Drought/Water Scarcity

Taxonomy Term List

Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (58.139648412713 39.725144814926)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$$3 million (proposed GEF SCCF Funding)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$20.8 million (proposed co-financing, including US$20 million Government of Turkmenistan and US$830,000 UNDP)
Project Details: 

By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.

The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.

The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.

The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:

Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;

Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;

Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;

Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;

Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.

Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:

Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;

Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;

Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;

Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.

Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.

Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making

Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:

Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.

Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.

Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.

Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Country-level Initiatives: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.

Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.

Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.

Enhancing Climate Resilience of the Vulnerable Communities and Ecosystems in Somalia

With financing from the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) Least Developed Country Countries Fund, the Federal Government of Somalia, in partnership with UNDP, is working to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems to climate change. The project is working in semi-autonomous states in Somalia: South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland, which unilaterally declared itself an independent republic in 1991. The project is working to respond to the adverse impacts of climate change and improve the adaptive capacity of vulnerable farmers in pilot areas, and the ecosystems on which they depend.

Building resilience to climatic events is critical for Somalia as the country stabilizes after decades of conflict and commits long-term development for its people.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.70312499461 4.0505767912589)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the selected areas in South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland - especially small-scale farmers
Funding Source: 

News Highlight: XILI ROOBAB AY KA DA EEN DEEGANADA PUNTLAND AYAA RER MIYIGU SHEEGEN IN BIYO XIREENADII LA SAMEEYAY A

Sand dams save lives - Fatima's story

Sand dams save lives- Mohamed Ismail's story

UNDP Somalia Climate Resilience Project - Documentary Film

UNDP under its Enhancing Climate Change Resilience (CCR) project of the Poverty Reduction and Environment Protection Programme (PREP), in partnership with the Somali Government, have initiated innovative project activities aimed at enhancing the climate resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems. The project also seeks to address some of the underlying drivers of conflict by empowering both the concerned National and Civil Society institutions, as well as the women, men and children from the most vulnerable communities.

Financing Amount: 
8,000,000 USD
Co-Financing Total: 
64,820,000 USD
Project Details: 

Green shoots of peace and development are emerging in Somalia, after a particularly difficult period of instability. UNDP is at the forefront to help the people of Somalia to recover from years of conflict, while setting the country on the path to sustainable development. In recent years, Somalia has experienced changes in weather and climate that are affecting the country’s economic and social development. Facing increasing uncertainty for seasonal and annual rainfall levels, rising surface temperatures, sea level rise, and the loss of lives and livelihoods dependent on fragile or over-exploited ecosystems and natural resources, there is concern that future climate changes could exacerbate displacement in the region and intensify conflict over scarce natural resources, including water.

Approximately 70% of Somalis are dependent on climate-sensitive agriculture and pastoralism. As floods and droughts become more severe and frequent in Somalia, there is a need to find approaches that can reduce the sensitivity of farmers and pastoralists to increasing rainfall variability. To address these issues, LDCF financing will be used to support ministries, districts, NGOs/CBOs to integrate climate change risks in Natural Resource Management and disaster preparedness. Climate risk management will be institutionalized from national to local levels. CBOs will be revitalized to take the lead on implementing community-based Ecosystem-based flood preparedness and other adaptation measures.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Enhancing Policies, Institutional Frameworks and Government Capacities

1.1 Policies, plans and tools reviewed, revised, developed, adopted and implemented by government to mainstream and enhance adaptive capacity and mitigate the risks of climate change on vulnerable communities and critical ecosystem services

Component 2: Piloting Ecosystem Based Adaptation strategies

2.1 Models of community and ecosystem resilience developed and implemented in pilot areas selected in consultation with government and community stakeholders.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia

The "Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia" project will work to empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. The five-year project will benefit from a US$8.8 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund. The project builds on the successes of the Promoting Autonomous Adaptation at the Community Level in Ethiopia Project.

Building community self-reliance will enable project participants to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to  specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

More specifically, an effective adaptation solution for vulnerable communities involves the availability of seasonal forecasts and assistance in interpretation of forecasts for implementation in their respective livelihood measures. Through forecasts and climate information services, individuals are able to make informed decisions and take advanced adaptive actions for the coming season. Woreda and urban communities need to be trained in the use of climate information as well as mobilized to plan and implement the most effective adaptation measures. Such adaptation strategies as climate-smart conservation agriculture, integrated and diversified farming systems, improved management of rangelands and other ecosystems, urban diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution designed for the unique risks and vulnerabilities of Ethiopia.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.593749991073 7.8960296000777)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.8 million GEF-LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$29 million cofinancing (US$27 million World Bank, US$2 million GiZ)
Project Details: 

 

The changes in Ethiopia’s climate are anticipated to result in a number of negative impacts on vulnerable communities, including droughts and floods. The impacts of past droughts and climatic changes have been particularly detrimental to Ethiopia’s agricultural sector. For example, seven major droughts have occurred over the past 25 years, five of which have resulted in famine. Furthermore, since 1988 Ethiopia has experienced six major floods. The number of flooding events and associated damages increased between 1996 and 2006.

At present, Ethiopia is experiencing one of the most severe droughts of the last 30 years brought on by El Niño events in 2015. The drought is impacting on the livelihoods of 10 million people, namely through food insecurity where the population has become reliant on humanitarian support through food aid. This has left 2.7 million people with malnutrition and 2.1 million without access to safe drinking water. In addition, the drought is causing losses to livestock and decreased agricultural production owing to crop failure.

Climate change is affecting sustainable development in Ethiopia. With a large part of the nation's agricultural production relying on rain-fed farming, the livelihoods of the majority of the population are sensitive to climate-related shocks, including drought and flooding. Climate change is likely  exacerbate the impacts of degradation of the country’s environmental resources – including arable land, water, pasture and forest – with connected impacts on Ethiopia’s food and water securities. Consequently, Ethiopian communities in both rural and urban settings will be impacted by this predicted climate change variability.

Currently, 8.2 million people are already considered “chronically” food insecure in Ethiopia, with 6.7 million people facing food insecurity. Both categories are characterised by a weak resilience to withstand climate-related shocks, such as severe droughts. Addressing climate change is of critical importance in Ethiopia as the economy remains reliant on: i) climate-sensitive agriculture and natural resources management; ii) rainfall; and iii) natural resource dependent energy – biomass and hydropower. Recent assessments have estimated that economic growth could decrease by up to 2.5% per year unless capacity building and climate change adaptation measures are implemented. Further to this, climate change is expected to further impact Ethiopia’s income inequality, affecting both rural and urban communities.

