In its vision 2015, the LCBC has expressed the responsibility of the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) Member States on the “common heritage-and other wetlands maintained at sustainable levels to ensure the economic security of the freshwater ecosystem resources, sustainable biodiversity and aquatic resources of the basin, the use of which should be equitable to serve the needs of the population of the basin, thereby reducing the poverty level”). Achieving this vision is still facing many difficulties in the Lake Chad Basin.

There is a crucial need to harmonise policies, legislation, enforcements, incentives, etc., between member states and on a regional basis to address environmental and socio-economic issues and mitigate disaster risks. A further challenge remains the absence of suitable mechanisms and instruments for mobilising internal and external financial resources, aimed at progressively achieving self-sufficiency for the sustainable management of resources in the Lake Chad Basin. Lastly, failing to integrate the risks of climate change and to build the resilience of the population will undermine all efforts to sustain the water resources, ecosystems and socio-economic development of the Lake Chad Basin and its inhabitants.

The project will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies to rectify unsustainable land/water practices and respond to climate change threats in accordance with the agreed SAP (and any updates).

The project will take advantage of key achievements of the previous (and ongoing) projects and regional policy agreements that have been strengthening LCBC capability for effective transboundary lake management. LCBC has acquired knowledge of Lake Chad’s potential resources and produced an inventory regarding the hydrology, geology, pedology and climatology with the support of international institutions. However, at the national level, the harmonization of sectoral policies for integrated management of land and water resources and ecosystems, and the capacity of the countries to address these issues remains a major challenge.

Addressing challenges

At the UNFCCC CoP 21 in Paris (December 2015), the high-profile problem of the significant loss of volume (90%) and surface area (90%) of Lake Chad over the last 45 years has been highlighted. The basin has suffered multiple years of declining rainfall. In addition to the climate change threats, the Lake Chad Basin Strategic Action Programme (SAP) (based on a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis - TDA) developed and endorsed by the riparian countries in 2008, identified the following interlinked transboundary issues that need to be addressed within the Lake Chad Basin:

  • Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability: the drastic decrease in fresh water availability in the LCB is a major concern. This is a result of variability in the hydrological regimes of the rivers and rainfall regimes in the region. Some of the root causes contributing to the overall degradation of the lake and its ecosystems include the absence of sustainable development in the political programs of the member states to handle the population pressure, and the insufficient awareness of stakeholders. The ecosystems degradation has led to continuing decline in local access to water, crop failures, livestock deaths, collapsed fisheries and wetlands services, etc. As identified in the SAP, the socioeconomic consequences of these impacts include food insecurity and declining health status of the population. Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability is considered to be the most significant problem, not only due to the above impacts, but also because it drives or contributes to the other six transboundary problems.
  • Water pollution: it is one of the immediate causes of biodiversity loss in the wetlands. The use of agrochemicals for commercial cotton and rice production, and the increasing oil exploitation in Chad with a lack of working regulations and environmental standards will increase inorganic chemical pollution and eutrophication of the Lake in the near future.  Moreover, the increasing urbanization resulting from the oil exploitation in Chad risks giving rise to domestic waste and increases pollution from oil spills. If these trends are maintained, the likelihood for drastic fisheries depletion and wider ecological damage is high.
  • Decreased viability of biological resources: the stress created by the overexploitation of the natural resources of Lake Chad are undermining the ability of the plant and animal populations to maintain their normal regenerative rate. There is an absence of appropriate and harmonized policies and plans between the Member States to regulate basin activities coupled by the insufficient awareness of the local population in the member states on environmental issues. It also contributes to biodiversity loss and increasing variability of hydrological regime and fresh water availability.
  • Loss of biodiversity: concerns the loss of plant and animal species, as well as damages to ecosystem health. It is rooted in population growth, absence of sustainable development in political programs, and low environmental awareness. This reduces ecosystem productivity and thus resources availability, resulting in deepening poverty. It also contributes to the decreasing viability of biological resources.
  • Loss and modification of ecosystems:  The TDA has identified extensive habitat and community modification that has been experienced in the lake and the river environment. The lake, for example, has changed from open water to a marshy environment, and about 50% of wetlands have been destroyed. This has been due predominantly to reduced flows resulting from the lack of sustainable development in the member states, as well as a low level of environmental awareness. The impact of the loss/modification of ecosystems has most impact on the decline of some fisheries and rice cultivation, as well as on biodiversity loss and the decreased viability of biological resources.
  • Sedimentation in rivers and water bodies: this has led to changes in channel flow patterns, a reduction in the inflows to the lake through channel diversion, and the colonisation of the silted sites by invasive species. It is driven mainly by unsustainable farming practices on marginal lands and is rooted in low environmental awareness, population pressure, and absence of sustainable development on the political agenda of the member states.
  • Invasive species: The Lake is being invaded by typha grass and water hyacinth. Typha is also a major problem in the Komadugu Yobe Basin, and quelea birds are the major pest prevalent all over the basin. Invasive species, to a large extent, are a function of poor water resources management, poor enforcement of environmental regulations and standards, etc. The typha grass blocks river channels and diverts flows, while the quelea destroys crops, both contributing to poverty through the loss of livelihoods.

 

Recognising that the development of the TDA was over a decade ago and there have been significant additions to the knowledge-base in the region, including on climate variability and change, and groundwater resources, the TDA is currently being updated (by GIZ) and this UNDP-GEF project will update the SAP. It is not expected that there will be significant changes to the above identified transboundary problems however the new and emerging regional issues (e.g. climate impacts and conjunctive use aspects of groundwater) will be incorporated to enhance the overall planning and decision making.

Alignment with ongoing strategies

The project is supportive of elements of the National Adaption Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) under the UNFCCC for CAR, Chad and Niger and the recent (2015) Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Plan (the project assistance will provided strengthen data and information management to aid the DRR plans for floods and droughts). The project is also consistent with, and supportive of, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) for all the Lake Chad Basin Countries.

