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The proposed "Scaling Up Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for Vulnerable Communities in La Mojana" project supports the Government of Colombia in scaling up climate resilient integrated water resource management practices in La Mojana - one of the poorest and most climate-vulnerable regions in Colombia.
Extreme weather and climate events, such as intense flooding and prolonged dry seasons have caused significant impacts to the population and current climate projections expect these to become more frequent and intense. Loss of agricultural crops that sustain livelihoods, significant changes to ecosystems that have previously provided a buffer to flooding, and adverse impacts from prolonged dry periods are common and worsening with time. In addition, climate change induced pressures are straining already stressed water sources in the region, affecting both supply and quality.
A new disaster risk management model for La Mojana - based on adaptive and not reactive solutions - needs to be adopted to ensure long term resiliency to climate change scenarios. Particularly urgent is the need for comprehensive water use management solutions that are adapted and address increased flooding and longer dry periods. The solutions must account for household and agricultural climate resiliency and reestablish the natural capacity of the ecosystem (through restored eco-systemic functions) to reduce the impacts of extreme climate change events while providing the local capacity to prevent loss of life and livelihoods through early warning alerts and correct planning.
Once implemented, these measures will help local authorities better manage flooding and overcome water shortages during periods of prolonged dry seasons. The measures will significantly reduce the vulnerability of people, communities and their assets.
The project will advance a significant paradigm shift with GCF-resources being levaraged to operationalize the first comprehensive climate adaptive regional development plan, which will serve as a model for the rest of Colombia. This includes adopting a long-term disaster risk reduction strategy that is based not solely on infrastructure but also on restoring ecosystem services for regional water management and directly empowering vulnerable communities and regional authorities to manage projected climate risks. The project will also seek to implement new technologies that work with existing and future climate conditions such as the use of solar power and rain water harvesting to address long-term water supply. The project scales up results that have already been tried and tested in Colombia while addressing paradigm shifts in technology for water supply and community involvement for long-term resiliency and project ownership.
The overarching goal is to enhance climate resilience of vulnerable communities in the La Mojana region. This will be achieved through long-term adaptive solutions that address the supply, use and risk management pertaining to floods and lack of water. The solutions are both technical in nature and include systemized knowledge management mechanism and activities that will ensure that the information is shared with relevant stakeholders at a community, rural productive and local planning level thus addressing the information and capacity gaps identified above through active community participation.
Including community engagement as well as a variety of new stakeholders in the form of respected local and national institutions as key allies in creating resiliency and disaster risk management in the region is highly innovative for Colombia. Not only does it break from past experiences that were isolated from the communities they were trying to protect, but it also provides an opportunity for actions to be highly informed so that they are locally appropriate and address information barriers in a manner that favors practical consultations and best practices. It also ensures ownership, governance, and sustainability.
Interventions through the proposed project will provide practical solutions that are compatible with community needs as identified through the implementation of the MADS-AF project. In addition, key results such as crop diversification and water supply access will be seen within the project lifetime thus creating a positive incentive for active community engagement. Linking solutions that are directly linked in improving the lives of the community has been among the lessons learned from both the MADS-AF project and past infrastructure based interventions that failed to address overall risk to the region.
Partnering with local and national institutions such as the Institute von Humboldt, FEDEGAN and FEDEARROZ, and local universities among others will provide an opportunity not only in ensuring that lessons learned are spread throughout a large variety of stakeholders but also for them to see their own role in comprehensive risk management. This will be particularly the case of universities, knowledge institutions, rural extension workers and productive associations.
Technical solutions for water supply make special consideration to low maintenance and operation cost to ensure sustainability, prioritizing locally available technologies. This is the case with the water tanks and the adaptation of the current hydrological water infrastructure. Training through the knowledge management and rural extension component will ensure that maintenance and operation of the equipment is provided to the community members.
The project will create direct benefits to 203,918 people (45% of which are women) that account for the rural population in La Mojana. This cohort of people has been targeted due to their high level of climate vulnerability as a result of their isolation, proximity to flood prone areas and limited access to sustainable alternative water sources. The target population can be classified in terms of their rural isolation with those living in the most remote areas as the rural disperse population (44,714 people of which 20,269 are women) and those residing rural areas at a closer proximity from urban centers as the rural nuclei population (159,264 people). Both of these populations account for nearly 50% of the total population in La Mojana and are the most vulnerable to climate shocks.
Output 1. Systemizing knowledge of the impacts of climate change on water management for planning.
Under Output 1, the project will use GCF funds to ensure that knowledge is managed and disseminated effectively to enhance decision making and long-term planning in a manner that streamlines adaptation to identified climate risks in the region. This will be done through the development of technical models and guidelines as well as a knowledge management program and capacity building system that will be cross cutting and will ensure the systemization of knowledge for use as a planning tool not only in the region but also nationally.
Output 2. Promote climate resilient water resources infrastructure and ecosystem restoration by vulnerable households and communities
Activities through this output are focused on providing regionally appropriate long term water management solutions to the rural communities in La Mojana (both rural disperse and rural nuclei). Under Output 2 GCF funds will be invested in flood resilient water infrastructure and wetland restoration as long-term water supply and disaster risk management solutions to the region. These solutions aim to ensure sustainable and safe water access to La Mojana’s most water vulnerable communities and be congruent to regional climate projections. Sub activities are adapted and differentiated to address the different access needs based on the level of dispersion and water vulnerability of the population.
Output 3. Improved Early Warning Systems for Climate Resiliency
Output 3 will apply GCF funds to enhance the current early warning system through improved monitoring and forecasting capacity, increased hydrological coverage, and the dissemination of regional and productive relevant alerts that are tailored to users’ needs and communication channels. Implementation will include in their management arrangements national government agencies such as IDEAM, the local environmental authorities (Corporaciones Autonomas), and the University of Cordoba who will be in charge of managing the Regional Forecasting Center that is being created with co-financing from the GoC through the NAF.
Output 4. Enhance rural livelihoods through climate resilient agroecosystems
Output 4 is focused on the promotion of agro-diverse and climate resilient crops in the region and the implementation of climate -dapted productive practices to enhance rural livelihoods and enable resiliency to future climate outlooks for La Mojana. GCF funds under output 4 will be used for research and implementation of adaptive local agriculture and livestock practices to favor correct water management at a household, productive and landscape level. The output will enable water resiliency in the region to ensure that livelihoods are adapted to climate projections.
Output 1 - Strengthened understanding and systemizing knowledge of the impacts of climate change on water management
Output 2 - Improved water resources management by vulnerable households and communities
Output 3 - Improved climate-resilient Early Warning Systems
Output 4 - Enhanced climate-resilient agroecosystems-related rural livelihoods
Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica
Based on the climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas. The “Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica” project aims to improve water supply and promote sustainable water practices of end users and productive sectors by advancing community- and ecosystem-based measures in rural aqueduct associations (ASADAS) to address projected climate-related hydrological vulnerability in northern Costa Rica. On the demand side, the project will mainstream climate change knowledge and strategies into public and private sector policy and planning in order to promote adaptation of productive practice to maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
The initial plan will be executed by the UNDP Costa Rica Country Office in close cooperation with Rural Aqueduct Association (ASADAS) and the Institute of Aqueduct and Sewers (AyA) and other relevant stakeholders. The Country Office will recruit a team of national and international consultants to undertake the activities. In the course of implementation UNDP Panama Regional Centre will be consulted for advice and guidance as requested.