The long‑term preferred solution is for adaptation to be an integral part of Ethiopian livelihoods, specifically among vulnerable communities. The proposed project will empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. Building community self-reliance will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Output 1.1. Training provided on tools and methodologies for gender-sensitive climate vulnerability and risk assessments and gender-responsive adaptation planning at the kebele, woreda and city levels.

Output 1.2. Integrated climate change adaptation/disaster risk reduction plans – with gender action plans – developed at the regional, city and local levels for key sectors.

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Output 2.1. Training-of-trainers undertaken for decision‑makers and technical staff in targeted woredas and cities on implementation of gender-sensitive adaptation technologies tailored to local socio-economic and environmental contexts, including using climate data and forecasts to inform adaptation interventions at the community level.

Output 2.2. Targeted training to farmers in selected woredas on climate-smart agricultural practices, including the use of seasonal forecasts and climate advisories in their farming decisions.

Output 2.4. Localised weather and climate advisories disseminated to provide real time agro-meteorological information to farmers, pastoralists and local decision‑makers.

Output 2.5. Adaptation technologies and climate-smart agricultural practices introduced and scaled in targeted woredas and cities.

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

Output 3.1. Woreda learning centres established to share lessons learned and best practices outside of targeted communities.

Output 3.2. Cost-benefit analyses of the field-demonstrated adaptation measures to inform strategies and action plans.

Output 3.3. Knowledge-sharing mechanisms developed to ensure that best practices and knowledge generated through this and other initiatives is documented for replication and upscaling.

Output 3.4. Awareness-raising campaigns undertaken on climate risks and adaptation options for government staff and local communities.

Output 3.5. Monitoring and evaluation conducted.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia

The "CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia" project will work to mainstream climate risks into national and sub-national planning processes thereby increasing the resilience of local communities across the Ethiopian highlands to climate change.

Today in Ethiopia, climate change considerations are not reflected in development planning and decision making at national and local levels. The expected changes in climate and its impact on livelihoods are severe, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. If climate change is not addressed, it is more than likely that expected development gains will not be realized. Recurrent drought is another persistent risk in Ethiopia, and continued stresses from severe weather events and changing rainfall patterns raise the spectre of hunger, malnutrition and diminishing returns on investments in poverty reduction. Furthermore, the impacts of weather variability and climate change will not be uniform across the country: some regions are more vulnerable than others. Vulnerability will depend on livelihood type and exposure to risk, both of which are highly variable even within small/local regions.

Changes in the weather patterns marked by greater variability are imposing additional risks to human development in Ethiopia. These risks are most heavily borne by farmers engaging in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, both for landless households whose income largely derives from on-farm wage labour, and women-headed households because of their baseline vulnerability to external shocks. With funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, this project will strengthen the adaptive capacity and resilience of these targeted groups from the impacts of climatic variability and change.

The project will also put 17,800 hectares of agricultural, rangeland and forest landscapes under sustainable land management systems, including 800 hectares of new exclosure sites, maintenance of 8000 hectares of existing exclosures and planting of indigenous and multi-use plant species for over 8800 hectares of degraded land.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (37.265624991326 8.5918844125631)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6.2 million GEF-LDCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$10.4 million (US$10.3 million Government of Ethiopia, US$150,000 UNDP)
Project Details: 

The key underlying causes of vulnerability are multiple. Land is highly degraded due to deforestation for wood fuel and charcoal production as well as timber for construction, unsustainable farming practices, cultivation of fragile and marginal land and overgrazing, combined with rapidly increasing human and livestock populations.

Such environmental degradation has resulted in changes to the water cycle, poor soil quality, and in highland areas a barren land that is devoid of vegetation cover, which is exposed to soil and wind erosion, thereby creating a self-reinforcing cycle of reduced land fertility, reduced water resources, and lower crop and livestock production and productivity.

Other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic/invasive plant species in the rift valley lakes further reinforce this cycle. The long-term preferred solution is to build sustainable and climate-resilient economic growth among vulnerable communities, targeting eight highland areas in Ethiopia.

This will involve taking the essential elements of the participatory and capacity development approach of the MERET (Managing Environmental Resources to Enable Transitions) programme, but addressing identified weaknesses by adding strong elements of requirements for climate change adaptation (e.g. alternative livelihoods, crop diversification, resilient agricultural practices, better water management and irrigation), capacity development of Woreda and regional government (technical training and mentoring for participatory vulnerability assessments, environmental impact assessments, cost-benefit analysis of climate-smart investments, no regrets interventions, integrating climate change risks and opportunities in development planning and budgeting).

Additionally this involves addressing participatory monitoring, impact assessment and action learning in order to assess what makes for successful adaptation and growth strategies in highland areas across different climate and agro-ecological zones, cultural traditions and agricultural practices, as well as strengthening of learning pathways to national policy processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Output 1.1: Assessment of the capacity and resource needs of MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, MoWIE and NMA at federal, regional and Woreda-level to build climate resilience.

Output 1.2: Capacity development of staff from MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, NMA and MoWIE at federal, regional and Woreda-level on climate change and climate-resilient planning.

Output 1.3: Training of extension agents and local communities to integrate climate change into planning processes.

Output 1.4: Annual knowledge-sharing forum of regional and Woreda-level sectoral experts, extension agents and community representatives.

Output 1.5: Public awareness-raising campaign and training programme for local communities – including for women and youths – on the implementation of climate-resilient adaptation interventions and diversified livelihoods

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Output 2.1: A functional climate information and early warning system to monitor weather conditions.

Output 2.2: Community-based climate forecast and decision-making support tool.

Output 2.3: Capacity development of extension agents, CBOs (women’s groups, school clubs and youth groups) as well as farmers on climate information and monitoring systems.

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Output 3.1: Vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management and landscape management plans.

Output 3.2: Integrated watershed management across the eight target Woredas.

Output 3.3: Diversified livelihoods, including animal fattening, value-addition to agricultural products and off-farm opportunities.

Output 3.4: Strategy for monitoring, evaluating and upscaling activities, including potential for local investment by microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Contacts: 
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022

Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods

The main objective of the "Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods" programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

The programme targets the three regions in the northern part of Ghana: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions. Compared to other regions of the country, these three northern regions have high degree of exposure to climate variability and change characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing and erratic rainfall. These factors make the northern regions highly vulnerable to climate change and high priority regions for climate change adaptation.

Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprises the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.2 million (according to Adaptation Fund Website)
Project Details: 

Water is recognized as a cross-cutting resource underlying the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy of the Republic of Ghana and the National Water Policy with direct linkages to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The lack of potable water caused by extreme climate events such as droughts and floods, increases the exposure of people, especially women and children, to water-borne and other hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera. Besides household wellbeing, water plays a central role in many industrial activities. For example, hydropower generation, transportation services, tourism and the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors all depend on water resources. Rainwater harvesting serves as the major source of surface water for many rural communities during the rainy season. There is high agreement between national and regional analyses that vulnerability, especially to droughts, has geographical patterns and socioeconomic associations.

The country experienced severe drought in 1983. Since the late 1990s, floods have been increasingly frequent in the northern regions. Floods affected more than 300,000 people in 1999, 630,000 in 2007/08 and 140,000 in 2010, causing deaths, damaging farmlands, and destroying livelihoods. This resulted in severe hunger, which affected the poor and reduced gross domestic product for that year.

The most severe flood occurred in 2007, during which 630,000 people were affected, through losses of life and displacement, and extensive infrastructural damage and loss of crops. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential impact of climate change on Ghana’s development.

Under a changing climate, poor farmers are finding it difficult to predict the timing of rainy seasons. Consequently, it is becoming difficult manage climate risks to crop production. Failure in crop production is one of the key factors undermining food security . The World Food Programme’s (WFP) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (2009) found that 5% of the population or 1.2 million people are food insecure.

The bulk of the food insecure population is located in the northern regions: 34% in Upper West, 15% in Upper East, and 10% in Northern region. This is the equivalent of approximately 453,000 people. The three northern regions covered by this programme are the most vulnerable. Similarly, the adaptive capacity of these three regions is the lowest nationwide due to low socioeconomic development and the heavy dependence of local economies and livelihoods on rain-fed systems such as agriculture and forestry.

Decreasing annual rainfall and its increasingly erratic pattern, on the background of climate change, are adversely affecting rural livelihoods in northern Ghana and in particular agricultural and pastoral practices. Agriculture is a major driver of Ghana’s economy and employs close to 55 percent of the total labour force.

The proposed Programme will promote four types of adaptation intervention: 1. livelihood enhancement; 2. livelihood diversification; 3. ecosystem protection and enhancement; and 4. community-level water infrastructure planning. These approaches will build up financial, natural, physical and social capital of the communities. A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprise the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010. The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities. Income generation will increase by 30 % in at least 50% of households in the communities.

The main adaptation benefits of the Programme are that it will be able to provide concrete inputs into water resource management planning in the northern region by ensuring that climate change concerns are taken into account. The Programme will be able to build and enhance the adaptive capacity of the ecological systems of water catchments to climate change, once the proposed measures are adopted and implemented.

This is expected to be the first showcase in the Ghana where climate concerns are taken into account and lessons learned will be replicated to other river basins of the country. The activities that will be implemented will include producing knowledge products that capture lessons learnt on management of water resources and diversification of livelihoods under climate change. The capacity to document traditional knowledge systems as well as methods for managing knowledge will be developed, as well as the engagement of community service organizations for knowledge transfer.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The main objective of the programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

There are three components, each with the following outcomes that will be delivered by the programme:

COMPONENT 1: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING

Outcome 1: Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

COMPONENT 2: COMMUNITY LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

Outcome 2: Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

COMPONENT 3: DIVERSIFICATION OF LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

Outcome 3: Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Northern Regions urged to embrace climate Adaptation Fund Project
Vibe Ghana

Friday 17 February 2017

The Chiefs and people of the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions have been urged to embrace the Adaptation Fund Project to help increase climate resilience and enhance sustainable land and water management in the areas. The Adaptation Fund was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MEST) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is implementing the project in some selected communities in the north. Mr Asher Nkegbe, the Upper East Regional Director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), made the call when the technical team of the Project undertook separates community visits to the beneficiary communities in the Upper East Region to engage them on the project implementation and to solicit for their support in the process.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 -  Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

Outcome 2 - Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

Outcome 3 - Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Project Dates: 
2015 to 2019

Planning and Financing Adaptation in Niger

The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Niger to develop a project proposal for a new US$9 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Planning and Financing Adaptation in Niger" project will include US$27 million in co-financing. The project looks to integrate climate change adaptation into relevant budgeting and planning frameworks at national and local levels, promote the mass dissemination of economically sustainable hybrid village water systems and multipurpose infrastructure that transforms access to water to an income-generating opportunity, increase disaster risks preparedness of vulnerable communities, and establish an evidence-based knowledge system to inform policies and investments on adaptation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$9 million (proposed GEF LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27 million (proposed co-financing)
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting and planning frameworks at national (2020-2035 SDDCI, CC Strategy, IWRM, multiannual/annual budget frameworks) and local levels

Outcome 2 - Promote the mass dissemination of economically sustainable hybrid village water systems and multipurpose infrastructure that transform access to water to an income-generating opportunity and increase disaster risks preparedness of vulnerable communities

Outcome 3 - Establish an evidence based knowledge system to inform policies and investments on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting and planning frameworks at national (2020-2035 SDDCI, CC Strategy, IWRM, multiannual/annual budget frameworks) and local levels

Outcome 2 - Promote the mass dissemination of economically sustainable hybrid village water systems and multipurpose infrastructure that transform access to water to an income-generating opportunity and increase disaster risks preparedness of vulnerable communities

Outcome 3 - Establish an evidence based knowledge system to inform policies and investments on adaptation

Mainstreaming climate risks considerations in food security in Tsilima Plains and Upper Catchment Area

The Tsilima Region – part of the densely populated Central Highlands agro-ecological zone – is known for its agricultural products, such as sorghum and barley, it is considered the breadbasket of Eritrea, and is the focus of the government’s current and future investments in food security. Being densely populated, the region’s ecosystems and natural resources face increasing pressure. In addition to this, climate change poses an additional threat to ecosystem goods and services – and therefore agricultural productivity and community livelihoods – in this area. Like many parts of the Africa, Eritrea, being located in the Horn of Africa, is currently facing climate change-induced threats to ecosystem services and agricultural productivity, and these are compounded by the impacts of signicant land degradation occurring in the country. In the Tsilima Region, these problems manifest through reduced groundwater recharge, which affects agricultural productivity. This is partly a result of decreased precipitation, shorter and more intense rainy seasons, which reduce the potential for infiltration, promotes run-off, and increased temperatures that promote evapotranspiration. It is also a result of over-abstration of groundwater within short periods, reducing the opportunities for natural recharge of groundwater aquifers and deforestation, leading to reduced capacity of soils to retain moisture and nutrients.