All member states have developed NAPA as a response to climate change. The LCBC under this project will review each country’s NAPA and coordinate the implementation of aspects that falls within the transboundary mandate of the LCBC and the objectives of the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria have each developed and adopted a national biodiversity strategy and action plans aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In each of the biodiversity strategy, attention is paid to the role of biodiversity in poverty reduction and sustainable development. This project shall work within the goals of each country’s NBSAP and identify opportunities to coordinate transboundary implementation within Lake Chad Basin.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Output 1.1: The 2008 SAP updated on the basis of the revised TDA

Output 1.2: LCBC Biodiversity Protocol developed and adopted by all parties

Output 1.3: Disaster risk reduction response plans developed to ensure the protection of people, the environment and water resources

Output 1.4: LCBC’s coordination and monitoring capacity strengthened with effective reporting of performance to the Council of Ministers

Output 1.5: Strengthening LCBC’s capacity to develop and manage programmes and projects

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Output 2.1: Harmonising the national legal and policy frameworks for effective conjunctive management of surface and groundwaters to reflect the relevant provisions of the Water Charter

Output 2.2: Operationalize national inter-ministerial committees to improve coordination and support the policy mainstreaming process at the national level

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Output 3.1: Training national authorities on technical and environmental management

Output 3.2: Increase capacity in national research and academic institutions in the basin to conduct assessments on emerging issues in the Lake Chad basin and produce policy and management recommendations.

Output 3.3: Develop participation capacities and provide environmental awareness training of basin users

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Output 4.1 Transboundary lake basin monitoring system designed and agreed by all member states.

Output 4.2: Contribution to GEF IW:LEARN related activities for information sharing and knowledge management

Component 5. Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Output 5.1:  Regional/National pilot projects to control invasive plant species

Output 5.2: Promote ecosystem-based income-generating activities through sustainable financing schemes established at the national/local levels

Output 5.3: Development of National Replication sustainability strategies for community-based actions

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Output 6.1: Assessment of potential investments based on the SAP recommendations

Output 6.2: Pre-feasibility studies on potential bankable investments with outline budgets, scope of work and timescales

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Why Lake Chad Basin governors’ forum was established — UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday said its decision to facilitate the establishment of the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum was to ensure regional stabilisation, peace-building and sustainable development in the region. The Forum consists of governors from the seven States and provinces in the Lake Chad Basin region, including those in Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The officials were in Maiduguri, Borno State to discuss and agree on a framework for stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the Basin considered the epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis. Diminishing water levels of the Lake Chad, shared by eight countries in the region has pushed an estimated 12 per cent of the more than 370 million people who depend on it for crop and livestock farming, fishing, commerce and trade to abject poverty. The situation has triggered mass migration, conflicts and crises in the region, including the nine-year long Boko Haram insurgency, which resulted in mass displacement of millions across the region. The UNDP said the Boko Haram crisis traced to development-related challenges including multi-dimensional poverty has caused billions of dollars in damages to property and disruption of livelihoods in North-east Nigeria. At the inaugural meeting, the governors highlighted the need for all countries affected by the crisis to come together to tackle the challenges in the Basin. In a statement at the end of the meeting sent to PREMIUM TIMES on Wednesday the governors agreed to establish the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum. UNDP spokesperson, Lucky Musonda, said the Forum was a platform to enhance joint efforts towards “stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the region”.

Premium Times
Thursday 10 May 2018

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Component 5: Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia

The "Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia" aims to benefit more than 400,000 people, who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by the Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk. These pressures induced by climate change are weakening the already threatened water sources in the region, according to the Government of Colombia, affecting both the supply and quality of water that communities need to drink and water crops.

The project puts sustainable ecosystem management at the leading edge of disaster risk reduction by promoting healthier watersheds, protecting communities from floods and supporting poor rural populations to overcome water scarcity during the prolonged dry seasons. This ecosystem-based approach will also work towards achieving Colombia's Nationally Determined Contributions and a low-emission future, and will serve as a model to implement the first comprehensive climate-adaptive regional development plan. This includes the adoption of a long-term risk reduction strategy based not only on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management and the direct empowerment of vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage projected climate risks.

The project will also share new tools and technologies, such as the use of solar power and rain-water harvesting to address long-term water supply problems. This project was built with the support of local institutions, in particular from the Governor of Sucre, the municipalities of Guaranda, Majagual, Caimito, San Marcos, San Benito and Sucre-Sucre in the department of Sucre; Achí in the department of Bolivar, and Ayapel in the department of Cordoba. The universities of Cordoba and Sucre and the Regional Autonomous Corporation of the valleys of Sinú and San Jorge, CVS and Corpomojana, also participated. The most vulnerable communities in La Mojana also participated actively in the formulation of the project, including consultations with peasant and women associations, as well as the Zenues councils and the community councils of Afro-descendants.

The project scales up results that have been achieved in Colombia through other initiatives of the National Environmental System supported by UNDP, such as the Reducing risk and vulnerability to climate change in Colombia project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-75.810791105825 8.7157029633837)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
203,918 people residing in Colombia’s La Mojana region will be direct beneficiaries, with a further 201,707 people benefitting indirectly
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$38.4 million (Green Climate Fund)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities.
Project Details: 

The Scaling up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia project supports the Government of Colombia in scaling up climate resilient integrated water resource management practices in La Mojana - one of the poorest and most climate vulnerable regions in Colombia.

Extreme events, such as intense flooding and prolonged dry seasons have caused significant impacts to the population with climate projections expecting these to become more frequent and intense. Loss of agricultural crops that sustain livelihoods, significant changes to ecosystems that have previously provided a buffer to flooding, and adverse impacts from prolonged dry periods are common and worsening with time. In addition, climate change induced pressures are straining already stressed water sources in the region, affecting both supply and quality.

The government of Colombia has formulated the Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan for La Mojana (La Mojana Action Plan). This action plan differs from past approaches in the region which were reactive and focused on infrastructure solutions that failed to address comprehensive risk. The La Mojana Action Plan in turn promotes a comprehensive approach combining structural and ecosystem-based measures tailored to the environmental and socio-economic conditions of the local population, in order to adapt to projected floods.

