Taxonomy Term List
Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.
By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.
The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.
The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.
The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;
Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;
Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;
Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;
Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:
Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;
Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;
Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;
Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.
Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.
Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.
Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.
Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.
Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.
Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica
Based on the climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas. The “Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica” project aims to improve water supply and promote sustainable water practices of end users and productive sectors by advancing community- and ecosystem-based measures in rural aqueduct associations (ASADAS) to address projected climate-related hydrological vulnerability in northern Costa Rica. On the demand side, the project will mainstream climate change knowledge and strategies into public and private sector policy and planning in order to promote adaptation of productive practice to maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
The initial plan will be executed by the UNDP Costa Rica Country Office in close cooperation with Rural Aqueduct Association (ASADAS) and the Institute of Aqueduct and Sewers (AyA) and other relevant stakeholders. The Country Office will recruit a team of national and international consultants to undertake the activities. In the course of implementation UNDP Panama Regional Centre will be consulted for advice and guidance as requested.
This project targets three Socio-Ecological Management Units (SEMU) of Northern Costa Rica. The SEMUs 1, 2 and 3, as they are referred to, comprise the cantons (municipal territories) of Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz (SEMU 1), Liberia and Canas (SEMU 2), and Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha and Carrillo (SEMU 3). It has a total territorial extension of 10,608.9 sq-km and a population of 354,132 inhabitants. This region is targeted for SCCF financing as the supply of water resources is threatened by shortages as a result of climate change impacts.
Based on climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual area rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. In the shorter term, rainfall decreases of 15% (2030) in 2020 and 35% in 2050. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas, s
Currently the National Emergency Comission has declared a yellow alert due to a drought affecting the countys comprising SEMU 3. This will compound pressures as water consumption in the target area and is also expected to increase by at least 20% over the coming decades driven by an expected increase of exports of agro-industry products, while investments in water infrastructure, mainly by AyA (Institute of Aqueducts and Sewers), will be reduced due to fiscal and legislative constraints.
Sustained increased demand of water resources by the agriculture sector and lack of finance investment towards water infrastructure is beginning to create stress on water availability in the area. Actual productive practices, mainly pineapple, livestock and citric crops with a high water footprint index are increasing pressure on irrigation, which according to available data, most are rainfed (83% of the total) while irrigation accounts for 17%.
If climate change driven pressures are not addressed, Costa Rica´s SEMUs of the North region will inevitably experience significant water shortages that will have a severe economic impact on livelihoods and productive sectors. As a result of increased frequency of extreme weather events (particularly drought) local communities and farmers in Northern Costa Rica are currently facing reduction on their means of productions, as access to water and water infrastructure and facilities are critical to their livelihoods. Consequently the communities from the target area (SEMUs 1,2,3) are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability.
Approximately 1,900 ASADAS exist as locally organized groups of men and women from the user communities who are interested in the non-for-profit management of the local aqueduct and sanitation system. In a decentralized manner, municipalities and ASADAS provide services to about 46% of the total Costa Rican population. ASADAS alone administer and operation water systems for over 30% of the population, primarily for those in rural areas and border regions. Existing aqueduct infrastructure is often outdated and overloaded causing inefficient water service delivery, which in turn complicates the collection of fees from end users. Instability in fee-collection leads to financial uncertainty, which impedes the AyA’s ability to plan for and implement targeted improvements and new investments.
Most ASADAS and the local governments of the target area need to develop the necessary skills and have access to knowledge tools and adequate investment, in order to address the scarcity of water supply. AyA’s current investment plan, including capacity development activities directed mainly to ASADAS, rarely incorporate community-based or ecosystem-based measures. In addition, financial institutions lack proven tools capable of providing correct incentives for private sector enterprises to integrate community and water-related adaptation measures. If these entities do not strengthen their capacities to cope with climate change, the vulnerability of rural populations of the Northern region of Costa Rica will increase.