The project’s objective is therefore to integrate adaptation measures into ecosystem management and restoration and agricultural production systems to secure the benefits of the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Action Plan. By doing so, the LDCF-financed project will support the implementation of Priorities 3, 4 and 5 of Eritrea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) – which focus on livestock, forestry and water resources respectively. Furthermore, the project will mitigate the effects of floods and droughts, contribute to reduced soil erosion and increase soil fertility. Communities in the Tsilima Region will therefore be less vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The project will achieve this by enhancing the scientific and technical capacity of government staff – at national, Zoba and sub-Zoba levels – as well as academic and research institutions to identify, plan and implement climate change adaptation (CCA) interventions. This will facilitate the implementation of an ecosystem-based approach to CCA in sub-Zoba Dbarwa, in the Tsilima plains and upper catchments. The theory of change adopted for this LDCF-financed project comprises addressing the barriers discussed below and in Section II (Development Challenge) of the Project Document while contributing to the preferred solution discussed below through the delivery of three interrelated components.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (38.364257769704 15.681551506462)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
9,050,000
Co-Financing Total: 
27,500,000
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
1.1 Capacity of research institutions to undertake climate related research increased by over 50% as measured by changes in UNDP Capacity Scorecard.
 
1.2: Capacity of extension service institutions to provide knowledge based climate smart extension service to agriculture, livestock production and water management increased by over 50% as measured by changes in UNDP Capacity Scorecard: Collectively, outcome a and 2 above lead to: i) increased use of climate risk information in decisions related to the implementation of the IWRM action plans and increasing food production in ; ii) an improved score on the Vulnerability and risk perception index, disaggregated by gender (baselines at ppg); iii) Five comprehensive landscape adaptation plans formulated using the information generated under this component, complemented by community based resilience assessments.
 
2.1: Security of tenure improved for the communities of plains covering over 9000 hectares ( number of households and exact means of verification to be established during PPG);
 
2.2: By 2018, the amount of water available for irrigation increases by 30% over current baseline (of 28 million cubic meters) increasing the area under irrigation from 400ha to about 1000ha); baseline and target to be confirmed in PPG.
 
2.3: By 2018, more than 75% of farmers take up climate smart farming technologies and food production has increased by 30% , while livestock productivity increases by at least 30% (baseline determined at PPG); this leads i) over 75% of project beneficiaries have sufficient food and livestock products for most of the year; ii) an improved score on the “Vulnerability and risk perception index, disaggregated by gender”
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
This project integrates adaptation measures into ecosystem management and restoration of agricultural production systems to secure the benefits of the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Action Plan. This will support Priorities 3, 4 and 5 of Eritrea's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), which focuses on livestock, forestry and water resources respectively.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1.1: Capacity of research institutions to undertake climate-related research increased.

Outcome 1.2: Capacity of extension service institutions to provide knowledge-based climate-smart extension services to agriculture, livestock production and water management increased.

Outcome 2.1: Climate-resilient land use planning implemented over 9,000 hectares of the Tsilima Region.

Outcome 2.2: Integrated water management operationalised across the Tsilima Region, increasing water availability and land under irrigation.

Outcome 2.3: Increased food production through the implementation of climate-smart agricultural practices across the Tsilima Region. 

Outcome 3.1: Increased monitoring, knowledge-sharing and awareness at Zoba, sub-Zoba, Kebabi and community levels on: i) climate change risks; ii) climate- and ecosystem-smart watershed restoration; iii) climate-smart agricultural technologies and measures; and iv) the sustainable use and management of natural resources.

Project Dates: 
2016 to 2022
Civil Society Engagement: 
  • Existing CBOs strengthened, including inter alia Village Agricultural Committees, Water User Associations and Farmer Associations to coordinate local level participation in climate change adaptation, land use and development planning.
  • Local communities and households trained to undertake sustainable water use and management, including inter alia water harvesting, construction and maintenance of hard and soft engineering interventions.
  • Public awareness-raising and education campaigns conducted in the Tsilima Region using all forms of media (including inter alia print, radio, art and drama)

Solomon Islands Water Sector Adaptation (SIWSAP)

The impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR) and pronounced droughts have severe consequences on water and sanitation in the country. The areas which are most vulnerable to SLR are low-lying islands, atolls and flat deltaic regions at the mouth of larger rivers. Intrusion of salt water from rise in sea level has affected groundwater resources, especially freshwater aquifers (lens) in small atolls and low-lying islands that rely on rainfall or groundwater for their freshwater supply. Droughts have severely affected water supplies and have also damaged crops and livelihoods. Likewise, climate-related impacts on the quality and quantity of water has a gender dimension; in the context of the ethnic tensions, the safety and security of women and girls are compromised as they need to travel further to collect water, also leading to less time for other activities.

To improve the resilience of water resources to the impacts of climate change in order to improve health, sanitation and quality of  life, and sustain livelihoods in targeted vulnerable areas.  The project will focus on issues of water supply and sanitation.

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (159.697262571 -8.98782221794)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural and township communities of the Solomon Islands in 6 provinces: Gizo, Taro, Tingoa, Ferafalu, Tuwo, and Santa Catalina.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$6,850,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$40,255,000
Project Details: 

Based on the LDCF resources requested and the scope of the climate change adaptation measures, the project will cover work in 6 pilot sites. On a national scale there are a number of benefits that this project will contribute to.