The Action Plan, which is being implemented by the  Adaptation Fund  of Colombia (AF), was formulated based on studies, assessments and hydrological models of the La Mojana region including flooding dynamics as well planning processes that include national, regional and local stakeholders. The plan is innovative in that it prioritizes investment in adaptive and sustainable infrastructure, sanitation, socio-economic development, environmental dynamics recovery and strengthening of governance and local capacities It does this however mostly focusing flood mitigation aimed at protecting large economic drivers and investing in infrastructure such as housing, public works, and wetland canal restoration.

This project will tackle barriers derived from climate change related to lack of access of water sources directed at local populations, loss of resilience of natural ecosystems, limited access of early warning services and products, unsustainable management practices affecting household resilience, non-adapted local livelihoods to climate variability and limited knowledge on relevant issues related to integrated water management resources.

The project will have the objective to enhance climate resilience of vulnerable communities in the La Mojana by focusing on four outputs aimed at: (1) Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes, (2) Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration (3) Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency and (4) Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems.

Activities will focus on developing technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning, systemizing existing and new knowledge on water management in projected climate scenarios, investing in individual and community alternative water solutions, wetland restoration to recover its valuable water management services, developing climate adapted rural productive practices through technologies and scientific research and collection of traditional best practices, enhancing early warning systems monitoring and products, investing in climate resilient home gardens for crop diversification, and rural extension services.

The first comprehensive climate adaptive regional development plan will serve as a model for the rest of Colombia. This includes adopting a long-term climate change risk informed disaster risk reduction strategy that is based not solely on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management. Hence it will revolve around restoring the original hydrology of the wetlands, adapting the local economy and livelihoods to the natural variation in the level of water in the wetlands through the seasons by directly empowering vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage climate risks. It will also allow the implementation of new technologies to overcome threats posed by climate change impacts on the availability of water supply. 

The project scales up results that have already been tried and tested in Colombia while promoting a paradigm shift in the adoption of technology for water supply. The project is designed with significant community involvement to promote their long term resiliency and foster project ownership, with a gender-balanced focus.

The project is aligned with the development goals on climate change adaptation plan of the GoC, including Colombia’s 2015 Nationally Determined Contributions. The project design was informed by significant local and national consultations and has been endorsed by the National Designated Authority (NDA).

Climate change in Colombia

Colombia is among a list of most vulnerable countries in the world to extreme weather impacts due the high recurrence and magnitude of disasters associated with changing climate conditions. Between 1970 and 1999, Colombia experienced an average of 2.97 disasters per year. Both La Niña and El Niño have had, and continues to have, a significant impact in Colombia. The Seismic and Geophysical Observatory of Southwestern Colombia and the Office for Disaster Attention and Prevention state that between the years 1950-2007 rainfall related disasters increased by 16.1% especially during periods of La Niña. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the occurrence of disasters related to changing climate conditions in Colombia during 2000-2005 increased by 2.4 times when compared with the period from 1970 to 1999.

Climate change has exacerbated Colombia’s vulnerability as the impacts of La Niña and El Niño have become more frequent and more intense. The most recent La Niña phenomenon (between 2010-2011) was particularly destructive causing sustained damage to much of the country’s infrastructure, economy and human lives. Colombia has, in the last decades, recorded an increased incidence of flooding and prolonged dry periods. These impacts are likely to be magnified as projected changes in precipitation and temperature unfold. National climate change projections suggest that regions across Colombia will be affected differently. Some areas will receive more precipitation. Other regions are expected to face a reduction of rainfall, which coupled with higher temperatures, threaten the availability of water in those regions. For example, projected average precipitation between 2071 and 2100 is expected to decrease by between 10-30% in a third of the total national territory. Municipalities in 14% of the national territory are projected to experience an increase of 10-30% in precipitation during the same period.

With the prevalence of six very different climatic zones in Colombia, anticipated climate change projections call for adaptive solutions that are appropriate for each region. 27.8% of the total population and 47.8% of the rural population in Colombia is classified as poor, when measured under the GoC’s Multidimensional Poverty Index. While important gains have been made at poverty reductions, economic development has not spread evenly throughout the country.

The 60-year-old internal conflict that ended recently isolated certain regions. The lack of continuous access of the government and associated public services to these regions produced development deficiencies in comparison to the national average. The result is pockets of highly vulnerable population to climate change impacts. The La Mojana region, the focus of this project, is one such area.

The GoC is aware of the impact that climate change will have on its economy and in the wellbeing of its population. Colombia’s National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (PNACC) highlights key steps that the country must make as part of its long term planning and budgeting strategy. The strategy is to be followed by all levels of government to ensure that local action is based on regional priorities (informed by climate projections and vulnerabilities at a local level) and with a focus on protecting the most climate vulnerable, such as those in the region of La Mojana.

While Colombia has made great strides in poverty reduction, positive impacts have not been evenly spread among all regions. This is the case in La Mojana, where poverty levels exceed 1.5 times the median poverty levels in the country. According to the last municipal measurement to the Multidimensional Poverty Index, La Mojana it is one of the poorest regions of the country. In 2005, 83.8% of the population of La Mojana was classified as poor (as measured by GoC’s multidimensional poverty index) when compared with 49.6% of the national average. This situation is a result of highly climate vulnerable work (agriculture and livestock based) that has been recurrently affected by extreme climate (flooding and extended dry periods), rural isolation, lack of basic services (water, sanitation and health) and low education achievement.

Access to reliable sources of safe drinking water is one of the most critical issues in La Mojana. Over 42% of the population has no access to drinking water, and where water is available, the access is extremely unequal. 20% of the population in Magangué lack access to water. In contrast, more than 80% of the population in Achi and Ayapel do not have access to safe water. This situation is only going to be compounded and exacerbated by the projected reduction in precipitation and the higher incidence of more intense and frequent extreme events such as floods and prolonged dry periods. These extreme events, which are already observed today, will not only affect water supply (particularly during prolonged dry periods), but also water quality. During floods, polluted water infiltrates wells and results in contamination of groundwater. The impact on increased morbidity among the population is a concern. For example, in Achi, the second leading cause of death for children under 5 is acute diarrheal diseases (ADD) related to poor drinking water quality.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Activity 1.1. Develop technical models and guidelines to enable decision making for long term water management planning for La Mojana

The project will develop a groundwater flow and quality model to ascertain the long-term dependability of groundwater solutions (a solution that has been implemented in the past through both legal and illegal ground water wells at a household and productive level and has become more common as water has become more scarce).