Component 1. Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Outcome 1.1: Infrastructure and technical capacity of ASADAs strengthened to cope with climate change impacts to aquifers in the target area.
Output 1.1.1.: Strengthened metering systems to track water supply to end-users (micro- and macrometers) in the ASADAS network provide updated information on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources.
Output 1.1.2.: Water catchment (well, spring, and/or rain), storage, and distribution systems in rural areas improved and resilient to climate change.
Output 1.1.3.: Water-saving devices installed in homes.
Output 1.1.4.: Pilot sanitation and purification measures (e.g., sludge management and dry composting toilets) and other adaptive technologies for wastewater management to improve water quality.
Output 1.1.5.: Water sources and associated aquifer recharge areas protected and/or rehabilitated through reforestation, natural regeneration, and other protection and conservation measures.
Outcome 1.2: The capacity of ASADA end-users in particular that of women, Maleku indigenous communities and Nicaraguan migrant workers to mainstream climate change adaptation into their livelihoods systems is built.
Output 1.2.1.: Community-based climate change training program with a gender focus and includes minority groups, such as indigenous communities. - Training Toolkit on good practices for water-conscious consumer behavior and biodiversity monitoring in place. - At least 1,500 household members and producers, including women (35%) trained to maintain and improve the use of water and sanitation in a context of increased climate impacts - Extension services (i.e., community outreach) for land use and production practices include course and support material
Outcome 1.3: Meteorological information integrated to sub-regional development plans and strategies to increase resilience of rural communities to address water variability.
Output 1.3.1.: Fifteen (15) new Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and/or Automated Flow Stations (AFS) installed to provide consistent and reliable environmental data in real time in the selected SEMUs.
Output 1.3.2.: Vulnerability Index, Adaptive Capacity Index developed and supporting the climate early warning and information system, and the Risk Management Plan for Potable Water and Sanitation (RMPPS).
Output 1.3.3.: Information monitoring system for the AyA and the ASADAS’ Management System (SAGA) to track the impact of adaptation measures with the aim to reduce the vulnerability of rural communities to address water variability due to climate change, and articulated to national-level information systems (National System of Water Resources and Hydrometeorological National System).
Output 1.3.4.: Climate early warning and information system on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources generated and disseminated to ASADAS, end users, and partners.
Component 2: Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
Outcome 2.1: Ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures are integrated into public and private sector policy, strategies and investments related to rural community water-sourcing infrastructure and services, i.e a national model of EcosystemBased Water Security Plans is developed by the project and formally endorsed by national institutions.
Output 2.1.1.: Four (4) participatory RMPPS implemented within each target canton (SEMU 1: Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz; SEMU 2: Liberia and Cañas; SEMU 3: Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha, and Carrillo).
Output 2.1.2.: The AyA and the CNE investments for the prioritized project area integrate climate change risks.
Output 2.1.3.: Ten (10) livestock and agricultural producing companies adopt a voluntary fee system (Certified Agricultural Products and Voluntary Watershed Payments) to pay for the protection of water resources.
Output 2.1.4.: Valuation modeling of ecosystem-based adaptation measures (UNEP methodology) and economic valuation of ecosystem services (UNDP methodology) support the integration of water-related risks and new ecosystems management practices within productive sectors (agriculture and livestock industry).
Outcome 2.2: The purchasing and credit policies of at least 20 agricultural and livestock trading companies and 5 financial institutions operating in the target region promote adoption of productive practices that help maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
Output 2.2.1.: Farmers incorporate ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures into their production processes, making use of revised purchasing and credit policies of agricultural and livestock trading companies and financial institutions.
Output 2.2.2.: Knowledge management system allows disseminating data, information, and toolkits to foster and mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation practices in other water-intensive productive sectors across the country.
Component 1 - Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Component 2 - Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
- On 29 August 2016, the Government of Uzbekistan reached out to UNDP to request their support on the formulation and implementation of a National Adaptation Plan process.
- With support from NAP-GSP, a preliminary mission was undertaken 25-27 October 2016 to hold stakeholder consultations, and identify Uzbekistan’s needs regarding the NAP process.
- Assessment of initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process through a stakeholder roundtable, qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review.
- The mission also built on Uzbekistan’s participation in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP Process, held on 28–30 June, 2016 in Chisinau, Moldova by UNDP and NAP-GSP.
- The mission aimed to provide a snapshot of the currently available and intended planning capacities of the government agencies on climate adaptation planning in order to facilitate systematic mainstreaming of adaptation action in the country’s development planning process. The purpose was to assess and arrive at a consensus on needs and capacities for climate change adaptation and to inform the preparation and development of the country’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP).
- On 14 July 2016, the Government of Kazakhstan requested support to develop a NAP, as a way to facilitate effective planning mitigation to climate change.
- With support from UNDP and NAP-GSP, a preliminary mission was undertaken from 19-21 October 2016 to identify, in consultation with stakeholders, Kazakhstan’s needs regarding the NAP process.
- The mission allowed for preliminary assessment of relevant initiatives on climate mainstreaming and of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process through a stakeholder roundtable, qualitative interviews and an extensive desk review.
- The mission also built on Kazakhstan’s participation in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP Process, which was held on 28–30 June, 2016 in Chisinau, Moldova, supported by UNDP and NAP-GSP.
- A Stocktaking Report and Preliminary Roadmap / Concept for Advancing the NAP Process in Kazakhstan have also been developed and shared with the various stakeholders for review and commenting.
A National NAP workshop was held in Zimbabwe from 4-6 May 2016, jointly organized and supported by the Government of Zimbabwe, UNDP Zimbabwe Country Office, the Global Water Partnership (GWP), and NAP-GSP.
Forty participants from key ministries joined the workshop, including the Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate, the Climate Change Department, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Environment Management Agency and other key ministries. The Government of Zimbabwe is planning to conduct ten provincial-level NAP trainings as part of a comprehensive national NAP programming process.
- NAP-GSP will provide support through a National ‘Training for Trainers’ to develop trainers for the provincial workshops.
4-6 May 2016, Kadoma, Zimbabwe: A National NAP workshop was held in Zimbabwe, jointly organized and supported by the Government of Zimbabwe, UNDP Zimbabwe Country Office, the Global Water Partnership (GWP), and NAP-GSP. Key entry points for the NAP process in Zimbabwe were discussed during the workshop through group exercises and individual interviews. NAP-support priorities include enhancing coordination between national and local levels to advance the NAP process. The climate change governance framework was also discussed, with a view to mainstream climate change adaptation into all sectors.
- A NAP-GSP mission was deployed to Uruguay from 14-23 October 2016, to support a NAP workshop.
- The workshop identified strategic goals for the NAP process, and the activities and processes to serve as entry points for climate change adaptation integration.
- Stakeholders gained a shared understanding of their own current capacities and needs around climate change adaptation to help inform decisions on developing a NAP process.
- An indicative roadmap for development of NAP process was produced.
- NAP-GSP and UNDP have provided technical assistance to Peru to advance their NAP process, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap.
- NAP-GSP has also provided an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group during a support mission in April 2016.
- As part of the NAP support mission to Peru, the NAP-GSP team met with the core team from the Ministry of Environment to review adaptation advances and develop a NAP roadmap. In addition, support was provided during a one day meeting of the multi-stakeholder NAP group.
- The Ministry of Environment is leading the process to advance the NAP in Peru, together with the Ministry of Economy and Finance, Ministry of Production (Agriculture and Fisheries), Ministry of Health, the National Statistics Institute, the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations, Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion, the Geophysics Institute, and various other institutions including private sector.
- The focus of the NAP process is multisectoral. An initial stocktaking was done in the preparation for the 3rd National Communication on Climate Change, but Peru is seeking support and guidance on how to further advance the NAP purposes.
- The NAP for Peru will build upon the National Strategy on Climate Change which was revised in 2015. This states the objective that economic agents and populations increase their awareness and adaptive capacity to the adverse impacts and the opportunities of climate change.
- The NAP (and the National Strategy) also build on the following key strategies and documents:
- The Plan for Disaster Risk Management and CCA in the Agricultural Sector 2012 – 2021
- Regional strategies for Climate Change – based on the Law for Regional Governments. These strategies identify vulnerable sectors and areas in each of Peru's regions (provinces) and contain actions to reduce impacts of climate change.
- National Plan for Disaster Risk Management
- 3rd National Communication on Climate Change
- The INDC - the NAP will be the main instrument to implement INDC.
The INDC adaptation component was developed after a review of the vulnerabilities and adaptation priorities of the country, and based on the study of the national goals established by various national planning documents (Bicentennial Plan, National Plan for Disaster Risk Management - PLANAGERD, Environmental Action Plan - PLANAA, Environment Agenda 2014) and sectoral planning documents (PLANGRACC-A11, Budget Programs, Integral Plan of Mitigation and Adaptation to the effects of Climate Change on Public Health, among others). The adaptation component is formulated for different sectors and prioritized systems.
29 April 2016, Lima, Peru: NAP-GSP and UNDP have provided technical assistance to Peru to advance their NAP process, by working closely with the Ministry of Environment to advise them on the development of the NAP roadmap. NAP-GSP has also provided an overview of the UNFCCC guidelines for NAP, and shared experiences of other countries supported by NAP-GSP to a multi-stakeholder working group during a support mission in April 2016.
- The Government of Ghana has developed a long list of climate change action programs to implement over the 2015-2020 timeframe. Since there are budget constraints, the government is identifying high priority programs based on systematic and robust cost-benefit analysis (CBA).
- To support this process, a CBA Training Workshop was provided by UNDP at the request of the Government of Ghana as a part of the NAP-GSP on 28 October 2016. The aim of the training was to provide not only theoretical understanding of CBA but also practical CBA applications in climate change adaptation through presentations, discussion, and case studies to target participants some of whom could potentially become future trainers themselves.
- Ghana-focused case studies were designed according to Ghana’s priority areas and used throughout the workshop. These priority areas were identified based on the broad base consultation and consensus building.
- The workshop was led by NDPC in close collaboration with MESTI and EPA, and Ministry of Finance.
- The joint UNDP-UNEP NAP-Global Support Programme is linking with the UNDP-UNEP-WRI supported Green Climate Fund (GCF) Readiness Program in Ghana, and work has been initiated to identify potential entry points for NAP support in the country.
Ghana CBA Workshop
> Introduction to the nature of CBA
> CBA Steps and expertise
> Conducting CBA - Steps 123
> Social cost of carbon in CBA
> Conducting CBA - Step 4
> Conducting CBA - Step 5
> Calculate NPV CBA - Step 6
> Sensitivity analysis - Step 7
> Making recommendations CBA - Step 8
- The Government of South Africa have requested support for a national stocktaking on NAP and is preparing to hold a training on the NAP process.
- A TOR is being drafted by the NAP-GSP team to share with the Government of South Africa and the UNDP Country Office.
The Climate Change Division under the Ministry of Finance has requested support from the NAP-GSP to update and finalize the Fiji National Climate Change Strategy.
To date the National Climate Change Strategy only focuses on land resources. Through the acknowledgment that the ocean is a strategic resource for the country and that comprehensive policies are needed to successfully adapt to climate change, the Climate Change Division (CCD) wants to widen the scope of the current NCCAS to the marine sector.
Currently NAP-GSP is working with the Ministry of Finance (CCD) to conduct a detailed gap analysis and stock taking exercise that will provide suggestions and guidance to finalize the NCCAS.
Next Steps are; undertake consultation with key Government institutions and NGOs guide and inform the gap analysis and the stock-taking exercise.