  • More than 70% of the national population i.e. more than 360,000 people benefit from communal water systems and natural water sources and do not rely on government managed water supply systems. Many of these supply systems are dependent on water catchments and underground aquifers aquifers that are very sensitive to the hydrological cycle and its disturbances, most of which are related to climate change. Lessons from the project could be multiplied for the benefit of this population.
  • Improvements to water supply will also result in more people having access to proper sanitation facilities, potentially reduce prevalence of disease and reduced costs to the people and to government’s social services
  • UNDP estimates that water supply investment has an economic return of $4.4 to $1 while investment in sanitation has a return of $9.1 to $1. Some of the multiplier effects of investing in water and sanitation include; healthy workers, savings on medicines, bottled water not required, boost to agriculture and healthy tourists
  • Increasing preparedness and enhancing resilience of the water sector to extreme events can potentially reduce the cost to government for disaster relief. Over the past few years flooding, king tides, excessive rainfall and storm surges have rendered rural locations and communities as disaster areas with the frequency of calls for disaster relief assistance from the national government reaching levels never before experienced in the country since it attained political independence in 1978
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Integrate water conservation and sustainable water resources management in all sectors and communities.

The outputs include: construction of village/community water tanks; construction of water reservoirs for institutional and residential areas; upgrading of existing reservoirs, protective structures/access roads; promote/build household rainwater harvesting; construction of strategic storage water reserve tank; engineered or “climate proofed” water reservoirs; develop and implement Water Use efficiency Plan; raise awareness for water conservation.

Outcome 2: Incorporate climate change adaptation strategies into the guidelines and criteria for design and construction of appropriate water infrastructure in vulnerable areas.

The outputs include: guidelines for development of water supply in rural areas developed; inventory of POPs and adequate storage and leakage prevention conducted; good practice guidance for pesticide storage and use, and application developed and used; drought and its effect on water distribution in rural areas assessed; rainwater harvesting technologies developed and used.

Outcome 3: Increased reliability and quality of water supply to all sectors and communities

The outputs include: capacity of water supply increased; water reticulation and distribution systems improved and where necessary constructed; arable land improved and rehabilitated; sustainable use of water on commercial agriculture land; build appropriate low-technology irrigation system for farmers; diversification food crops with a focus on high-yielding crop varieties promoted; promote water conservation and water use efficiency; prevent land-based pollution.

Outcome 4: Enhanced institutional and legal framework for water resources management

The outputs include: individual and institutional capacity for sustainable water management built and/or enhanced; water resources sector policy developed and implemented; water resources sector legislation developed and adopted; water sector plans and programmes developed and implemented.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yoko Ebisawa
CO Focal Point
Ministry of Mines Energy and Rural Electrification
Rance Sore
Project Director
UNDP
Jose Padilla
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
LDCF
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Championed by the Government of the Solomon Islands through the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Rural Electrification (MMERE) Water Resources Division (WRD) in partnership with Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology (MECDM), and other line ministries, SIWSAP activities are designed to ensure access to safe and affordable drinking water and increase reliability and quality of water supplies in targeted areas. Longer-term project measures are working to integrate climate-resilient water management in policy and development frameworks; encourage investments in cost-effective and adaptive water management technologies; and improve governance and knowledge management for climate change adaptation in the water sector at the local and national levels.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events

This "Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events" project will address water quality and quantity issues that impact people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka.

With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka, under the leadership of the newly elected President, is paying the highest attention to this mounting and worsening crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease, for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector.

By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (80.661621054605 7.586113268882)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
2 million, especially smallholder farmers in the Dry Zones in Sri Lanka
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$38.1 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$ 14 million (co-financing from the Government of Sri Lanka according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Sri Lanka’s recent economic gains, following the end of a debilitating 30 year war and the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, are being threatened due to its increasing vulnerability to climate change which is characterized by increasing temperatures and unpredictability of rainfall. Almost 80% of poor Sri Lankans live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture for food and income. IPCC’s fifth assessment report predicts that South Asia, including Sri Lanka, is vulnerable to drought, flood, food shortages and heat-related mortality. The country has been experiencing severe shifts in its seasonal rainfall patterns accompanied by increased flood and drought in the last decade directly impacting rural food security and incomes.

While categorized as a middle-income country, Sri Lanka masks a complicated situation with deep regional disparities in wealth and wellbeing. About 5.2 million people — equivalent to a quarter of the population — were estimated to be undernourished in 2014. This persistence of rural poverty, indebtedness and vulnerability, high youth unemployment at 19%, low participation of women in the labour force and large-scale migration in search of employment all indicate a high level of unevenness in growth and opportunity across the provinces and districts.  Poverty and social exclusion are most prevalent in under-developed rural districts where agriculture is the major livelihood. The conflict-affected districts in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and peripheral districts are most deprived where many years of exclusion from the benefits of a steady economic growth and development resulted in greater social vulnerabilities.

Dry Zone Context – agricultural livelihoods, poverty, and conflict

The Dry Zone is one of three climatic zones (dry, intermediate and wet) that divide Sri Lanka on the basis of variations in rainfall. It receives less rainfall than average and has pronounced dry periods. The Dry Zone covers 70% of the island’s land area and is the country’s agricultural heartland and the main area where the staple rice is grown. Small-scale farmers with land holdings of less than 2 hectares dominate agriculture in this region.  Many other forms of employment in the Dry Zone are also related to agriculture – e.g. agricultural marketing, transport, and financial services. About two-third of the cultivated area in the country is rain fed or irrigated by numerous semi-rainfed minor reservoirs and diversions, collectively referred to as village irrigation schemes. A number of studies confirm that smallholder farmers cultivating under village irrigation systems are poorer and more vulnerable than their Dry Zone counterparts who have access to major irrigation. Such farmers are much more vulnerable to impacts of climate change than farmers cultivating under larger irrigation systems. As productivity and crop yields decline with low water availability and unseasonal rains resulting from climate variability and extreme events, farmers are dragged deeper into poverty and face food deficits, which have to be met by buying food for consumption, increasing the level of indebtedness and further eroding their capacity to cope with climate risks.

While the impacts of the conflict were experienced throughout the country (eg. suicide bombing and attacks on public places, economic downturn, social issues with war casualties), several districts in the Dry Zone were directly affected by the fighting and resultant large-scale displacement. The five districts of the Northern Province, three districts in the Eastern Province and peripheral districts such as Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Moneragala and Polonnaruwa were directly impacted by the war. This is about 60% of the country’s land area and around two thirds of the coastline of the country. The end of the war in 2009 has allowed many of these districts to re-enter the economic mainstream. However, serious challenges remain in completing resettlement and meaningful resumption of economic activities in this region, complicated by frequent and recurrent climate-induced disasters and extreme weather events in the last five years. Recurrent floods and droughts in the last 5-6 years have battered all the districts struggling to overcome the direct impacts of conflict with severe impacts on food security, income, and water for drinking and sanitation of displaced/resettled communities as well as those living in remote border districts.