Activity 1.2 Management of adaptation knowledge on water management

The project will implement a knowledge management program that will create a data bank on adaptive water management, systematize lessons learned and implement training and capacity building programs targeted to relevant stakeholders at the national, regional and local level. The data bank will systematize the lessons learned from the GCF Project and will serve to develop knowledge management tools created to target stakeholders in the region such as municipal authorities, community councils, community leaders, extension workers, productive associations and national authorities. This will include the development of training material (web courses, workbooks, planning guides, etc.) and targeted workshops.

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Activities through this output are focused on diffusing regionally appropriate climate change risk sensitive water management solutions among rural communities in La Mojana (among both rural disperse and rural nuclei). Through this output, the project will procure goods and services to put in place flood resilient water infrastructure and undertake wetland restoration works. These solutions will advance climate resilient, sustainable and safe water access to La Mojana’s most water vulnerable communities and be congruent to regional climate projections. Sub activities are adapted and differentiated to address the different access needs based on the level of dispersion and water vulnerability of the population

Activity 2.1 Establish Climate Resilient Water Solutions
Activity 2.1.1. Provide household water solutions for the most water vulnerable populations in rural disperse areas.
Activity 2.1.2 Provide community water solutions for water vulnerable populations
Activity 2.1.3. Adaptation of existing water infrastructure solutions in the region.

Activity 2.2. Increase the adaptive capacity of natural ecosystems and ecosystems-based livelihoods

GCF funds will be used to prepare and implement community restorations plans for 41,532 ha of the wetlands (lentic ecosystems) as well as to address the main underlying causes of wetland degradation- livestock use and over grazing. GoC co-financing funds will restore 50 km of wetland channels to reestablish the natural water flow of the three rivers in La Mojana. Restoration will ensure community participation and ownership through strategies aimed at reincorporating wetlands to their livelihoods.

Activity 2.2.1. Establish an integrated wetland restoration plan and monitoring system.
Activity 2.2.2 Implementing community restoration plans for integrated wetland restoration plan.
Activity 2.2.3 Create ecosystem compatible livelihoods.
Activity 2.2.4 Enhance women’s leadership in ecosystem restoration informed by climate change risks.
Activity 2.2.5 will use GCF funds to address a key driver of wetland degradation and support the long term sustainability of community wetland restoration plans by developing a code of good practices for cattle livestock in wetlands.

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 3 will enhance the current early warning system through improved monitoring and forecasting capacity, increased hydrological coverage, and the dissemination of regional and productive relevant alerts that are tailored to users’ needs and communication channels. Management arrangements for the implementation process will include national government agencies such as IDEAM, the local environmental authorities (Corporaciones Autonomas), and the Regional Forecasting Center that is being created with co-financing from the GoC.

Activity 3.1. Enhancement of EWS

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

Output 4 is focused on the promotion of agro-diverse and climate resilient crops in the region and the implementation of climate adapted productive practices to enhance rural livelihoods and enable resiliency to future climate outlooks for La Mojana. GCF funds under output will be used for research and implementation of adaptive local agriculture and livestock practices to favor correct water management at a household, productive and landscape level. The output will enable water resiliency in the region to ensure that livelihoods are adapted to climate projections.

Ativity 4.1. Conduct Agro-ecosystems based livelihood diversification research
Activity 4.2 Improve rural extension for climate resilient adaptation and production.
Activity 4.3 Improve water resource management in vulnerable households for food production systems

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Gabor Vereczi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

The hanging gardens of Colombia

ReliefWeb
Friday 6 April 2018

To insulate vulnerable communities from floods and restore wetlands, Colombia promotes the use of recycled materials, suspended gardens and climate-smart agriculture. “I have guavas, lemons, oranges, tangerines, coconuts, passion fruits, chilies, eggplants, yuccas, yams and rice,” says Doña Zoila Guerra, grey-streaked hair framing her sunburnt face. “Every year in December I sell yuccas, which are thin now, but will be good by Christmas.” She speaks proudly as she surveys the cilantro planted in the garden behind her house in the Cuenca Community in San Marcos, Sucre. In 2010, Colombia was hit by widespread flooding. The flood waters wiped out farms, and flows of contaminants from illegal mines damaged crops, poisoned fish and killed mangroves and trees, making it hard for families to put healthy food on the table.

Campesinos colombianos reciben espaldarazo de US$35 millones del Fondo Verde del Clima

La cancillería de Colombia anunciño que en la 18ª reunión de la Junta del Fondo Verde para el Clima – FVC, Colombia logró que esa entidad le aprobara el proyecto “Scaling up climate resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in La Mojana”, un proyecto que viene ejecutando el Ministerio de Ambiente con el PNUD Colombia desde 2010, que busca mejorar la adaptación al cambio climático de las comunidades en la Depresión Momposina. El proyecto, que se centrará en que las comunidades mejoren su gestión del agua, tiene un costo de US$117 millones, de los cuales, $38,5 millones son recursos no reembolsables del FVC. La forma como el dinero llegará a las comunidades será a través del Fondo de Adaptación y de las diversas entidades territoriales donde tiene presencia el proyecto. El proyecto es bastate ambicioso. De acuerdo con la cancillería, se ejecutará en los próximos ocho años, y cerca de 400.000 personas de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena, Cauca y San Jorge se verán beneficiadas por el mismo. El Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) será el encargado de ejecutar los recursos. Hasta el momento, el proyecto ya ha creado 1.300 huertas comunitarias que, a su vez, son resilientes al cambio climático. Las comunidades locales en los municipios de Ayapel, San Marcos y San Benito Abad han implementado prácticas agroecológicas resilientes al cambio climático.