This project targets three Socio-Ecological Management Units (SEMU) of Northern Costa Rica. The SEMUs 1, 2 and 3, as they are referred to, comprise the cantons (municipal territories) of Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz (SEMU 1), Liberia and Canas (SEMU 2), and Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha and Carrillo (SEMU 3). It has a total territorial extension of 10,608.9 sq-km and a population of 354,132 inhabitants. This region is targeted for SCCF financing as the supply of water resources is threatened by shortages as a result of climate change impacts.
Based on climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual area rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. In the shorter term, rainfall decreases of 15% (2030) in 2020 and 35% in 2050. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas, s
Currently the National Emergency Comission has declared a yellow alert due to a drought affecting the countys comprising SEMU 3. This will compound pressures as water consumption in the target area and is also expected to increase by at least 20% over the coming decades driven by an expected increase of exports of agro-industry products, while investments in water infrastructure, mainly by AyA (Institute of Aqueducts and Sewers), will be reduced due to fiscal and legislative constraints.
Sustained increased demand of water resources by the agriculture sector and lack of finance investment towards water infrastructure is beginning to create stress on water availability in the area. Actual productive practices, mainly pineapple, livestock and citric crops with a high water footprint index are increasing pressure on irrigation, which according to available data, most are rainfed (83% of the total) while irrigation accounts for 17%.
If climate change driven pressures are not addressed, Costa Rica´s SEMUs of the North region will inevitably experience significant water shortages that will have a severe economic impact on livelihoods and productive sectors. As a result of increased frequency of extreme weather events (particularly drought) local communities and farmers in Northern Costa Rica are currently facing reduction on their means of productions, as access to water and water infrastructure and facilities are critical to their livelihoods. Consequently the communities from the target area (SEMUs 1,2,3) are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability.
Approximately 1,900 ASADAS exist as locally organized groups of men and women from the user communities who are interested in the non-for-profit management of the local aqueduct and sanitation system. In a decentralized manner, municipalities and ASADAS provide services to about 46% of the total Costa Rican population. ASADAS alone administer and operation water systems for over 30% of the population, primarily for those in rural areas and border regions. Existing aqueduct infrastructure is often outdated and overloaded causing inefficient water service delivery, which in turn complicates the collection of fees from end users. Instability in fee-collection leads to financial uncertainty, which impedes the AyA’s ability to plan for and implement targeted improvements and new investments.
Most ASADAS and the local governments of the target area need to develop the necessary skills and have access to knowledge tools and adequate investment, in order to address the scarcity of water supply. AyA’s current investment plan, including capacity development activities directed mainly to ASADAS, rarely incorporate community-based or ecosystem-based measures. In addition, financial institutions lack proven tools capable of providing correct incentives for private sector enterprises to integrate community and water-related adaptation measures. If these entities do not strengthen their capacities to cope with climate change, the vulnerability of rural populations of the Northern region of Costa Rica will increase.
Component 1. Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Outcome 1.1: Infrastructure and technical capacity of ASADAs strengthened to cope with climate change impacts to aquifers in the target area.
Output 1.1.1.: Strengthened metering systems to track water supply to end-users (micro- and macrometers) in the ASADAS network provide updated information on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources.
Output 1.1.2.: Water catchment (well, spring, and/or rain), storage, and distribution systems in rural areas improved and resilient to climate change.
Output 1.1.3.: Water-saving devices installed in homes.
Output 1.1.4.: Pilot sanitation and purification measures (e.g., sludge management and dry composting toilets) and other adaptive technologies for wastewater management to improve water quality.
Output 1.1.5.: Water sources and associated aquifer recharge areas protected and/or rehabilitated through reforestation, natural regeneration, and other protection and conservation measures.
Outcome 1.2: The capacity of ASADA end-users in particular that of women, Maleku indigenous communities and Nicaraguan migrant workers to mainstream climate change adaptation into their livelihoods systems is built.
Output 1.2.1.: Community-based climate change training program with a gender focus and includes minority groups, such as indigenous communities. - Training Toolkit on good practices for water-conscious consumer behavior and biodiversity monitoring in place. - At least 1,500 household members and producers, including women (35%) trained to maintain and improve the use of water and sanitation in a context of increased climate impacts - Extension services (i.e., community outreach) for land use and production practices include course and support material
Outcome 1.3: Meteorological information integrated to sub-regional development plans and strategies to increase resilience of rural communities to address water variability.
Output 1.3.1.: Fifteen (15) new Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and/or Automated Flow Stations (AFS) installed to provide consistent and reliable environmental data in real time in the selected SEMUs.
Output 1.3.2.: Vulnerability Index, Adaptive Capacity Index developed and supporting the climate early warning and information system, and the Risk Management Plan for Potable Water and Sanitation (RMPPS).
Output 1.3.3.: Information monitoring system for the AyA and the ASADAS’ Management System (SAGA) to track the impact of adaptation measures with the aim to reduce the vulnerability of rural communities to address water variability due to climate change, and articulated to national-level information systems (National System of Water Resources and Hydrometeorological National System).
Output 1.3.4.: Climate early warning and information system on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources generated and disseminated to ASADAS, end users, and partners.
Component 2: Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
Outcome 2.1: Ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures are integrated into public and private sector policy, strategies and investments related to rural community water-sourcing infrastructure and services, i.e a national model of EcosystemBased Water Security Plans is developed by the project and formally endorsed by national institutions.
Output 2.1.1.: Four (4) participatory RMPPS implemented within each target canton (SEMU 1: Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz; SEMU 2: Liberia and Cañas; SEMU 3: Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha, and Carrillo).
Output 2.1.2.: The AyA and the CNE investments for the prioritized project area integrate climate change risks.
Output 2.1.3.: Ten (10) livestock and agricultural producing companies adopt a voluntary fee system (Certified Agricultural Products and Voluntary Watershed Payments) to pay for the protection of water resources.
Output 2.1.4.: Valuation modeling of ecosystem-based adaptation measures (UNEP methodology) and economic valuation of ecosystem services (UNDP methodology) support the integration of water-related risks and new ecosystems management practices within productive sectors (agriculture and livestock industry).
Outcome 2.2: The purchasing and credit policies of at least 20 agricultural and livestock trading companies and 5 financial institutions operating in the target region promote adoption of productive practices that help maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.
Output 2.2.1.: Farmers incorporate ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures into their production processes, making use of revised purchasing and credit policies of agricultural and livestock trading companies and financial institutions.
Output 2.2.2.: Knowledge management system allows disseminating data, information, and toolkits to foster and mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation practices in other water-intensive productive sectors across the country.
Component 1 - Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability
Component 2 - Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.
The "CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia" project will work to mainstream climate risks into national and sub-national planning processes thereby increasing the resilience of local communities across the Ethiopian highlands to climate change.
UNDP is currently working with the Government of Ethiopia to develop a US$6.2 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund.
Today in Ethiopia, climate change considerations are not reflected in development planning and decision making at national and local level. The expected changes in climate and its impact on livelihoods are severe in the highlands of Ethiopia, so if climate change is not addressed it is more than likely that expected development gains will not be realized.
Furthermore, the impacts of weather variability and climate change will not be uniform across the country: some regions are more vulnerable than others. Vulnerability will depend on livelihood type and exposure to risk, both of which are highly variable even within small/local regions.
Changes in the weather patterns marked by greater variability are imposing additional risks to human development in Ethiopia. These risks are most heavily borne by farmers engaging in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, both for landless households whose income largely derives from on-farm wage labour, and women-headed households because of their base line vulnerability to external shocks. Hence, through this project GEF-LDCF resources will be used to strengthen the adaptive capacity and resilience of these targeted groups from the impacts of climatic variability and change.
The key underlying causes of vulnerability are multiple. Land is highly degraded due to deforestation for wood fuel and charcoal production as well as timber for construction, unsustainable farming practices, cultivation of fragile and marginal land and overgrazing, combined with rapidly increasing human and livestock populations.
Such environmental degradation has resulted in changes to the water cycle, poor soil quality, and in highland areas a barren land that is devoid of vegetation cover, which is exposed to soil and wind erosion, thereby creating a self- einforcing cycle of reduced land fertility, reduced water resources and lower crop and livestock production and productivity.
Other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic/invasive plant species in the rift valley lakes further reinforce this cycle. The long term preferred solution is to build sustainable and climate-resilient economic growth among vulnerable communities, targeting eight highland areas in Ethiopia.
This will involve taking the essential elements of the participatory and capacity development approach of the MERET (Managing Environmental Resources to Enable Transitions) programme, but addressing identified weaknesses by adding strong elements of requirements for climate change adaptation (e.g. alternative livelihoods, crop diversification, resilient agricultural practices, better water management and irrigation), capacity development of Woreda and regional government (technical training and mentoring for participatory vulnerability assessments, environmental impact assessments, cost-benefit analysis of climate smart investments, no regrets interventions, integrating climate change risks and opportunities in development planning and budgeting).
Additionally this involves addressing participatory monitoring, impact assessment and action learning in order to assess what makes for successful adaptation and growth strategies in highland areas across different climate and agro-ecological zones, cultural traditions and agricultural practices, as well as strengthening of learning pathways to national policy processes.
Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government
Outcome 2 - Anticipatory climate risk management practiced by smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth
Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people
Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods
The main objective of the "Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods" programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.
The programme targets the three regions in the northern part of Ghana: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions. Compared to other regions of the country, these three northern regions have high degree of exposure to climate variability and change characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing and erratic rainfall. These factors make the northern regions highly vulnerable to climate change and high priority regions for climate change adaptation.
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Water is recognized as a cross-cutting resource underlying the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy of the Republic of Ghana and the National Water Policy with direct linkages to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.
The lack of potable water caused by extreme climate events such as droughts and floods, increases the exposure of people, especially women and children, to water-borne and other hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera. Besides household wellbeing, water plays a central role in many industrial activities. For example, hydropower generation, transportation services, tourism and the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors all depend on water resources. Rainwater harvesting serves as the major source of surface water for many rural communities during the rainy season. There is high agreement between national and regional analyses that vulnerability, especially to droughts, has geographical patterns and socioeconomic associations.
The country experienced severe drought in 1983. Since the late 1990s, floods have been increasingly frequent in the northern regions. Floods affected more than 300,000 people in 1999, 630,000 in 2007/08 and 140,000 in 2010, causing deaths, damaging farmlands, and destroying livelihoods. This resulted in severe hunger, which affected the poor and reduced gross domestic product for that year.
The most severe flood occurred in 2007, during which 630,000 people were affected, through losses of life and displacement, and extensive infrastructural damage and loss of crops. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential impact of climate change on Ghana’s development.
Under a changing climate, poor farmers are finding it difficult to predict the timing of rainy seasons. Consequently, it is becoming difficult manage climate risks to crop production. Failure in crop production is one of the key factors undermining food security . The World Food Programme’s (WFP) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (2009) found that 5% of the population or 1.2 million people are food insecure.
The bulk of the food insecure population is located in the northern regions: 34% in Upper West, 15% in Upper East, and 10% in Northern region. This is the equivalent of approximately 453,000 people. The three northern regions covered by this programme are the most vulnerable. Similarly, the adaptive capacity of these three regions is the lowest nationwide due to low socioeconomic development and the heavy dependence of local economies and livelihoods on rain-fed systems such as agriculture and forestry.
Decreasing annual rainfall and its increasingly erratic pattern, on the background of climate change, are adversely affecting rural livelihoods in northern Ghana and in particular agricultural and pastoral practices. Agriculture is a major driver of Ghana’s economy and employs close to 55 percent of the total labour force.
The proposed Programme will promote four types of adaptation intervention: 1. livelihood enhancement; 2. livelihood diversification; 3. ecosystem protection and enhancement; and 4. community-level water infrastructure planning. These approaches will build up financial, natural, physical and social capital of the communities. A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprise the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010. The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities. Income generation will increase by 30 % in at least 50% of households in the communities.
The main adaptation benefits of the Programme are that it will be able to provide concrete inputs into water resource management planning in the northern region by ensuring that climate change concerns are taken into account. The Programme will be able to build and enhance the adaptive capacity of the ecological systems of water catchments to climate change, once the proposed measures are adopted and implemented.
This is expected to be the first showcase in the Ghana where climate concerns are taken into account and lessons learned will be replicated to other river basins of the country. The activities that will be implemented will include producing knowledge products that capture lessons learnt on management of water resources and diversification of livelihoods under climate change. The capacity to document traditional knowledge systems as well as methods for managing knowledge will be developed, as well as the engagement of community service organizations for knowledge transfer.
The main objective of the programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.
There are three components, each with the following outcomes that will be delivered by the programme:
COMPONENT 1: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING
Outcome 1: Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources
COMPONENT 2: COMMUNITY LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
Outcome 2: Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana
COMPONENT 3: DIVERSIFICATION OF LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES
Outcome 3: Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana
The Chiefs and people of the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions have been urged to embrace the Adaptation Fund Project to help increase climate resilience and enhance sustainable land and water management in the areas. The Adaptation Fund was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MEST) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is implementing the project in some selected communities in the north. Mr Asher Nkegbe, the Upper East Regional Director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), made the call when the technical team of the Project undertook separates community visits to the beneficiary communities in the Upper East Region to engage them on the project implementation and to solicit for their support in the process.
Outcome 1 - Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources
Outcome 2 - Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana
Outcome 3 - Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana
Nepal is a land-locked country located in the central Himalayas and has a lateral span of less than 200 kilometers. Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, with nearly 70 per cent of the population living on less than US$2 per day. Approximately 85 per cent of Nepalese depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, and agriculture is the largest contributor to GDP, with additional benefits from a large tourism sector. Since 1963, UNDP has supported the Government of Nepal and its people in their fight against poverty and pursuit of sustainable development. A major element has entailed helping government agencies, civil society and community groups to develop capacities to better plan and implement effective development programmes.
This new project, Developing climate resilient livelihoods in the vulnerable watershed in Nepal, will work to ensure that integrated watershed management practices are introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
Outcome 1. Integrated watershed management framework has been established to address climate change induced floods and droughts.
Outcome 2. Integrated watershed management practices introduced and scaled up in 3 districts covering 150,000 ha of watershed areas and benefiting 100,000 vulnerable people.
The Republic of Chad is dominated by the Saharan desert in its north (covering half of its 1,284,634 km2). The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission [COMIFAC] and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel [CILSS]). Landlocked, the country is home to about 11.5 million people (2010 estimate), only 28 per cent of whom live in urban areas (UNFPA, 2010).
Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3oC (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5oC of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.). With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 per cent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 per cent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions (McSweeney et al., 2008; World Bank, n.d.).
In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement the "Community-based climate risks management in Chad" project. Project activities will work to build local and national capacity to respond to climate change.
The main economic sectors in the country are: industry (responsible for 48.8 per cent of GDP, mostly from petroleum products); services (37.6 per cent of GDP); agriculture (13.6 per cent of GDP, principally cotton and livestock). Although agriculture is not the main economic sector of Chad, more than 80 per cent of the country’s workforce is engaged in this sector (USDS, 2010). Chad is among the poorest countries in the world—ranked 163 out of 169 countries on the UNDP Human Development Index (UNDP 2010). GDP per capita in 2008 was US$770 per year (UNDP, 2010), and only 3 per cent of the population has access to electricity. This low level of electrification places huge pressure on forest resources as wood and charcoal remain the principle sources of energy. Exploitation of these resources is contributing to desertification (OneWorld, 2010).
The main non-climate environmental pressures facing Chad include population growth, deforestation, overgrazing, poaching, erosion, waste pollution (litter), soil pollution, brushfires and ground and surface water pollution. Unsustainable levels of water extraction and population pressures have contributed to Lake Chad’s loss of approximately 90 percent of its surface area in the past 40 years.
The climate of the northern, Saharan desert region of Chad today is very dry throughout the year. Its central plain is hot and dry, with an intense rainy season mid-June to mid-September. In the southern Sudanian savanna lowlands, the climate is warm and more humid, with an intense rainy season from late May to early October. Temperatures in the country range in the winter from 11 to 20oC, and in the summer from 39 to 45oC. Mean annual temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.7oC since 1960 (McSweeney et al., 2008).
Based on the projected changes to the climate, the following key vulnerabilities were identified in Chad’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) released in 2010 (CMEWF, 2010):
- Agriculture: with 80 per cent of its workforce dependent on agriculture and husbandry, the country is highly vulnerable to climate shifts. It therefore not a surprise that the potential for climate change to bring about a loss of biomass, disappearance of certain crop species, lower yields and increased food deficits is of concern to Chad. Potential outcomes of climate change include reduced agricultural productivity in the south, failed harvests in the Sahelian belt, livestock deaths due to insufficient water resources and reduced fish populations. The length of the growing period could be reduced by more than 20 per cent by 2050, and a near-elimination of rainfed mixed crop/livestock systems could occur within this same timeframe. Of particular concern is the potential for the area suitable for cotton cultivation to be reduced due to economic and climatic reasons. So too is the possible impact of climate change on livestock and pastoralism; Chad projects that climate change could led to abandonment of traditional pastoral zones, modified migration patterns, livestock deaths, loss of genetic diversity, fodder deficits, pressure on protected areas and lower livestock yields.
- Fisheries: concerns include an increase in the number of subsistence fishers who have abandoned agriculture and livestock for fishing, migration towards Lake Chad and lower fish stocks.
- Forest resources: climate change could result in lower vegetation cover, degraded soils, deterioration in the ecosystem services provided by the forests, stronger winds and less rainfall.
- Freshwater resources: stronger flooding, increased demands on water resources, excessive exploitation, increased evaporation rates and significantly increased extraction (with population growth) are cited as sources of vulnerability.
- Population: increased pressures for the best land, internal and external migration, rural exodus, and greater pressure on urban structures and services.
- Transport: degraded road networks and increased transportation costs.
- Industry: increased difficulty in supplying products and inputs.
- Human health and nutrition: Chad currently has weak access to basic health services among most of the population, leading in part to low life expectancy and high mortality rates (infant, children, maternal), and low capacity to address the threat of disease (including respiratory, malaria, diarrhea, cardio-vascular disease, cholera, meningitis, skin and eye diseases). Climate change will place an additional burden on an already vulnerable system.
1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
2. Enhancing risks management capacities
1.1 Producing and disseminating relevant and timely climate information to enhance preparedness of national and local stakeholders and threatened communities to act appropriately and effectively in a timely manner in response to climate-related disaster risks. This includes: (i) the establishment of a decentralized, reliable and functioning organizational system for managing climate risk and disasters, and for coordinating response; (ii) the support to the Direction of Water Resources and Meteorology (DREM) to generate bottom-up reliable weather forecasts to disseminate to target population; (iii) the establishment of a communication and dissemination system to reach all end users; and (iii) the training of staff from DREM and other relevant personnel to effectively run the CB-Early Warning system.
2.1 Promote financial risk transfer mechanisms (e.g. combination of microfinance and micro-assurance) to help rural households minimize losses and provide safety nets against climate-related shocks. This includes: (i) structural analysis of market and institutions to determine demand for micro-insurance and related risk-transfer mechanisms; (ii) the selection of schemes and instruments; (iii) the development of clients’ education and capacities; (iii) the testing and evaluating of financial risks mechanisms; and (iv) the development of cross-community peer-review, learning and sharing mechanisms to support replication in other vulnerable communities.
Outcome 1. Community-based early warning system for preparedness against climate related disaster risks
Outcome 2. Enhancing risks management capacities
The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Liberia to develop a project proposal for a new US$4 million climate change adaptation project in Liberia. The "Enhancing Resilience Of Liberia Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas To Climate Change Risks" project will work to build national capacity and drive policy coordination in the coastal county of Montserrado to plan and respond to climate change. The project will benefit from a proposed US$2.2 million Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund grant and US$2.1 million in co-financing.
The project will contribute to global environmental benefits and improve the livelihoods of the citizens of Liberia with the improved management of 300 million hectares of seascapes, placing 120 million hectares under sustainable land management practices. It will promote the collective management of transboundary water systems, and implement a full range of policy, legal and institutional reforms and investments to contribute to the sustainable use of ecosystem services.
Large environmental benefits are also planned. Most notably, 750 million tons of Carbon Dioxide will be mitigated and 1000 tons of mercury will be reduced.
The Liberia coastline is subject to see level rise. Indeed, by the year 2090, the SRESB1 predicts a rise of sea level between 0.13m and 0.43m, whereas SRESA1 predicts a rise of between 0.18m and 0.56m , relative to 1980 - 1999 mean , (INC, 2013). This forecasted sea level rise, combined with increased intensity of storms and potential storm surges is very likely to accelerate the present catastrophic situation of coastal erosion. The orientation of Liberia’s coastline and its location on the Gulf of Guinea coastline, make it particularly exposed to the southern Atlantic annual sea storm surges. These surges lead to average tidal rises of over 2m during a brief period in spring – a major driver of coastal erosion. According to the NAPA (2008), the areas along the coast where erosion is most severe are Montserrado County coastlines, (West Point and New Kru Town and River Cess), Buchanan and Cestos Cities.
In the Montserrado County, sea-level rise would lead to shoreline retreat. The intensity of the retreat would vary along the coast from between 10 meters/year in the higher cliffed zone (e.g. between Mamba Point and Sinkor) to about 20 meters/year in the lowlands on Bush Rod Island. A considerable population is currently residing and working in these threatened zones, particularly around West Point. Another important expected impact of sea level rise is direct inundation of low-lying wetlands and dry land areas. For example, over the last 40 years, Liberia has experienced a number of climate-induced and sea-induced disasters. Communities such as New Kru Town and Hotel Africa in Montserrado are regularly under water. According to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), it is projected that a one meter sea level rise (scenario B2) would lead to permanent inundation of about 95 km2 of land in the coastal zone of Liberia. With a one-meter sea level rise, densely populated parts of t he capital city of Monrovia and its environs – including West Point, Hotel Africa, Kru Town and River Cess would be submerged. These are currently the housing areas for tens of thousands of people. A conservative estimate suggests about 250 million United States Dollars worth of land and infrastructures (such as the Hotel Africa complex) would be lost . The anticipated socio-economic impacts of the nexus of sea-level rise, coastal erosion and regular coastal flooding are largely negative and potentially disastrous for coastal communities. These factors are likely to have most impacts in the most densely populated areas such as the coastal areas of the County of Montserrado with large numbers of poor people. They are likely to destroy property, destroy rural infrastructure (markets, roads, centres, clinics), to destroy land, to destroy livelihood equipment (boats, mobile market stands, stoves, etc). Quite simply, the poor people have nowhere to go and no way to protect their personal and community belongings. Montserrado coastal communities are already observing and feeling the impacts of the sea-level rise, coastal erosion and coastal flooding nexus.
Output 1 – Capacity of the climate change secretariat enhanced to drive policy coordination in the coastal county of Montserrado to plan and respond to climate change.
• 1.1. Raised awareness of senior county officials, decision-makers and stakeholders.
• 1.2 Capacity of the National Climate Change Secretariat (NCCS) is strengthened
• 1.3 A county coastal protection unit is established, staffed and equipped
• 1.4 Semi-skilled workers able to prepare, build and maintain gabions and revetments etc.
• 1.5 A system for monitoring the maintenance of coastal protection measures is established,
• 1.6 County Development Agenda that fully addresses climate change prepared and approved.
Outcome 2 – At the sites of Hotel Africa and Kru Town, sustainable and affordable measures to protect coastal areas against climate change impacts are demonstrated.
• 2.3 Hotel Africa and New Kru Town communities protected from climate change impacts.
Local Project Appraisal Committee members attending a one-day appraisal meeting yesterday at a resort in Monrovia agreed that the US$2 million provided by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) must be directed to the ongoing New Kru Town coastal defense project. Among other things, the project aims to ensure that the D. Twe Memorial High School and the Redemption Hospital are not swept away by erosion. The participants were drawn from the Ministry of Lands & Mines and Energy (MLME), the Ministry of Public Works, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), civil society members, the Forestry Development Authority (FDA) and the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (MFDP). The local Project Appraisal Committee members, before the unanimous decision, examined a summary project document presented by the EPA and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The meeting was held under the theme: “Enhancing Resilience of Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas to Climate Change Risks.”
Outcome 1 – Vulnerability of physical assets and natural systems reduced .
Outcome 2 – At the sites of Hotel Africa and Kru Town, sustainable and affordable measures to protect coastal areas against climate change impacts are demonstrated.
The "Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda" project will support the Government of Uganda in the management of critical wetlands that are being affected by a changing climate. The project will restore wetlands and their eco-system services, based on the wise-use principles and guidelines outlined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It also supports sustainable land management practices and reforestation, resilient agricultural practices and alternative livelihoods for communities living in these areas. This support will reduce the pressures on the wetlands. Finally the project seeks to strengthen the climate information and early warning systems to support these communities to make climate-resilient decisions.
The impact of climate change, coupled with other human and environmental stressors, is increasing degradation of wetlands and their associated ecosystem services in Uganda. This is negatively affecting the livelihoods of the people living in and around the wetlands – around 4,000,000 people. In fact, over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs. Given that wetlands are highly vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of their water supply, climate change will most likely substantially alter ecologically important attributes of wetlands and will exacerbate the impacts from human activity. On the other hand, the loss of wetlands could exacerbate the impact of climate change in as they provide fundamental services that contribute to mitigation of such impacts.
Uganda, wetlands provide many important functions to the people, particularly in the context of food security. This is in addition to its role as a habitat for biodiversity that is also important for the economy. According to a recent 2013 study on the value of wetlands in Uganda, several market and non-market benefits are identified: “The market benefits include water for domestic use and watering of livestock, support to dry season agriculture, provision of handicrafts, building materials, and food resources such as fish, yams, vegetables, wild game, and medicine. The non-market benefits include flood control, purification of water, and maintenance of the water table, microclimate moderation, and storm protection. Wetlands also serve as habitats for important flora and fauna, have aesthetic and heritage values, and contain stocks of biodiversity of potentially high pharmaceutical value. Over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs.” In addition to supporting food and water security, wetlands also support income generation and employment. “Of a total population of 34 million Ugandans, it is estimated that wetlands provide about 320,000 workers with direct employment and provide subsistence employment for over 2.4 million.”
Wetland health and resilience can easily be compromised by climate change impacts. Climate change models for Uganda predict that temperatures will continue to increase, and there will be changes in the seasonal distribution and amount of rainfalls, more frequent extreme weather events, and increases in the frequency of heavy rainfalls. Increases in temperature and erratic rainfall will result in more frequent and intense floods, droughts and heat waves, which will directly threaten wetlands and livelihoods that rely on its healthy ecosystem services. Hydrologic and drainage maps of the project targeted sites (the eastern and southwestern Wetlands Basin) indicate that most of the freshwater inflows pass through the wetlands and natural forests. These systems have played an integral role in maintaining the quality of water over the centuries. However, over the last three decades, climate change impacts, as well as other baseline (non-climate) issues such as excessive sedimentation and non-native species invasions, have resulted in substantial water quality deterioration.
Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests
Under this sub-component, at least 760 km2 of degraded wetlands and its associated catchment will be restored and the lives of 500,000 people will be improved in selected districts of Eastern and South Western Uganda. The overall aim of the intervention is to restore the ecological and hydrological integrity of the wetland and support the development and implementation of a community-based framework for wetland management plans. This will help support climate risk management and resilient livelihoods through enhanced ecosystems services in the area.
Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment
This output will target at least 150,000 farmers including those who currently do not have secure access to irrigation, land-poor farmers, women-headed households, and the landless, to build more climate-resilient livelihoods. Investments in small-scale rural infrastructure (shallow bore wells, drip irrigation, tilling tools) for agricultural purposes, especially on-farm water management infrastructure such as dams, canals, drip irrigation systems, as well as farming best practices and crop diversification will be implemented to realize high economic return given their coverage. In addition, the output will focus on technical skills training for employment in key economic sectors viable in wetland areas, such as tourism, health and construction. Most of the beneficiaries have very low levels of education and no skills that can help them find a job. Beneficiaries will be trained in specific skills with high employability potential (e.g. earth mover, driver, assistant nurse, reception clerk in hotels, desktop publishing).Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management
Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management
This output will focus on strengthening access to reliable climate-related information and scaling up advisories for farmers and other target communities in the two wetland target areas, to improve the adaptation capacity of the entire population in and around the wetlands – around 1 million people. This will include the expansion of networks that generate and process climate-related data into relevant information to the scale and location of local districts, villages or communities, as well as dissemination of climate-related information/services, advisories and early warnings to communities. A strong focus of this output will be on delivering actionable climate-related information to communities, taking the form of agro-met advisories for agriculture, as well as the dissemination channels for making information available to the “last mile.”
Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests
Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment
Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management
Rising temperatures have melted glaciers, creating glacial lakes in Northern Pakistan. These carry the risk of outburst flooding events, threatening over 7 million people. Early warning systems, engineering structures and disaster management policies will reduce risk, protecting local communities and providing early warning of devastating flood events.
The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures have created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods. Such flooding releases millions of cubic metres of water and debris in just a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan.
In response to these risks, the "Scaling-up of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) risk reduction in Northern Pakistan" project will build 250 engineering structures including damns, ponds, spill ways, tree plantation and drainage to reduce risk. At the same time, the development of disaster management policies and the introduction of weather monitoring stations, flood gauges, hydrological modelling and early warning systems will increase the ability to respond rapidly to flood scenarios.
The melting of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan glaciers in Northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures has created 3,044 glacial lakes in the federally-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). It is estimated that 33 of these glacial lakes are hazardous and likely to result in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Such outbursts have occurred in the past and when they do, millions of cubic metres of water and debris is released in a few hours, resulting in the loss of lives, destruction of property and infrastructure, and severe damage to livelihoods in some of the most remote areas of Pakistan. Currently 7,101,000 people remain at risk in GB and KP. Most recently, in July 2015, over 280,000 people in GB and KP were affected, a combination of heavy rains and GLOFs.
At present, the country faces a critical gap in technical and technological capacity to monitor the status of glaciers through hydrological monitoring and forecasting. Current early warning systems (EWS) do not have the capacity to support the management of risks posed by rising water levels in the lakes, including failure to issue early warnings to communities. The design and implementation of medium- and long-term disaster management policies and risk reduction and preparedness plans are also not fully geared to deal with the specifics of GLOF threats.
The Government of Pakistan has recognized the threat from GLOFs in its National Climate Change Policy and in its National Determined Contribution to monitor changes in glacier volumes and related GLOFs. The Government of Pakistan is seeking GCF resources to upscale ongoing initiatives on early warning systems and small, locally-sourced infrastructure to protect communities from GLOF risks. The interventions proposed for scale up by this project will be based on activities implemented in two districts on a trial basis that have proven to be impactful. In particular, engineering structures (i.e. gabion walls) have been constructed; automatic weather stations, rain gauge and discharge equipment were installed to support rural communities to avoid human and material losses from GLOF events. The proposed GCF project will expand coverage to twelve districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces. The proposed project will strengthen the technical capacity of sub-national decision makers to integrate climate change and disaster risk management into medium- and long-term development planning processes.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change -resilient development pathways
This output responds to the need for systematic integration of GLOF risk management into the processes, policies and plans of institutions that have a stake in avoiding human and material losses from GLOF events in vulnerable areas in the Departments of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). GCF resources will be used to strengthen the capabilities of local level institutions (Disaster Risk Management, Agriculture, Livestock and Water sector in the Departments of GB and KP and federal level institutions (Ministry of Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Environment and National Disaster Management Authority) to incorporate climate change adaptation considerations into development plans in GB and KP. The incorporation of climate change adaptation measures into the planning instruments will also be based on progress made at the national level under NCCP and by other regions in including climate change measures in sectoral, territorial, and environmental planning instruments. More specifically, the project will make use of the lessons learned from the recently completed UNDP/Adaptation Fund supported project: “Reducing Risks and Vulnerabilities from Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Northern Pakistan”. In addition, GCF resources will be used to promote the inclusion of information generated from early warning systems and hydrological modeling (Output 2) to generate flood scenarios that then can better inform local development plans and, by extension, budgeting.
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
A key result that GCF resources will finance focuses on the scaling up of interventions that have been tested with other financing to increase adaptive capacity of communities in target valleys. GCF resources will expand the climate information surveillance and discharge measuring network in the region. GCF resources will be used to procure and install 50 automatic weather stations (AWS) and 408 river discharge gauges/sensors. These monitoring instruments will provide the requisite data to conduct hydrological modeling to generate flood risk scenarios that will feed into a flood early warning system to enable the dissemination of flashflood warning signals on a 24-hour basis generated by PMD through cellphones. AWS and river discharge sensors will provide information to capacitate village hazard watch groups that will be part of a local-level early warning system. Small-scale hard adaptation structures will be constructed (gabion walls, spillways, check dams) to protect human lives and household’s assets in combination with bioengineering interventions to stabilize slopes slides, reducing the risk of debris slides. In Pakistan EIAs are not required for smaller infrastructure projects. The protective capability of these structures will be amplified by additional resources channeled to the communities ex ante and following a GLOF event through the scale up of already established, revolving community-based disaster risk management fund. In addition, ecosystem-based adaptation interventions will be promoted in order to increase resilience against GLOFs events while supporting livelihoods.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the Reporting Period in accordance with the AMA. UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the implementation period.
The primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the Project Manager. The Project Manager will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project. The Project Manager will inform the Project Board and the UNDP Country Office of any delays or difficulties during implementation, including the implementation of the M&E plan, so that the appropriate support and corrective measures can be adopted. The Project Manager will also ensure that all project staff maintain a high level of transparency, responsibility and accountability in monitoring and reporting project results.
The UNDP Country Office will support the Project Manager as needed, including through annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office is responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP. Additional M&E and implementation quality assurance and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed. The project target groups and stakeholders including the NDA Focal Point will be involved as much as possible in project-level M&E.
A project inception workshop will be held after the UNDP project document has been signed by all relevant parties to: a) re-orient project stakeholders to the project strategy and discuss any changes in the overall context that influence project implementation; b) discuss the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; c) review the results framework and discuss reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities and finalize the M&E plan; d) review financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agree on the arrangements for the annual audit; e) plan and schedule Project Board meetings and finalize the first year annual work plan. The Project Manager will prepare the inception report no later than one month after the inception workshop. The final inception report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board.
The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the project board and other stakeholders. The UNDP Country Office will coordinate the input of the NDA Focal Point and other stakeholders to the PIR. The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of the next PIR. The final project PIR along with the terminal evaluation report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.
An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final MTR report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The final MTR report will be available in English.
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center. The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP Country Office and the UNDP Regional Technical Adviser, and will be approved by the Project Board. The TE report will be available in English.
The UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (http://erc.undp.org). Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
A detailed M&E budget, monitoring plan and evaluation plan will be included in the UNDP project document. UNDP will perform monitoring and reporting throughout the reporting period in accordance with the AMA and Funded Activity Agreement (FAA). UNDP has country presence and capacity to perform such functions. In the event of any additional post-implementation obligations over and above the AMA, UNDP will discuss and agree these with the GCF Secretariat in the final year of the project and will prepare a post-implementation monitoring plan and budget for approval by the GCF Board as necessary.
Output 1: Strengthened sub-national institutional capacities to plan and implement climate change-resilient development pathways
Output 2: Community-based EWS and long-term measures are up-scaled to increase communities’ adaptive capacity
Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events
This "Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events" project will address water quality and quantity issues that impact people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in the Dry Zones of Sri Lanka.
With mounting concerns about the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector, the Government of Sri Lanka, under the leadership of the newly elected President, is paying the highest attention to this mounting and worsening crisis in the Dry Zone. Concerns are especially elevated due to the prevailing incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease, for which poor-quality water is cited as a contributing factor, and is increasing at an alarming rate in the Dry Zone. Recent experiences show that current climate forecasting and early warning systems have to be improved, in addition to structural and institutional solutions, to comprehensively address the impacts of the climate change on the agriculture sector.
By addressing these concerns, the Government of Sri Lanka will help the large proportion of Sri Lankan people who are dependent upon livelihoods connected to agriculture and reverse the loss of production from climate-related hazards to improve food security and livelihood opportunities.
Sri Lanka’s recent economic gains, following the end of a debilitating 30 year war and the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, are being threatened due to its increasing vulnerability to climate change which is characterized by increasing temperatures and unpredictability of rainfall. Almost 80% of poor Sri Lankans live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture for food and income. IPCC’s fifth assessment report predicts that South Asia, including Sri Lanka, is vulnerable to drought, flood, food shortages and heat-related mortality. The country has been experiencing severe shifts in its seasonal rainfall patterns accompanied by increased flood and drought in the last decade directly impacting rural food security and incomes.
While categorized as a middle-income country, Sri Lanka masks a complicated situation with deep regional disparities in wealth and wellbeing. About 5.2 million people — equivalent to a quarter of the population — were estimated to be undernourished in 2014. This persistence of rural poverty, indebtedness and vulnerability, high youth unemployment at 19%, low participation of women in the labour force and large-scale migration in search of employment all indicate a high level of unevenness in growth and opportunity across the provinces and districts. Poverty and social exclusion are most prevalent in under-developed rural districts where agriculture is the major livelihood. The conflict-affected districts in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and peripheral districts are most deprived where many years of exclusion from the benefits of a steady economic growth and development resulted in greater social vulnerabilities.
Dry Zone Context – agricultural livelihoods, poverty, and conflict
The Dry Zone is one of three climatic zones (dry, intermediate and wet) that divide Sri Lanka on the basis of variations in rainfall. It receives less rainfall than average and has pronounced dry periods. The Dry Zone covers 70% of the island’s land area and is the country’s agricultural heartland and the main area where the staple rice is grown. Small-scale farmers with land holdings of less than 2 hectares dominate agriculture in this region. Many other forms of employment in the Dry Zone are also related to agriculture – e.g. agricultural marketing, transport, and financial services. About two-third of the cultivated area in the country is rain fed or irrigated by numerous semi-rainfed minor reservoirs and diversions, collectively referred to as village irrigation schemes. A number of studies confirm that smallholder farmers cultivating under village irrigation systems are poorer and more vulnerable than their Dry Zone counterparts who have access to major irrigation. Such farmers are much more vulnerable to impacts of climate change than farmers cultivating under larger irrigation systems. As productivity and crop yields decline with low water availability and unseasonal rains resulting from climate variability and extreme events, farmers are dragged deeper into poverty and face food deficits, which have to be met by buying food for consumption, increasing the level of indebtedness and further eroding their capacity to cope with climate risks.
While the impacts of the conflict were experienced throughout the country (eg. suicide bombing and attacks on public places, economic downturn, social issues with war casualties), several districts in the Dry Zone were directly affected by the fighting and resultant large-scale displacement. The five districts of the Northern Province, three districts in the Eastern Province and peripheral districts such as Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Moneragala and Polonnaruwa were directly impacted by the war. This is about 60% of the country’s land area and around two thirds of the coastline of the country. The end of the war in 2009 has allowed many of these districts to re-enter the economic mainstream. However, serious challenges remain in completing resettlement and meaningful resumption of economic activities in this region, complicated by frequent and recurrent climate-induced disasters and extreme weather events in the last five years. Recurrent floods and droughts in the last 5-6 years have battered all the districts struggling to overcome the direct impacts of conflict with severe impacts on food security, income, and water for drinking and sanitation of displaced/resettled communities as well as those living in remote border districts.
A paradigm shift in addressing adaptation needs among farmers in the Dry Zone lies in developing an integrated, holistic approach to water security that considers the entire ‘cascade’ or sub-basin system and the inter-connectedness of the village irrigation systems, agricultural practices, and water supply and management techniques for multiple uses, including drinking water. Village irrigation systems (VIS) provide communities with a means of coping with seasonal variability; and, improving their functionality is seen as a means of adaptation to climate change. Increased resilience to floods and droughts require cost-effective design changes and enhancements to the system to reduce flood damages and improve dry-season storage. Efficient, planned, climate-risk informed water management at field and sub-basin level should complement improved availability and access to water. This includes resilient and ecologically sustainable agricultural practices, which substantially deviate from current field practices. Introduction of improved, short duration rice and other crops, simple micro irrigation techniques, semi-mechanisation for water efficiency etc. can ensure longer water storage and availability for multiple uses. Many villages secure their drinking water from wells that are immediately downstream of the village reservoir. Increased water capture and storage will improve both year round access to drinking water and improved agricultural practices, including the reduction of agro-chemical use, will in the long-term improve the quality of drinking water. Harvesting rainwater at household-level can also improve access to quality drinking water as rainwater is considerably safer and of better quality than ground water in the Dry Zone. In addition, early warning information, based on meteorological and seasonal forecasts, is a key part of the water management system. It enables preparation and mitigating measures to be enacted ahead of climate-related disasters and variability ensuring the optimal management of water resources.
Output 1:Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone
- Improve technical capacity and knowledge management targeting ASCs, local field officials and community organisations for climate-risk informed water management and climate-smart agriculture
This activity will support the development of cascade level water management plans and guidelines that incorporate climate risks and impacts in a participatory, multi-stakeholder approach. It will include training for FOs and other CBOs (women’s groups) to implement and maintain the project investments in light of a changing climate. The activity will improve collaboration for planning and equitable water sharing between users in a cascade. ASCs in the river basin will be developed as knowledge and communication hubs including supporting cross-district, cross ethnic experience sharing through exchange field visits and field training programmes. It will address the barriers of limited technical capacity, institutional coordination, and knowledge for integrated approach to climate-risk informed water and agriculture management.
- Activity 1.2 Improve resilience of and upgrade village irrigation systems in the identified cascades including restoration of upstream watersheds
GCF resources and government co-financing will be used to support the design and upgrades of VIS, incorporating elements to enhance the resilience of these systems to climate change risks and impacts. About 325 village irrigation systems, including the upstream catchments, will be upgraded based on the cascade level water development plans. The interventions to upgrade the irrigation systems include: i. reforesting the watershed and re-introducing the vegetative interceptor to trap contaminants: ii. Restoring the reservoir bund (dam), spill, sluice and canals supplying the fields, and iii. Desilting the reservoir bed. These upgrades will incorporate climate risks and combine traditional and new design elements and practices including partial de-silting to deepen reservoirs close to the bund and retain more water during dry seasons, intensified reforesting of the catchment with multi-purpose trees, creating ponds and diversions for run-off capture in the catchment, upstream soil conservation practices like hedgerows, contour drains to prevent erosion, and creating small ponds in home gardens to capture intense rainfall.
- Activity 1.3 Develop and disseminate climate resilient agricultural practices with targeted enterprise development for women
The activity will support government extension services to develop and widely disseminate demand-driven, tested, climate change risk informed agriculture support packages which includes drought/flood resilient crops (seeds), organic inputs, soil and water management technologies and market oriented agro-processing technologies. Together with the seasonal climate forecasts (Activity 3.2) and improved marketing options for the recommended crops (supported by market mapping undertaken through this activity; crop recommendations co-financed by Department of Agrarian Development and Department of Agriculture), the climate resilient agriculture package will provide more food, income and improve ability of farmers to cope with seasonal variability and improve rational use of water. Based on the past experiences from other similar initiatives (e.g. IUCN/HSBC project and SAPSRI Project—refer to Annex II, Feasibility Report, Section 5.3), recommended practices include using short-term and climate resilient traditional rice varieties; landscaping/vegetative barriers for erosion control; crop diversification and composting in home gardens; use of organic fertilizers; crop diversification during the minor season; rational use of chemical inputs based on soil condition; agronomic and crop establishment techniques such as dry sowing in paddy fields in between seasons; and micro irrigation, with due regard to the agro-ecological regions. Resilient agriculture practices recognize the need to address climate-related factors (drought and flood resistant crops, shorter duration field crops) along with non-climate drivers for safe and chemical-free agriculture that contributes to long-term improvement of water quality.
Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities
- Activity 2.1 Improve capacity of water-supply support staff at district/divisions, selected partner organisations (NGOs) and CBOs to implement and maintain community-based climate change risk informed drinking water related interventions
Village irrigation reservoirs are a key source of drinking water in the Dry Zone. As such, the expected risks on drinking water on both the supply and demand side as climate change needs should be incorporated into the cascade water management plans in Output 1. The activity focuses on planning and capacity building to address the barriers of technical capacity and institutional coordination related to provision of safe drinking water to the Dry Zone communities. The capacities of local officials and women-led CBOs will be strengthened for climate-risk management related to drinking water sources, supply systems, and quality monitoring and management. The activity will support training and mobilization to ensure the drinking water needs in light of a changing climate are incorporated into cascade development plans implemented through cascade-level water committees and water source protection committees. It will also build capacities for climate-risk informed planning for water source protection and quality monitoring coordinating with NWSDB. These will inform the selection of climate-risk informed treatment methods appropriate for the water sources.
- Activity 2.2 Implement sustainable, climate-resilient drinking water solutions through CBOs and government agencies
GCF resources and government co-financing will be invested to establish climate-resilient, community water systems (with simple treatment) for water extracted from irrigation systems and domestic rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems to supplement drinking water during prolonged dry periods. In addition, advanced purification and filtrations systems will be established to supplement long-term measures such as ecological agronomic practices (Output 1) that impact drinking water quality. This activity addresses the technical and financial barriers related to investments in rural water supply schemes, improved water treatment and purification schemes and domestic rainwater harvesting units. The design and operation of these systems will incorporate climate risks and information (including advisories and forecasts generated under Output 3) and will be fully integrated into the cascade water management planning (Output 1).
Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods
- Activity 3.1 Establish effective monitoring systems for drought, floods and water management
This activity expands the meteorological and hydrological observational network coverage by installing, operating and maintaining monitoring equipment in key catchments and VIS systems. This will enable DAD, ID and FOs to better understand and monitor current conditions within the cascade systems, as well as streamflow, which may cause flooding of agricultural areas further downstream. Agrometeorological data will be used to estimate a suite of products including evapotranspiration and soil moisture, which will help detect the onset of agricultural droughts. Along with 10 automatic rainfall gauges the rainfall data will be used to support the development of satellite-based estimates in activity 3.2. Additionally these data can help refine MOS-based forecasts (see 3.2), once a suitably long time-series (approximately 3-5 years) becomes available. Automated water level sensors (50) will be used by DAD and ID to monitor water levels at critical points in the three river basins, which along with 8 streamflow gauges, will allow early detection of rising flood waters. Water levels and rainfall will be monitored in VIS systems by FOs and farmers using 330 manual staff (water-level) and rainfall gauges.
- Activity 3.2 Co-develop and disseminate weather- and climate-based advisories for agricultural and water management through ASCs and FOs to farmers and village water managers
This activity address institutional capacity and financial barriers related to provision of early warnings and forecasting. It supports the eestablishment of protocols and SOPs for generating, sharing and using weather data and information between national agencies (DoM, DAD, ID and DMC) and ASCs/FOs. It will involve the sensitization of communities and FOs to the availability of weather and climate information, as well as the function of any local equipment, which will be used to generate data used in the advisories. Through this activity a sense of ownership will be cultivated to avoid vandalism of equipment etc. The sense of ownership will be further promoted through co-development of information requirements for agriculture and water management. A training of trainers to use and adapt weather/climate based advisories will be undertaken to enable FOs and lead farmers to understand the historical context of climate information as a basis for understanding the implication of and using weather and seasonal forecasts.
- Activity 3.3 Develop climate-risk management response measures based on advisories and forecasts for agriculture, water management and flooding in cascade systems
This activity will develop and plan appropriate climate risk management responses to the advisories developed through activity 3.2, including the additional impacts expected through climate change. This will involve inundation area mapping of areas in the three river basins prone to flooding in order to set the baseline flooding scenarios expected without climate change.
Output 1: Upgrading and enhancing resilience of village irrigation systems and scaling up climate-resilient farming practices in three river basins of the Dry Zone.
Output 2: Enhancing climate-resilient, decentralized water management solutions to provide safe year-round drinking water to drought vulnerable communities.
Output 3: Strengthening climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems to enhance water management and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to droughts and floods.