A paradigm shift in addressing adaptation needs among farmers in the Dry Zone lies in developing an integrated, holistic approach to water security that considers the entire ‘cascade’ or sub-basin system and the inter-connectedness of the village irrigation systems, agricultural practices, and water supply and management techniques for multiple uses, including drinking water. Village irrigation systems (VIS) provide communities with a means of coping with seasonal variability; and, improving their functionality is seen as a means of adaptation to climate change. Increased resilience to floods and droughts require cost-effective design changes and enhancements to the system to reduce flood damages and improve dry-season storage. Efficient, planned, climate-risk informed water management at field and sub-basin level should complement improved availability and access to water. This includes resilient and ecologically sustainable agricultural practices, which substantially deviate from current field practices. Introduction of improved, short duration rice and other crops, simple micro irrigation techniques, semi-mechanisation for water efficiency etc. can ensure longer water storage and availability for multiple uses. Many villages secure their drinking water from wells that are immediately downstream of the village reservoir. Increased water capture and storage will improve both year round access to drinking water and improved agricultural practices, including the reduction of agro-chemical use, will in the long-term improve the quality of drinking water. Harvesting rainwater at household-level can also improve access to quality drinking water as rainwater is considerably safer and of better quality than ground water in the Dry Zone. In addition, early warning information, based on meteorological and seasonal forecasts, is a key part of the water management system. It enables preparation and mitigating measures to be enacted ahead of climate-related disasters and variability ensuring the optimal management of water resources.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1:Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone

  • Improve technical capacity and knowledge management targeting ASCs, local field officials and community organisations for climate-risk informed water management and climate-smart agriculture

    This activity will support the development of cascade level water management plans and guidelines that incorporate climate risks and impacts in a participatory, multi-stakeholder approach. It will include training for FOs and other CBOs (women’s groups) to implement and maintain the project investments in light of a changing climate. The activity will improve collaboration for planning and equitable water sharing between users in a cascade. ASCs in the river basin will be developed as knowledge and communication hubs including supporting cross-district, cross ethnic experience sharing through exchange field visits and field training programmes. It will address the barriers of limited technical capacity, institutional coordination, and knowledge for integrated approach to climate-risk informed water and agriculture management.

  • Activity 1.2 Improve resilience of and upgrade village irrigation systems in the identified cascades including restoration of upstream watersheds

    GCF resources and government co-financing will be used to support the design and upgrades of VIS, incorporating elements to enhance the resilience of these systems to climate change risks and impacts. About 325 village irrigation systems, including the upstream catchments, will be upgraded based on the cascade level water development plans. The interventions to upgrade the irrigation systems include: i. reforesting the watershed and re-introducing the vegetative interceptor to trap contaminants: ii. Restoring the reservoir bund (dam), spill, sluice and canals supplying the fields, and iii. Desilting the reservoir bed. These upgrades will incorporate climate risks and combine traditional and new design elements and practices including partial de-silting to deepen reservoirs close to the bund and retain more water during dry seasons, intensified reforesting of the catchment with multi-purpose trees, creating ponds and diversions for run-off capture in the catchment, upstream soil conservation practices like hedgerows, contour drains to prevent erosion, and creating small ponds in home gardens to capture intense rainfall.

  • Activity 1.3 Develop and disseminate climate resilient agricultural practices with targeted enterprise development for women

    The activity will support government extension services to develop and widely disseminate demand-driven, tested, climate change risk informed agriculture support packages which includes drought/flood resilient crops (seeds), organic inputs, soil and water management technologies and market oriented agro-processing technologies. Together with the seasonal climate forecasts (Activity 3.2) and improved marketing options for the recommended crops (supported by market mapping undertaken through this activity; crop recommendations co-financed by Department of Agrarian Development and Department of Agriculture), the climate resilient agriculture package will provide more food, income and improve ability of farmers to cope with seasonal variability and improve rational use of water. Based on the past experiences from other similar initiatives (e.g. IUCN/HSBC project and SAPSRI Project—refer to Annex II, Feasibility Report, Section 5.3), recommended practices include using short-term and climate resilient traditional rice varieties; landscaping/vegetative barriers for erosion control; crop diversification and composting in home gardens; use of organic fertilizers; crop diversification during the minor season; rational use of chemical inputs based on soil condition; agronomic and crop establishment techniques such as dry sowing in paddy fields in between seasons; and micro irrigation, with due regard to the agro-ecological regions. Resilient agriculture practices recognize the need to address climate-related factors (drought and flood resistant crops, shorter duration field crops) along with non-climate drivers for safe and chemical-free agriculture that contributes to long-term improvement of water quality.

Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities

  • Activity 2.1 Improve capacity of water-supply support staff at district/divisions, selected partner organisations (NGOs) and CBOs to implement and maintain community-based climate change risk informed drinking water related interventions

    Village irrigation reservoirs are a key source of drinking water in the Dry Zone. As such, the expected risks on drinking water on both the supply and demand side as climate change needs should be incorporated into the cascade water management plans in Output 1. The activity focuses on planning and capacity building to address the barriers of technical capacity and institutional coordination related to provision of safe drinking water to the Dry Zone communities. The capacities of local officials and women-led CBOs will be strengthened for climate-risk management related to drinking water sources, supply systems, and quality monitoring and management. The activity will support training and mobilization to ensure the drinking water needs in light of a changing climate are incorporated into cascade development plans implemented through cascade-level water committees and water source protection committees. It will also build capacities for climate-risk informed planning for water source protection and quality monitoring coordinating with NWSDB. These will inform the selection of climate-risk informed treatment methods appropriate for the water sources.

  • Activity 2.2 Implement sustainable, climate-resilient drinking water solutions through CBOs and government agencies

    GCF resources and government co-financing will be invested to establish climate-resilient, community water systems (with simple treatment) for water extracted from irrigation systems and domestic rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems to supplement drinking water during prolonged dry periods. In addition, advanced purification and filtrations systems will be established to supplement long-term measures such as ecological agronomic practices (Output 1) that impact drinking water quality. This activity addresses the technical and financial barriers related to investments in rural water supply schemes, improved water treatment and purification schemes and domestic rainwater harvesting units. The design and operation of these systems will incorporate climate risks and information (including advisories and forecasts generated under Output 3) and will be fully integrated into the cascade water management planning (Output 1).

Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods

  • Activity 3.1 Establish effective monitoring systems for drought, floods and water management

    This activity expands the meteorological and hydrological observational network coverage by installing, operating and maintaining monitoring equipment in key catchments and VIS systems. This will enable DAD, ID and FOs to better understand and monitor current conditions within the cascade systems, as well as streamflow, which may cause flooding of agricultural areas further downstream. Agrometeorological data will be used to estimate a suite of products including evapotranspiration and soil moisture, which will help detect the onset of agricultural droughts. Along with 10 automatic rainfall gauges the rainfall data will be used to support the development of satellite-based estimates in activity 3.2. Additionally these data can help refine MOS-based forecasts (see 3.2), once a suitably long time-series (approximately 3-5 years) becomes available. Automated water level sensors (50) will be used by DAD and ID to monitor water levels at critical points in the three river basins, which along with 8 streamflow gauges, will allow early detection of rising flood waters. Water levels and rainfall will be monitored in VIS systems by FOs and farmers using 330 manual staff (water-level) and rainfall gauges.

  • Activity 3.2 Co-develop and disseminate weather- and climate-based advisories for agricultural and water management through ASCs and FOs to farmers and village water managers

    This activity address institutional capacity and financial barriers related to provision of early warnings and forecasting. It supports the eestablishment of protocols and SOPs for generating, sharing and using weather data and information between national agencies (DoM, DAD, ID and DMC) and ASCs/FOs. It will involve the sensitization of communities and FOs to the availability of weather and climate information, as well as the function of any local equipment, which will be used to generate data used in the advisories. Through this activity a sense of ownership will be cultivated to avoid vandalism of equipment etc. The sense of ownership will be further promoted through co-development of information requirements for agriculture and water management. A training of trainers to use and adapt weather/climate based advisories will be undertaken to enable FOs and lead farmers to understand the historical context of climate information as a basis for understanding the implication of and using weather and seasonal forecasts.

  • Activity 3.3 Develop climate-risk management response measures based on advisories and forecasts for agriculture, water management and flooding in cascade systems

    This activity will develop and plan appropriate climate risk management responses to the advisories developed through activity 3.2, including the additional impacts expected through climate change. This will involve inundation area mapping of areas in the three river basins prone to flooding in order to set the baseline flooding scenarios expected without climate change.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Ms
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 16 June 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 28 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 8 July 2017

'UN commences $38.1 million green climate project in Sri Lanka' - Ceylon News, 18 October 2016. The UN on Tuesday officially commenced the Green Climate Project (GCP) to support Sri Lanka dry zone communities to adapt to climate change. UN Resident Coordinator for Sri Lanka, Una McCauley officially on Tuesday presented President Maithripala the commencement of the new USD 38.1m GCF project which will be implemented by UNDP. At the 13th GCF Board Meeting in Colombo in July, Sri Lanka secured climate finance of USD 38.1 million for its proposal titled, 'Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka'.

.'Sri Lanka Secures Climate Finance to Strengthen the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone' - UNDP, 18 July 2016. At the 13th Board Meeting of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the main international funding body for climate action, USD 38.1 million was approved in funding for Sri Lanka for its proposal titled Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events in Sri Lanka.

'Smallholder Farmers Vulnerable To Climate Change', Colombo Telegraph, June 18, 2016 - With changes in rainfall intensity, floods and with slow onset impacts of climate change such as droughts, Sri Lankans feel the daily impacts of climate change. In order to address the situation in which the farmers of the Dry Zone live, actions on adaptation need to be taken. And to do this, there needs to be finance allocations - such as via the Green Climate Fund.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
This project will address water quality and quantity issues that impact people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka. With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka, under the leadership of the newly elected President, is paying the highest attention to this mounting and worsening crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease, for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector. By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone.

Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities.

Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods.

Civil Society Engagement: 


Supporting Vulnerable Communities in Maldives to Manage Climate Change-Induced Water Shortages

The “Supporting vulnerable communities in Maldives to manage climate change-induced water shortages” project will be implemented by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The project targets 49 islands across of 13 atolls of the country that continue to experience water shortages linked to low rainfall and extended dry periods, brought on by a changing climate.  It aims to provide safe and reliable freshwater to 105,000 people, roughly 30 percent of the island nation's residents. A 90-day reserve of clean water will also be secured, reducing the exposure to health risks from untreated water

The project will establish water desalination facilities in four islands across the most vulnerable regions in the North. These islands would then serve as water production and distribution hubs for all seven Northern atolls during the dry season, lifting their dependency on Male’ for emergency drinking water. The remaining 45 islands in both the North and South of Maldives will benefit from improved rainwater collection infrastructure combined with groundwater protection and improvements to foster long-term resilience.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (73.509521431144 4.1834422899354)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
295,000 (105,000 people in the outer islands of Maldives)
Funding Source: 

Waters of Paradise - Adapting to Climate Change in the Maldives

The Maldives is one of the wonders of the world. Located in the Indian Ocean and made of 1192 coral islands, it is also the world’s lowest lying country. The highest natural point is just 2.4 meters above sea level. Today, one of the main problems for Maldivians is water. And it is likely to get worse with Climate Change.

Financing Amount: 
US$23.6 million (GCF funding according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$4.6 million (Ministry of Environment and Energy US$4.5 million, UNDP US$100,000)
Project Details: 

The Maldives consists of 1,190 small, low-lying coral islands spread across 90,000 square kilometers. Its estimated population of 399,000 is scattered over 194 main islands. With high-end tourism as the main driver of economic growth, the country has made significant development progress since its independence in 1965.

However, national aggregate indicators of progress conceal underlying inequalities. A significant disparity between people living in the capital, Malé, and those living in other atolls is reflected in conspicuous differences in their human development indices. The outer island communities are especially vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather events, rainfall distribution anomalies, and sea level rise.

Observed experiences during the last decade bear out the risks of climate change. In 2004, an estimated 30 percent of the outer islands’ population experienced water shortages, and since 2005 an average of 81 islands had requested emergency shipments of water to be delivered from Malé during the annual dry season. The calls for emergency shipments have intensified as the rainfalls become more erratic and dryer seasons dryer, and as a result, islands’ stored rainwater reserves become depleted. This has resulted on an average of 3,500 liters shipped out from Malé annually during the last ten years. During 2005-2012, the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) spent US$2.4 million (annual average of US$300,000) to provide desalinated water to over 90 islands.