El Espectador Colombia
Monday 23 October 2017

Green Climate Fund approves project to strengthen climate-resilient water management practices for vulnerable communities in Colombia

ReliefWeb
Tuesday 3 October 2017

US$117 million from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, including a US$38 million grant from the Green Climate Fund will benefit more than 400,000 people vulnerable to climate change Colombia, October 2, 2017 - The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved a project to “Scale Up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana, Colombia.“ The project's actions are aimed at benefiting more than 400,000 people who will participate in strengthening water management, early warning systems and creating livelihoods resilient to climate change. The US$117 million project will be implemented by Colombia’s Adaptation Fund, among other national organizations, with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The project adds a US$38.4 million grant from the Green Climate Fund to US$61.8 million in co-financing from Colombia’s Adaptation Fund and US$17 million from local entities. "The effects of climate change on La Mojana are severe. The income of its inhabitants is being affected by the loss of crops as well as by large-scale changes to their ecosystems, which translate into increased flood risks and prolonged periods of drought that are putting the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers at risk," said the Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development Luis Gilberto Murillo.

ONU dona US$38,5 millones para mitigar efectos del cambio climático en La Mojana

RCN Radio
Monday 2 October 2017

El Fondo Verde del Clima, creado por las Naciones Unidas para apoyar a los países en desarrollo en la adaptación y mitigación del cambio climático, aprobó una donación de US$38,5 millones (aproximadamente $113.000 millones) para fortalecer la capacidad de adaptación de las comunidades de La Mojana, en Sucre, Córdoba y Bolívar, ante inundaciones y sequías. Dicho aval se dio durante la edición 18 de la Junta Directiva del Fondo Verde del Clima, realizada en el Cairo (Egipto). Los recursos se ejecutarán durante los próximos ocho años, es decir, hasta el año 2025. “El valor total del proyecto asciende a US$117,2 millones, por lo que los recursos restantes se financiarán así: US$61,7 millones del provendrán del Fondo de Adaptación y US$17 millones de entidades locales”, señalaron voceros de Planeación Nacional.

 

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Systemizing knowledge management of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning purposes

Output 2: Promoting climate resilient water resource infrastructure and ecosystem restoration

Output 3: Improving Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency

Output 4: Enhancing rural livelihoods through climate resilient agro-ecosystems

Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal

The"Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal" project supports ecosystem-based adaptation and builds the enabling environments required for long-term climate resilience. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. According to Senegal’s NAPA, the country is experiencing repeated droughts that have severely changed the water regime and vegetation cover. In addition, periodic flooding is also experienced. Targeted project areas (Niayes and Casamance) are being impacted by climate change and variability that can be summarized as: reduced rainfall (200-400 mm from north to south); high rainfall variability within and between years; increased rainfall pauses; shortening of the rainy season (the country has one rainy season with an average duration of 3 months); and an increase in temperature.

The impacts of climate change combined with human activities in the project areas, as in the rest of the country, result in a dramatic degradation of ecosystems that are the only means of survival for poor people in rural areas, which account for the vast majority. There are serious threats to agricultural production in eco-geographical areas of Niayes and Casamance due to climate change impacts such as water shortage, land degradation, salinization, siltation of valleys linked to soil erosion in highlands, and degradation of habitats among the most productive and sensitive such as mangroves and coastal areas.

Almost all social, economic, and environmental aspects in the two project areas are already seriously affected negatively by observed climate change impacts. It is also clear that these impacts will worsen in the short term and perhaps medium to long term as well, unless appropriate solutions are implemented. The desired alternative situation would be to promote the adoption by local communities of systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability. The implementation of this alternative requires the removal of several barriers including: inadequate production systems to cope with climate variability and change; weak institutional capacities for the production and use of climate information; insufficient capacity of local communities, technical services and local governing bodies to develop and implement climate change adaptation practices; and, limited technical and financial capacities of producers and households. This project, classified as a priority in Senegal’s NAPA, is designed to contribute to the desired solution through its main objective to strengthen the enabling environment for the implementation of appropriate adaptation measures based on ecosystem management in Niayes and Casamance.

The project is implemented through the Senegal Directorate of Water, Forests, Hunting and Soil Conservation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.424316410316 14.725304271151)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.1 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$12.2 million
Project Details: 

Despite various strategies, policies and measures that were undertaken, the current socio-economic situation in the Niayes and in Casamance is characterized by low resilience to climate change and variability. The weakness of the physical environment (low and erratic rainfall, low groundwater levels, salinization and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, regression of mangrove and forest) under high human pressure and degradation of systems and production tools have led to falling incomes of local people. The sources of income for local communities mainly based on the services and products from these ecosystems will be increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change and variability. Unless appropriate solutions are implemented, these effects will have negative impacts on productivity in all sectors, resulting in difficult socio-economic conditions, including increased poverty and an impediment to national development efforts.

The long-term solution promoted through this project would be to promote the adoption of integrated agro-sylvo-pastoral systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability, that will improve horticulture and rice production, strengthen the protective and production function of the band of casuarinas and ensure sound management of water resources, forests and mangroves for the benefit of local communities in the project target areas of Niayes and Casamance.

The long-term solution for local communities’ sustainable resilience to climate change will necessarily involve an understanding of climate information with the implementation of adequate financial, institutional and technical measures for a better adaptation of the socio-economic activities to climate change. Therefore, these challenges, sources of population vulnerability must be overcome by the producers to adapt to climate change in order to increase the resilience of the production systems in the intervention sites identified in the Niayes and Casamance.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Output 1.1: The climate, meteorological and hydrological network for the target areas and the capacities are strengthened in order to produce reliable data needed to monitor and analyze hydro-climatic phenomena.

Output 1.2: An integrated information system producing climate information and generating the products needed to identify risks related to climate change (e.g., maps for risk, vulnerability, etc.) is developed to help identify efficient adaptation options and develop actors’ capacities in adaptation.

Output 1.3: A platform for sharing information is established to support the management of climate risks and long-term planning for adaptation.

 

 

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Output 2.1: At least 100 hectares of mangrove plantations are managed sustainably to restore this important ecosystem as a means of support (oyster farming, for example) and reduce the impact of swell and coastal erosion.

Output 2.2: Multi-purpose community forests resilient to climate change tested in the vegetable gardens of Niayes to protect crops from wind erosion and prevent encroachment by sand dunes.

Output 2.3: At least 10 community groups, particularly women’s groups, will be supported in Casamance to improve climate resilience through agro-pastoral and agro-forestry activities and sustainable water management practices in rice paddies.

 

 

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Output 3.1: Local governments and decentralized technical services have the necessary capacities to support communities in implementing adaptation activities.

Output 3.2: The benefits from implemented adaptation solutions are monitored and shared with government officials, target communities and partners to inform them about project results replication opportunities.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Ndeye Fatou Diaw Guene
Oumar Diaw
Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (58.139648412713 39.725144814926)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$$3 million (proposed GEF SCCF Funding)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20.8 million (proposed co-financing, including US$20 million Government of Turkmenistan and US$830,000 UNDP)
Project Details: 

By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.

The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.

The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.

The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:

Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;

Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;

Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;

Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;

Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.

Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:

Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;

Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;

Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;

Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.

Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.

Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making

Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:

Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.

Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.

Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.

Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Country-level Initiatives: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.

Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.

Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.

Enhancing Climate Resilience of the Vulnerable Communities and Ecosystems in Somalia

With financing from the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) Least Developed Country Countries Fund, the Federal Government of Somalia, in partnership with UNDP, is working to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems to climate change. The project is working in semi-autonomous states in Somalia: South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland, which unilaterally declared itself an independent republic in 1991. The project is working to respond to the adverse impacts of climate change and improve the adaptive capacity of vulnerable farmers in pilot areas, and the ecosystems on which they depend.

Building resilience to climatic events is critical for Somalia as the country stabilizes after decades of conflict and commits long-term development for its people.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.70312499461 4.0505767912589)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the selected areas in South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland - especially small-scale farmers
Funding Source: 

News Highlight: XILI ROOBAB AY KA DA EEN DEEGANADA PUNTLAND AYAA RER MIYIGU SHEEGEN IN BIYO XIREENADII LA SAMEEYAY A

Sand dams save lives - Fatima's story

Sand dams save lives- Mohamed Ismail's story

UNDP Somalia Climate Resilience Project - Documentary Film

UNDP under its Enhancing Climate Change Resilience (CCR) project of the Poverty Reduction and Environment Protection Programme (PREP), in partnership with the Somali Government, have initiated innovative project activities aimed at enhancing the climate resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems. The project also seeks to address some of the underlying drivers of conflict by empowering both the concerned National and Civil Society institutions, as well as the women, men and children from the most vulnerable communities.

Financing Amount: 
8,000,000 USD
Co-Financing Total: 
64,820,000 USD
Project Details: 

Green shoots of peace and development are emerging in Somalia, after a particularly difficult period of instability. UNDP is at the forefront to help the people of Somalia to recover from years of conflict, while setting the country on the path to sustainable development. In recent years, Somalia has experienced changes in weather and climate that are affecting the country’s economic and social development. Facing increasing uncertainty for seasonal and annual rainfall levels, rising surface temperatures, sea level rise, and the loss of lives and livelihoods dependent on fragile or over-exploited ecosystems and natural resources, there is concern that future climate changes could exacerbate displacement in the region and intensify conflict over scarce natural resources, including water.

Approximately 70% of Somalis are dependent on climate-sensitive agriculture and pastoralism. As floods and droughts become more severe and frequent in Somalia, there is a need to find approaches that can reduce the sensitivity of farmers and pastoralists to increasing rainfall variability. To address these issues, LDCF financing will be used to support ministries, districts, NGOs/CBOs to integrate climate change risks in Natural Resource Management and disaster preparedness. Climate risk management will be institutionalized from national to local levels. CBOs will be revitalized to take the lead on implementing community-based Ecosystem-based flood preparedness and other adaptation measures.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Pioneering Masters Programme in Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability launched in Somalia
30 students receive scholarships to programme with support from GEF, UNDP and University of Amoud
25 April 2018, Borama, Somaliland - The University of Amoud, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), has launched a first of its kind Masters Programme in Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability, with 30 students from Somaliland, Puntland, Jubaland, Galmudug, South West, Hirshabelle, and Mogadishu awarded full and part time sponsorships by UNDP and Amoud University to study in the programme.

16 December 2017: Water dams build resilience for communities in Puntland

Guardian News Highlight, 10 May 2017: A life-or-death search for water in drought-parched Somalia – in pictures

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Enhancing Policies, Institutional Frameworks and Government Capacities

1.1 Policies, plans and tools reviewed, revised, developed, adopted and implemented by government to mainstream and enhance adaptive capacity and mitigate the risks of climate change on vulnerable communities and critical ecosystem services

Component 2: Piloting Ecosystem Based Adaptation strategies

2.1 Models of community and ecosystem resilience developed and implemented in pilot areas selected in consultation with government and community stakeholders.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia

The "Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia" project will work to empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. The five-year project will benefit from a US$8.8 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund. The project builds on the successes of the Promoting Autonomous Adaptation at the Community Level in Ethiopia Project.

Building community self-reliance will enable project participants to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to  specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

More specifically, an effective adaptation solution for vulnerable communities involves the availability of seasonal forecasts and assistance in interpretation of forecasts for implementation in their respective livelihood measures. Through forecasts and climate information services, individuals are able to make informed decisions and take advanced adaptive actions for the coming season. Woreda and urban communities need to be trained in the use of climate information as well as mobilized to plan and implement the most effective adaptation measures. Such adaptation strategies as climate-smart conservation agriculture, integrated and diversified farming systems, improved management of rangelands and other ecosystems, urban diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution designed for the unique risks and vulnerabilities of Ethiopia.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.593749991073 7.8960296000777)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.8 million GEF-LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$29 million cofinancing (US$27 million World Bank, US$2 million GiZ)
Project Details: 

 

The changes in Ethiopia’s climate are anticipated to result in a number of negative impacts on vulnerable communities, including droughts and floods. The impacts of past droughts and climatic changes have been particularly detrimental to Ethiopia’s agricultural sector. For example, seven major droughts have occurred over the past 25 years, five of which have resulted in famine. Furthermore, since 1988 Ethiopia has experienced six major floods. The number of flooding events and associated damages increased between 1996 and 2006.

At present, Ethiopia is experiencing one of the most severe droughts of the last 30 years brought on by El Niño events in 2015. The drought is impacting on the livelihoods of 10 million people, namely through food insecurity where the population has become reliant on humanitarian support through food aid. This has left 2.7 million people with malnutrition and 2.1 million without access to safe drinking water. In addition, the drought is causing losses to livestock and decreased agricultural production owing to crop failure.

Climate change is affecting sustainable development in Ethiopia. With a large part of the nation's agricultural production relying on rain-fed farming, the livelihoods of the majority of the population are sensitive to climate-related shocks, including drought and flooding. Climate change is likely  exacerbate the impacts of degradation of the country’s environmental resources – including arable land, water, pasture and forest – with connected impacts on Ethiopia’s food and water securities. Consequently, Ethiopian communities in both rural and urban settings will be impacted by this predicted climate change variability.

Currently, 8.2 million people are already considered “chronically” food insecure in Ethiopia, with 6.7 million people facing food insecurity. Both categories are characterised by a weak resilience to withstand climate-related shocks, such as severe droughts. Addressing climate change is of critical importance in Ethiopia as the economy remains reliant on: i) climate-sensitive agriculture and natural resources management; ii) rainfall; and iii) natural resource dependent energy – biomass and hydropower. Recent assessments have estimated that economic growth could decrease by up to 2.5% per year unless capacity building and climate change adaptation measures are implemented. Further to this, climate change is expected to further impact Ethiopia’s income inequality, affecting both rural and urban communities.

The long‑term preferred solution is for adaptation to be an integral part of Ethiopian livelihoods, specifically among vulnerable communities. The proposed project will empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. Building community self-reliance will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Output 1.1. Training provided on tools and methodologies for gender-sensitive climate vulnerability and risk assessments and gender-responsive adaptation planning at the kebele, woreda and city levels.

Output 1.2. Integrated climate change adaptation/disaster risk reduction plans – with gender action plans – developed at the regional, city and local levels for key sectors.

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Output 2.1. Training-of-trainers undertaken for decision‑makers and technical staff in targeted woredas and cities on implementation of gender-sensitive adaptation technologies tailored to local socio-economic and environmental contexts, including using climate data and forecasts to inform adaptation interventions at the community level.

Output 2.2. Targeted training to farmers in selected woredas on climate-smart agricultural practices, including the use of seasonal forecasts and climate advisories in their farming decisions.

Output 2.4. Localised weather and climate advisories disseminated to provide real time agro-meteorological information to farmers, pastoralists and local decision‑makers.

Output 2.5. Adaptation technologies and climate-smart agricultural practices introduced and scaled in targeted woredas and cities.

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

Output 3.1. Woreda learning centres established to share lessons learned and best practices outside of targeted communities.

Output 3.2. Cost-benefit analyses of the field-demonstrated adaptation measures to inform strategies and action plans.

Output 3.3. Knowledge-sharing mechanisms developed to ensure that best practices and knowledge generated through this and other initiatives is documented for replication and upscaling.

Output 3.4. Awareness-raising campaigns undertaken on climate risks and adaptation options for government staff and local communities.

Output 3.5. Monitoring and evaluation conducted.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia

The "CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia" project will work to mainstream climate risks into national and sub-national planning processes thereby increasing the resilience of local communities across the Ethiopian highlands to climate change.

Today in Ethiopia, climate change considerations are not reflected in development planning and decision making at national and local levels. The expected changes in climate and its impact on livelihoods are severe, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. If climate change is not addressed, it is more than likely that expected development gains will not be realized. Recurrent drought is another persistent risk in Ethiopia, and continued stresses from severe weather events and changing rainfall patterns raise the spectre of hunger, malnutrition and diminishing returns on investments in poverty reduction. Furthermore, the impacts of weather variability and climate change will not be uniform across the country: some regions are more vulnerable than others. Vulnerability will depend on livelihood type and exposure to risk, both of which are highly variable even within small/local regions.

Changes in the weather patterns marked by greater variability are imposing additional risks to human development in Ethiopia. These risks are most heavily borne by farmers engaging in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, both for landless households whose income largely derives from on-farm wage labour, and women-headed households because of their baseline vulnerability to external shocks. With funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, this project will strengthen the adaptive capacity and resilience of these targeted groups from the impacts of climatic variability and change.

The project will also put 17,800 hectares of agricultural, rangeland and forest landscapes under sustainable land management systems, including 800 hectares of new exclosure sites, maintenance of 8000 hectares of existing exclosures and planting of indigenous and multi-use plant species for over 8800 hectares of degraded land.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (37.265624991326 8.5918844125631)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6.2 million GEF-LDCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$10.4 million (US$10.3 million Government of Ethiopia, US$150,000 UNDP)
Project Details: 

The key underlying causes of vulnerability are multiple. Land is highly degraded due to deforestation for wood fuel and charcoal production as well as timber for construction, unsustainable farming practices, cultivation of fragile and marginal land and overgrazing, combined with rapidly increasing human and livestock populations.

Such environmental degradation has resulted in changes to the water cycle, poor soil quality, and in highland areas a barren land that is devoid of vegetation cover, which is exposed to soil and wind erosion, thereby creating a self-reinforcing cycle of reduced land fertility, reduced water resources, and lower crop and livestock production and productivity.

Other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic/invasive plant species in the rift valley lakes further reinforce this cycle. The long-term preferred solution is to build sustainable and climate-resilient economic growth among vulnerable communities, targeting eight highland areas in Ethiopia.

This will involve taking the essential elements of the participatory and capacity development approach of the MERET (Managing Environmental Resources to Enable Transitions) programme, but addressing identified weaknesses by adding strong elements of requirements for climate change adaptation (e.g. alternative livelihoods, crop diversification, resilient agricultural practices, better water management and irrigation), capacity development of Woreda and regional government (technical training and mentoring for participatory vulnerability assessments, environmental impact assessments, cost-benefit analysis of climate-smart investments, no regrets interventions, integrating climate change risks and opportunities in development planning and budgeting).

Additionally this involves addressing participatory monitoring, impact assessment and action learning in order to assess what makes for successful adaptation and growth strategies in highland areas across different climate and agro-ecological zones, cultural traditions and agricultural practices, as well as strengthening of learning pathways to national policy processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Output 1.1: Assessment of the capacity and resource needs of MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, MoWIE and NMA at federal, regional and Woreda-level to build climate resilience.

Output 1.2: Capacity development of staff from MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, NMA and MoWIE at federal, regional and Woreda-level on climate change and climate-resilient planning.

Output 1.3: Training of extension agents and local communities to integrate climate change into planning processes.

Output 1.4: Annual knowledge-sharing forum of regional and Woreda-level sectoral experts, extension agents and community representatives.

Output 1.5: Public awareness-raising campaign and training programme for local communities – including for women and youths – on the implementation of climate-resilient adaptation interventions and diversified livelihoods

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Output 2.1: A functional climate information and early warning system to monitor weather conditions.

Output 2.2: Community-based climate forecast and decision-making support tool.

Output 2.3: Capacity development of extension agents, CBOs (women’s groups, school clubs and youth groups) as well as farmers on climate information and monitoring systems.

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Output 3.1: Vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management and landscape management plans.

Output 3.2: Integrated watershed management across the eight target Woredas.

Output 3.3: Diversified livelihoods, including animal fattening, value-addition to agricultural products and off-farm opportunities.

Output 3.4: Strategy for monitoring, evaluating and upscaling activities, including potential for local investment by microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Contacts: 
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022

Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods

The main objective of the "Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods" programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

The programme targets the three regions in the northern part of Ghana: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions. Compared to other regions of the country, these three northern regions have high degree of exposure to climate variability and change characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing and erratic rainfall. These factors make the northern regions highly vulnerable to climate change and high priority regions for climate change adaptation.

Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprises the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.2 million (according to Adaptation Fund Website)
Project Details: 

Water is recognized as a cross-cutting resource underlying the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy of the Republic of Ghana and the National Water Policy with direct linkages to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The lack of potable water caused by extreme climate events such as droughts and floods, increases the exposure of people, especially women and children, to water-borne and other hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera. Besides household wellbeing, water plays a central role in many industrial activities. For example, hydropower generation, transportation services, tourism and the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors all depend on water resources. Rainwater harvesting serves as the major source of surface water for many rural communities during the rainy season. There is high agreement between national and regional analyses that vulnerability, especially to droughts, has geographical patterns and socioeconomic associations.

The country experienced severe drought in 1983. Since the late 1990s, floods have been increasingly frequent in the northern regions. Floods affected more than 300,000 people in 1999, 630,000 in 2007/08 and 140,000 in 2010, causing deaths, damaging farmlands, and destroying livelihoods. This resulted in severe hunger, which affected the poor and reduced gross domestic product for that year.

The most severe flood occurred in 2007, during which 630,000 people were affected, through losses of life and displacement, and extensive infrastructural damage and loss of crops. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential impact of climate change on Ghana’s development.

Under a changing climate, poor farmers are finding it difficult to predict the timing of rainy seasons. Consequently, it is becoming difficult manage climate risks to crop production. Failure in crop production is one of the key factors undermining food security . The World Food Programme’s (WFP) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (2009) found that 5% of the population or 1.2 million people are food insecure.

The bulk of the food insecure population is located in the northern regions: 34% in Upper West, 15% in Upper East, and 10% in Northern region. This is the equivalent of approximately 453,000 people. The three northern regions covered by this programme are the most vulnerable. Similarly, the adaptive capacity of these three regions is the lowest nationwide due to low socioeconomic development and the heavy dependence of local economies and livelihoods on rain-fed systems such as agriculture and forestry.

Decreasing annual rainfall and its increasingly erratic pattern, on the background of climate change, are adversely affecting rural livelihoods in northern Ghana and in particular agricultural and pastoral practices. Agriculture is a major driver of Ghana’s economy and employs close to 55 percent of the total labour force.

The proposed Programme will promote four types of adaptation intervention: 1. livelihood enhancement; 2. livelihood diversification; 3. ecosystem protection and enhancement; and 4. community-level water infrastructure planning. These approaches will build up financial, natural, physical and social capital of the communities. A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprise the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010. The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities. Income generation will increase by 30 % in at least 50% of households in the communities.

The main adaptation benefits of the Programme are that it will be able to provide concrete inputs into water resource management planning in the northern region by ensuring that climate change concerns are taken into account. The Programme will be able to build and enhance the adaptive capacity of the ecological systems of water catchments to climate change, once the proposed measures are adopted and implemented.

This is expected to be the first showcase in the Ghana where climate concerns are taken into account and lessons learned will be replicated to other river basins of the country. The activities that will be implemented will include producing knowledge products that capture lessons learnt on management of water resources and diversification of livelihoods under climate change. The capacity to document traditional knowledge systems as well as methods for managing knowledge will be developed, as well as the engagement of community service organizations for knowledge transfer.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The main objective of the programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

There are three components, each with the following outcomes that will be delivered by the programme:

COMPONENT 1: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING

Outcome 1: Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

COMPONENT 2: COMMUNITY LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

Outcome 2: Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

COMPONENT 3: DIVERSIFICATION OF LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

Outcome 3: Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Northern Regions urged to embrace climate Adaptation Fund Project
Vibe Ghana

Friday 17 February 2017

The Chiefs and people of the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions have been urged to embrace the Adaptation Fund Project to help increase climate resilience and enhance sustainable land and water management in the areas. The Adaptation Fund was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MEST) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is implementing the project in some selected communities in the north. Mr Asher Nkegbe, the Upper East Regional Director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), made the call when the technical team of the Project undertook separates community visits to the beneficiary communities in the Upper East Region to engage them on the project implementation and to solicit for their support in the process.

 

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 -  Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

Outcome 2 - Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

Outcome 3 - Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Project Dates: 
2015 to 2019