Difference in geography (land availability), hydro-climatic characteristics (rainfall amounts and distribution patterns) and socio-economic conditions (population size, density, growth trends, and socio-economic status) suggest the need for decentralised and fully customised approaches to water production and distribution to achieve island and atoll level self-sufficiency.

The Maldivian government faces severe constraints in responding to the country’s present and future water security challenges.  Firstly, the precarious fiscal status limits the response options to largely reactive emergency measures. Longer-term solutions, without additional financial support, are out of reach. Secondly, a dispersed and small population prevents the possibility of economies of scale in providing water and sanitation services, as well as capital infrastructure.

In response to climate change risks and challenges, the proposed project will provide sufficient water to supply the potable water needs of island residents year round for a 35 year design period (to 2050). Project finance will be used to establish an integrated water resources management system that integrates the three main sources of water (rainwater, groundwater, and desalinated water) into a least cost delivery system. The project will: (i) increase rainfall collection capacity in target 49 islands at least threefold; (ii) improve groundwater management, including monitoring, effective replenishment and controlled extraction; and (iii) increase water production capacity through solar-based desalinization to secure sufficient back up resources for timely distribution to island households during extended dry periods. This system will be able to maintain service levels against a context of rainfall variability and sea level rise.

Ultimately, the project will achieve an uninterrupted water supply on islands that currently experience chronic 90-day water shortages during the dry season. As a result of the project, 49 priority islands will have increased rainwater collection capacities. Out of these, 4 of the larger islands will also install desalination-based water production systems. These systems will secure sufficient water production capacity, enabling decentralised and timely water distribution across all northern outer atolls during the extended dry periods, when shortages may occur.

Finally, early water alerts, based on forecasted meteorological information will feed into the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for system management. In addition to actual investments in water production and distribution the project will support more advanced management capabilities of the utilities for greater efficiency that anticipated climate change driven challenges and complexities demand.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The main outputs and concrete results of the project will be as follows:

Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 32,000 people

  • 11,5023 rainwater harvesting systems for 26,000 residents in 45 islands installed;
  • Standard operating Procedures (SOPs) prepared and used by utilities, local councils and households;
  • 4 RO desalination water plants in 4 islands installed and made operational, using a grid-tied and / or off grid solar PV technology to provide backup capacity in times of water stress;
  • Groundwater recharge system installed for excess rainwater from the RWH collection system on 49 islands, including grey water recycling on selected islands;
  • Tariff evaluation criteria and tariff setting guidelines designed and introduced;
  • Training programmes in integrated water resource management, planning and budgeting, water economic modeling, expenditure management and performance monitoring developed and delivered for relevant atoll and island councils and the ministries (MEE, MoH); and
  • Certification courses for the utilities and sector specialists in the areas of water engineering, capital construction, operation, maintenance, financial management and planning introduced at the Maldivian Polytechnic training institute (MP).

Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution

  • 4 sub-national water production and distribution locations to serve all Northern atolls established;
  • Institutional coordination and accountability mechanisms between the utilities, the NDMC, MEE and LGA/ councils to facilitate cost-effective and timely water supply during dry season;
  • Regulatory framework for competitive and wholesale water distribution services established;
  • Early warning system established on the basis of forecasted meteorological information for water emergency alerts and for effective operation of integrated water system.

Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected

  • Baseline assessment (hazards inventory and catchment characterization) completed;
  • Groundwater monitoring protocols with associated equipment and training delivered;
  • Regulatory framework established for coastal land use, including zoning to protect coastal catchment areas and enable natural recharge of groundwater lenses.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. The Project Manager that will be in charge of running the project on behalf of Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA) will be responsible for day-to-day project monitoring. S/he will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project.

The UNDP Country Office will conduct, within other monitoring activities, annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office will be responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed.

A Project Implementation Report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual PIR. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.

An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (www.erc.undp.org). The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Adviser
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 5 November 2015
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 12 April 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 23 May 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 29 May 2017
 
'Head of UNDP Achim Steiner welcomes flow of GCF funds to the Maldives' - June 30, 2017. UNDP Programme Administrator says the Maldives will benefit from the current transfer of GCF funds to an adaptation project run by the UNDP. “We are delighted that the Green Climate Fund’s first disbursement to UNDP will help realise this exciting project, which will see almost a third of the population of the Maldives becoming freshwater self-sufficient over the next five years.”
 
'UNDP signs water project supported by the green climate fund with Maldives'  - May 15, 2017. The Government of Maldives and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has formulated a project to support vulnerable Maldivian communities to manage climate change-induced water shortages. Speaking at the function held to sign the project, Minister Thoriq Ibrahim said that this achievement is remarkable and the government has high hopes for this project as it will address the country's water issues.
 

'Towards a climate resilient future in the water sector: Government of Maldives Signs Project Document with UNDP' - May 12, 2017. UNDP Maldives announce official signing with the Ministry for the delivery of safe and secure freshwater for vulnerable communites via the 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages'

Protecting (scarce) fresh water in the Maldives’  - April 15, 2016. Keti Chachibaia, Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP’s Bangkok Regional Hub, throws light on water security in the Maldives and how funding from the Green Climate Fund will help make vulnerable communities more resilient in the face of climate change.pulation) in the islands of Maldives in the face of climate change risks.

Green Climate Fund approves first 8 Investments’ - November 2,2015. The Green Climate Fund announces the approval of funding for eight new projects, including the Maldives proposal for 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages' (GCF funding: 23.6 million) 

Information in French / Informations en français: 


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About (Summary): 
Climate change impacts on water sector is already discernable in Maldives. Increase in rainfall variability, which is extending the dry season period, and sea level rise will have profound impacts on water security in the country. Unless anticipated climate change risks are urgently addressed, the water stress is going to be the main limiting factor for human development in the country. In response to the climate change challenge, this project will ensure the delivery of safe and secure freshwater to 105,000 people in the outer islands of the Maldives through the scale up of an integrated water production system, the introduction of decentralized and cost-effective dry season water distribution mechanisms and the improvement of groundwater quality. As a result, the project will reduce the human, environmental and social impacts of drinking water shortages experienced during the dry season and will build a long-term resilience to climate change impacts.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 105,000 people

 

Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution

 

Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected

 
Civil Society Engagement: