National

Taxonomy Term List

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches.  However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.  

The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.766723550477 23.476850914431)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on Climate Change Adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,805,990
Project Details: 

The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.

Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions.  The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.

Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.

Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.

Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.

Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.

Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.

Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.

Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities.  Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.

The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.

Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.

There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.

In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation.  The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.

This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.

In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.

  • Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
  • Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
  • Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.

 

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.

  • Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
  • Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place

 

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.

  • Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
  • Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes

 

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.

  • Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
  • Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims. 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. 

The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects.   Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.

The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.

The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.  

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead Technical Specialist, NAP Global Support Programme, UNDP Global Environmental Finance Unit
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The objective of this project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021
Civil Society Engagement: 

A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.

 

Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia

The “Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia” project will reduce exposure of Georgia’s communities, livelihoods and infrastructure to climate-induced natural hazards through a well-functioning nation-wide multi-hazard early warning system and risk-informed local action. The multi-hazard early warning system is an essential element of the country’s climate risk management framework and will serve 1.7 million Georgians currently at risk from climate-induced hazards.

The project will achieve this by nation-wide scaling-up of several projects and initiatives such as of the Rioni Basin flood forecasting and early warning system (FFEWS). The scaling up will be attained by developing and implementing a nation-wide Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS), developing and delivering climate information services, and implementing community-based risk reduction measures.

Georgia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) estimates economic losses from climate-induced hazards without adaptation measures for the period 2021-2030 to be US$10-12 billion, while the cost of adaptation measures is estimated to be US$1.5-2 billion.  To date, hydrometeorological hazard risk management in Georgia has relied on the limited and expensive hard structural protection measures; emergency response with limited reliance on forecasts and early warning of the population; and post event compensation and relocation of victims. This reactive approach to risk reduction has resulted in eco-migrants; and high costs for post-event recovery and risk reduction. In order to adapt to climate change, Georgia is working to adopt a proactive integrated climate risk management (CRM) approach centered around risk reduction, prevention, and preparedness through the establishment of a multi-hazard early warning system and an enhanced use of climate information in planning and decision-making across all sectors.

The project will achieve transformative change in climate risk reduction and management in Georgia by development of a fully-integrated impact-based MHEWS system.  In doing so it will introduce a standardized hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment and mapping methods and technologies, and provide critical climate risk information to enable the implementation of nation-wide risk reduction policies. Importantly, it will develop long-term institutional and community capacities in climate risk reduction (CRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and MHEWS. The project will thus catalyze a paradigm shift towards climate risk-informed and resilient development and will directly benefit up to 1.7 million people (40% of the population) currently at risk from hydrometeorological hazards.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.390869007513 42.108818810813)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.7 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$27,053,597.52 GCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$38,239,024 Government of Georgia, US$5,000,000 Swiss Government
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project will scale-up pilot activities and achievements of the UNDP project Developing Climate Resilient Flood and Flash Flood Management Practices to Protect Vulnerable Communities of Georgia (Rioni project) financed by the Adaptation Fund (2012-2017) as well as another UNDP project Strengthening National Disaster Risk Reduction System in Georgia. In addition, the GCF project will implement recommendations arising from the 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Needs Assessment Report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP and USAID experts, and 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Recovery Vulnerability Reduction Plan.

There is no nation-wide hazard forecasting early warning system in the country. The most complete and integrated almost real-time EWS for flood/flashfloods was recently developed and operationalized for the Rioni River Basin, developed under the UNDP project financed by the Adaptation Fund (Rioni project). For other basins, as well as for other climate-induced natural hazards, there are no such completed and integrated system.

The GCF project will scale up the prototypes piloted by the Rioni project (including the hazard mapping, floodplain modelling, floodplain zoning and EWS) to include the other river basins and regions of Georgia and to encompass a broader range of key climate-induced hazards. 

Several commercial sectors have been approached to gauge their willingness to pay for climate services including Hydropower sector, infrastructure investment and development sector and insurance sector. While these sectors will benefit from the climate information services and will continue to pay for such services, together they will not provide the weight of financing needed to match the present value benefits.

The project will significantly improve NEA’s capacities to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. At present, NEA does not meet WMO standards in a number of categories.

Climate change challenges in Georgia

Due to the complex mountainous terrain and climate, Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. According to Georgia’s 2nd and 3rd National Communications and other studies, under climate change the frequency, intensity and geographical spread of extreme hydrometeorological hazards will increase.

Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological natural hazards including landslides, mudflows, erosion, avalanches, floods and flash floods, drought, and strong winds. There is evidence that frequency of these climate-induced disasters and associated damages have been increasing over the past decades. Climate change studies have indicated that these hazards will further increase in frequency, intensity and geographical spread over time and will have significant negative impacts on various sectors, including agriculture, health, critical infrastructure, tourism and protection of culture heritage, environment, natural resources and ecosystems.

Georgia’s Second and Third National Communications to UNFCCC as well as other studies provide evidence that further escalation of geological and hydrological processes is expected until 2050. The climate change scenarios indicate more extremes as prolonged rainfall events, concentrated in a short period of time with the potential to generate more runoff during these short periods, thereby increasing the potential for flash flooding (due to high peak river flows), mudflows and landslides. The trend of increasing average temperature for all seasons, decreasing precipitation and longer duration of dry periods, which will persist until 2050 in already dry areas will further increase the risk of droughts.

Over the last 21-year period total damages from hydrometeorological hazards were GEL 2.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) at a cost of 152 lives (22 of which occurred in the Tbilisi flash flood of 2015). Floods, landslides and mudflows make up 60% of these damages/losses and 67% of loss of life.  National disaster statistics indicates that there is growing trend in cumulative damages and losses of lives from floods, droughts, avalanches, wind storms and hails over the last 20 years. The damages from single extreme events range from over 300 million GEL (US$121 million), which was attributed to 2000 extreme drought, to 700 Million GEL (US$283 million), attributed to the 1987 flood. In addition, natural hazards have resulted in internally displaced eco-migrants from economically disadvantaged areas.

Economic assessment of the impact of hydrometeorological hazards under climate change conditions shows that 1.7 million people (40% of the population) including the most vulnerable communities in remote rural and densely populated urban areas are at risk from the main hazards. Annual average damages (AAD) to properties from floods are estimated at 116.3 Million GEL (US$51.2 million) without climate change and at 282.7 Million GEL (US$124.4 Million) with climate change. The risk to agricultural land from all hazards is between 251,225 ha and 325,020 ha under baseline and climate change conditions respectively. Annual damages to agriculture from flooding alone would be 126.3 Million GEL (US$55.6 million) and 154.2 Million GEL (US$67.8 million) under baseline and climate change conditions respectively.

 

 

Suggested expanded hydrometeorological network

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Activity 1.1: Expansion of the hydrometeorological network

Activity 1.2: Risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all (11) major basins in Georgia and hazard and risk maps for key climate-induced hazards (floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches, hailstorms and droughts).

Activity 1.3: Introduction and implementation of methods and tools for the systematic gender-sensitive socio-economic vulnerability assessment for decision making and prioritisation of resilience investments.

Activity 1.4: A centralized multi-hazard risk information and knowledge system  

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Activity 2.1: Institutional and legal frameworks and institutional capacity building for the MHEWS and for the enhanced use of climate information. Improved coordination and communication protocols for early warning

Activity 2.2: Development and implementation of the MHEWS covering all Georgia, building on the Rioni basin prototype and on the expanded hydrometric network to be achieved through activity 1.2

Activity 2.3: Enhancing access and the use of weather and climate information and agrometeorological information services by farmers and agricultural enterprises

Activity 2.4: MHRM planning platforms: development of basin-level multi-hazard risk management plans; municipal-level climate-informed multi-hazard response and preparedness plans

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Activity 3.1: Implementation of community-based early warning schemes and community-based climate risk management

Activity 3.2: Public awareness and capacity building programme at all levels to effectively deliver climate risk information and training to communities and local first-responders

Contacts: 
UNDP
Natalia Olofinskaya
Regional Technical Specialist
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger

The “Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning and budgeting in Niger” project will address the main challenges to integrating climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting in Niger, as identified in its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Stocktaking Report and under the framework of the LEG Technical Guidelines.

This project will facilitate the implementation of activities to strengthen adaptation-related prioritization and planning, financing and capacity development for the medium term.  Reducing Niger’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into on-going development programmes.

The foundations have been built through the preparation of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 with support from UNDP and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The NAPA identified urgent and most immediate needs in seven vulnerable sectors and fourteen priority adaptation interventions. The National Climate Change Policy (PNCC) adopted in 2013 provides the overall strategic framework to tackle climate change.  To move beyond urgent and immediate needs, and towards a medium-term approach, Niger intends to integrate climate change into medium- and long-term development planning and budgeting through the NAP process, under its obligation to the UNFCCC and as stated in its PNCC. This process will contribute to ensuring that the country’s long-term development strategy - starting with its Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) and its National Economic and Social Development plans - be based on an understanding of climate-related risks and opportunities for inclusive growth and sustainable development.

Niger has been advancing its NAP process by conducting a preliminary stocktake of relevant initiatives on climate adaptation and mainstreaming to identify gaps and needs. A NAP roadmap was subsequently drafted, which outlined the main steps and timeline of advancing the NAP process in Niger. These were confirmed through consultations with key national stakeholders in August 2016. Furthermore, the Niger submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in September 2015, signifying a commitment to address both mitigation and adaptation challenges. In terms of adaptation, the INDC has identified the urgent need to support the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors. This project will complement a project funded by the GEF-LDCF entitled “Planning and financing adaptation in Niger.”

These activities are aligned with the “Nigeriens Nourish the Nigeriens” Initiative (Initiative 3N), the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI), the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES), and the National Climate Learning Strategy.

This project will be steered at country level by the Executive Secretariat of the National Council of Environment for Sustainable Development (SE/CNEDD), which is the coordinating body for all Rio Conventions and climate change-related initiatives and the National Designated Authority to the GCF. It will closely engage the Ministry of Planning and the Ministry of Finance, as well as key sectoral ministries, national training and research institutions and civil society, including the private sector. It will closely coordinate with other related initiatives such as the GEF-LDCF adaptation planning in the water sector project, the EU-funded PARC-DAD and the World Bank Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (8.8330077893584 17.35762878292)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million
Project Details: 

Niger is a Sahelian landlocked country of approximately 18 million people with a surface of 1,267,000 sq.km. mainly consisting of savannah, dotted with trees in the southern part and bushes in its northern part. The country was ranked 188 out of 188 in the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP)’s Human Development Index in 2015, with 89.8% of the population living in multidimensional poverty.

In Niger, 42.8% of the GDP comes from agriculture, forestry and the livestock sectors, and 80% of the workforce are employed in these areas. Climate change is expected to worsen climate risks over the next decades, with an increase in the frequency of droughts, resulting in a decrease in agricultural production, an increase in grazing pressure on pastoral ecosystems, and consequently soil erosion on a mass scale; and floods resulting from the heavy rainfall and overflow of rivers.

This exposure to climate risks, associated with its position as a Sahelian landlocked country, makes Niger one of the most vulnerable countries in the world and threatens food security even further. In terms of climate projections, the “wet” scenario projects an average increase in precipitation, compared to the reference period 1961-1990, ranging from less than 10% in Niamey to almost 90% in Agadez. The “dry” scenario projects an increase in precipitations ranging from 25% in Agadez to a decrease of around 10% in Niamey or Tillabéry. Compared to the same reference period, the maximum and minimum average temperatures are projected to increase from 0.5⁰ C in Tahoua (dry scenario) to more than 2⁰C to (wet scenario) in Maradi and Agadez in 2050.

The Government of Niger recognises the pressing need of tackling climate change to safeguard food security and to reduce poverty. Therefore, the Government of Niger has set up institutional arrangements to address this need.  The National Technical Commission on Climate Change and Variability (CNCVC) was set up in July 1997. To coordinate climate change and disaster related interventions, the Government of Niger has also established the National Council on Environment for Sustainable Development (CNEDD) and the National Mechanism for Disaster and Food Crises Prevention and Management (DNPGCCA). The Government has also signed and ratified various international conventions and agreements, such as the three Rio Conventions, the Paris Agreement, and the Sendaï Framework for DRR.

As part of the government consultations at national level held in 2014 and 2016 with the support of UNDP, approximately 70 stakeholders were consulted and 25 interviews and meetings were conducted. During the development of this project, a note was formulated by government and validated through a meeting of the national GCF committee, which is comprised of representatives of SE/CNEDD, Ministries of Planning, Agriculture, Economy, Energy, Finance, High Commission on I3N, and the National Meteorological Institute among others. The Ministries of Finance and Planning and the High Commission for the 3N Initiative were also consulted on the priority interventions of the project. Going forward, stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages, from the launch to implementation and review of the NAP. This will be done through sensitisation, consultation, and training workshops. Stakeholders will represent Government institutions, financial and technical partners, international non-governmental organisation, and local civil society. A gender analysis will be conducted to assess the status of gender mainstreaming and to promote gender-responsive adaptation planning.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

1.1 Re-launch the NAP process

1.2 Conduct stocktake, identity available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

1.3 Address capacity gaps and weaknesses in undertaking the NAP process

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs and climate vulnerability

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

2.1 Analyse current climate and future climate change, and socio-economic scenarios

2.2 Assess climate vulnerabilities and identify adaptation options at the sector, subnational, national and other appropriate levels

2.3 Review and appraise adaptation options

2.4 Compile and communicate National Adaptation Plan

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and subnational development and sectoral planning and budgeting

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national planning and budgeting

3.2 Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

3.4 Promote coordination and synergy at the regional level and with other multilateral environmental agreements

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

4.2 Review the NAP process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP process and report on progress and effectiveness

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

5.1 Assess costs of meeting integrated adaptation needs

5.2 Identify, analyze and recommend policy and strategic options for scaling up financing for adaptation investments, including through public-private partnerships

5.3 Conduct study or research programmes to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: National mandate, strategy and steering mechanism are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2: Preparatory work for the NAP undertaken to develop a knowledge-base and compile a NAP

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available

 

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022

National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo

The “National Adaptation Plans Readiness in Democratic Republic of the Congo” support grant from the Green Climate Fund will provide resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance to build capacity to undertake GCF-related activities and develop a strategic framework for engagement with GCF.  

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. It also has favorable climatic and geological conditions and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo. Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013.

The newly created Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development – where the Nationally Designated Authority (NDA) is hosted – lacks both human and financial capacity. The Ministry’s staffs lack relevant technical and operational skills, making it difficult to effectively engage with the GCF. The readiness grant will support stakeholder engagement across the country and DRC’s efforts to plan for climate change impacts and align on-going development processes for the National Adaptation Programme (NAP), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), and Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) with the GCF’s investment criteria.

Through the grant, the DRC expects to see the capacity of its NDA strengthened to carry out GCF-related tasks and a smooth engagement with the GCF arising from the implementation of the country programme to be developed as a result of this support.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (22.055590120037 -4.093518537273)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$1,270,000 GCF grant
Project Details: 

The DRC is the second largest country in Africa (almost two-third the size of Western Europe) with a landmass of 2,344,799 sq.km. It is endowed with enormous natural resources potential that could drive its economic development and the continent’s growth. The country has more than 130 million hectares, including 11 million ha of forest making up 10% of global tropical forest. Only about 3% of its landmass is hither to exploited. It also has favourable climatic and geological conditions (making it possible to harvest 3-4 crops annually) and an extensive network of rivers including the River Congo (2nd in the world in terms of flow rate, which helped build the powerful Inga hydropower dam). DRC has over 1,100 minerals and precious metals.

Yet, it was ranked as the poorest nation in the world in 2013, with a GDP per capita on a purchasing power parity basis of less than US$400. Also, it remains a fragile state that is slowly recovering from over two decades of political and economic instability. It also continues to face rebellions, which threaten its institutions and the population’s security. DRC’s main challenge is to lift itself out of its fragile situation and rise to a new level of development commensurate with its potential.

The country also has a high rate of deforestation – within the top ten in the world. Most of this loss of forest cover is due to family/small-scale farming for energy needs. CO2 emissions nationally are around 3 million metric tons per year, equating to around 0.04 metric tons per person. Between 1960 and 2010 the population of DRC more than tripled to 64 million people. Approximately 70% of this population rely on agriculture for their nutrition and livelihoods, but only around 7% of the country’s area, mostly around cities, is cultivated or has livestock.

Due to climate change, temperatures are set to increase between 1 and 3 degrees Celsius. Changing temperatures are likely to have a detrimental impact of human health, especially by changing the geographical distribution of diseases. Additionally, malaria incidence is expected to rise. The national adaptation capacity will need to increase significantly to absorb these changes.

Rainfall changes are less certain – models predict both increases and decreases in different parts of the country. Models do agree, however, that crop yields will increase in some areas of the country, such as Kivu and decrease in others, like Bandundu. Water scarcity is not an issue for the DRC, due to substantial existing resources, however people’s access to this water is an ongoing problem. Heavy rains are causing erosion and are damaging infrastructure and settlements.

The Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index ranked DRC as 161st out of 180 countries in terms of vulnerability at second to worst (183rd out of 184th) with regard to readiness.

Previous engagement with GCF

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been actively engaged with the GCF from its inception, starting from the nomination of an alternative member of the GCF Board from DRC. The country then appointed a Focal Point on 18 August 2014. Later on, a National Coordination Team for the Green Climate Fund, within the Ministry of Environment, Natural Conservation and Tourism was nominated as National Designated Authority (NDA) for DRC (11 April 2015).

The DRC has actively been engaging the GCF since the designation of the FP in various ways (meetings in the margins of the COP in Lima, emails, skype calls, etc.).

As one of the first REDD+ target countries, due its huge forest ecosystem potential, DRC has been implementing REDD+ readiness activities and making pilot investments to mitigate some of the key drivers of deforestation and forest degradation since 2011.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

1.1 Presentations or other climate and development-related information materials

1.2 Summaries of meetings of country coordination mechanism and multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

1.3 Annual report on activities of the Fund and other relevant funding mechanisms and institutions in the country

1.4 Information materials on the operational procedures of the Fund in local languages (where relevant) and distribution lists of recipients

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

2.1 Country programme, including elements provided in the Fund’s Initial Guidelines for Country Programme

2.2 Summaries of meetings of multi-stakeholder engagement, including list of participants

Contacts: 
UNDP
Julie Teng
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: NDA capacity strengthened to undertake GCF-related responsibilities

Outcome 2: Strategic framework for engagement with the GCF developed

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2020

Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

The "Strengthening climate resilience of agricultural livelihoods in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II in Zambia" project supports the Government of Zambia to strengthen the capacity of farmers to plan for climate risks that threaten to derail development gains, promote climate resilient agricultural production and diversification practices to improve food security and income generation, improve access to markets, and foster the commercialization climate-resilient agricultural commodities. The project is financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture, and will support the Government of Zambia in building climate-resilient food security and poverty reduction measures for approximately 940,000 people.

A coalition mobilized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), involving the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP) together with national institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture and Zambia Meteorological Department, will deliver an integrated set of technical services that will help to advance key Sustainable Development Goal targets, especially in SDG#1 for No Poverty and SDG#2 for No Hunger. The coalition will ensure that best practices from pilot climate resilience initiatives nurtured with the support of these organizations will be scaled-up to meet the Government of Zambia’s targets on adapting its economy to climate change impacts.

In all, the Government of Zambia anticipates reaching over 3 million indirect beneficiaries through the project – approximately 18 percent of the total population – which will work in 16 districts within the Agro-Economical Regions: Mambwe, Nyimba, Chongwe, Luangwa, Chirundu, Rufunsa, Chama, Mafinga, Kazungula, Siavonga, Gwembe, Namwala, Shangombo, Senanga, Sesheke and Mulobezi. Farmers living in these districts are especially vulnerable to climate change risks, primarily increasing droughts, variability of rainfall and occasional floods. There is a high rate of poverty, meaning efforts to end hunger and poverty are at risk if we don’t take immediate action to adapt agricultural practices to changing climate conditions.

Hunger and malnutrition are real and present risks in Zambia. Approximately 60 percent of people live below the poverty line, and 42 percent are considered extremely poor. According to WFP, over 350,000 people are considered food insecure, and roughly 40 percent of children experience stunted growth. Given the unique role of women in agriculture and food provisioning, and their unique vulnerabilities to climate change, GCF resources will focus dedicated efforts on building climate resilience for female-headed houses and rural enterprises. The project aligns with Zambia’s key development goals for poverty reduction and food security, as well as its goal to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030.

This project signals an important step to mobilize these funds in Zambia, scale-up pilot climate resilience projects, and work toward achieving Zambia’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. In fulfilling its contribution to the Paris Agreement - and global goals to limit temperature increases to 2 degrees while ensuring no one is left behind in terms of economic and social development - the project will promote the conservation of water, improve the use of irrigation technologies, and strengthen climate information services.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (25.554199192613 -14.337130399588)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
946,153 Direct Beneficiaries, 3 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$137 million total, including US$32 million from GCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$103.5 million (Ministry of Agriculture), US$369,000 (WARMA), US$1.4 million (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Adaptation actions will benefit largely the poorest and most vulnerable regions of the country in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The grant resources will support innovative investments needed to assist the most vulnerable and poor populations most affected by the impacts of climate change. Through these grants combined with co-financing from the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), the project will trigger a paradigm shift in the way that small holder farmers undertake climate resilient agriculture - causing a shift from conventional unsustainable agriculture practices to climate resilient practices. The very high co-finance ensures that this project will shift public financing on agriculture towards climate resilient agriculture. In specific, paradigm shift will be achieved by addressing the entire value chain, from planning for climate risk, to ensuring resilience of water and other agricultural inputs, to resilient methods for production, to, ultimately, linking farmers and their climate-smart agriculture products to markets. This innovative approach ensures that climate risks across the value chain are addressed, while also putting in place the necessary technical, financial and institutional foundations to promote and accelerate resilient agricultural value chains that can be viable in the face of climate change.

The GRZ seeks to combine GCF grant resources with co-financing from (i) its budget allocations of MoA, (ii) the Water Resources Management Authority (WARMA), and (iii) UNDP to enhance resilient agro-based value chains for the vulnerable communities in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II. The GRZ has committed large amounts of co-finance, three times the grant request, as strong display of their pledge of their interest in this project. GCF financing will only cover the activities that have a clear climate change additionality like climate information and early warning systems, access to water for smallholder farmers and linkages with rural agricultural markets.

Revenue generated as a result of project interventions will also be used to contribute to farmer and water user organizations for operations and maintenance (O&M). Therefore, the interventions do not lend themselves to reflows back to the Government or the GCF, requiring support in grant financing. GCF funds will not be used for O&M during or after the project.

Economic situation

Zambia remains a poor country despite recent good economic growth. Poverty rates, particularly in rural areas, are relatively high and the Government has identified poverty reduction as one of the main priorities (7NDP, 2017-2022). In fact, the poverty rate in rural areas is almost triple the level observed in urban areas. In 2010 rural poverty was estimated at 77.9 percent compared to urban poverty levels of 27.5 percent. In the 16 target districts, smallholder farmers live on less than US$2 per day. Though more than 80 percent of the targeted farming households live in their own houses, these are mud-thatched whose average value does not go beyond US$50. Based on the World Bank’s 2015 Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia (2015), it is evident that the poverty incidence is highly concentrated in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II where rain-fed agriculture is predominant.

The high incidence of poverty is coupled with high food insecurity throughout the country. In 2013, 48.3 percent of the Zambian population was undernourished or food deprived (United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Between May 2011 and April 2012, 42 percent of rural households experienced food shortages, with the average time of food access shortage of 3.2 months. Stunting rates in rural areas are frequently 52 percent (GRZ, 2013). Diets are very limited, leading to challenges of nutrition. About 50 percent of calorific intake was derived from maize and 14 percent from cassava (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, 2011). This heavy reliance on maize as a staple food causes deficiencies in micronutrients. Zambian calorie consumption of vegetables, nuts and pulses is around 2 percent (GRZ, 2013).

Climate risk in Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

There are three major Agro-Ecological Regions in Zambia. Region I, in the southern portion of the Southern and Western provinces, is one of Zambia’s hottest, driest and poorest regions. It is categorized as a low rainfall area, where soils are sandy, characterized by poor fertility. Maize, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower and cowpeas are cultivated, and some fishing activities are undertaken. This region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and is categorized as a drought-prone area.

Region II has three subregions (IIa1 and IIa2, and IIb) and is a medium-rainfall belt running East-West through the centre of the country. It is an area with relatively good soils and receives more rainfall than Region I. It has the most favourable agro-ecological conditions in terms of rainfall, soil quality and absence of the tsetse fly. There is also ample irrigation potential. This allows for a diverse mix of crop and livestock enterprises. Region IIb, while often considered a part of Region II, is differentiated from the other parts of the region. It can be characterized as a low-rainfall area in the western part of the country that corresponds mostly to Central/Northern parts of the Western province. This area has lower rainfall and sandier soils, poorer road and market infrastructure, and high risk of droughts. Sorghum and millet are mainly grown as staple crops along with cassava, with some maize also being grown. This drought-prone area is also suited to extensive livestock production, cashew nuts and timber.

It is evident that severe weather/climate events have led to significant drops in GDP growth, especially in the relatively dry Regions I, IIa1 and IIb. The strength of the 2015-16 El Niño and severe drought, comparable in strength to the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, led to a significant reduction in GDP growth, especially in the economically important agricultural sector, and it reduced its contribution to GDP. As a consequence, a surge in poverty rates, particularly among smallholder farmers who depend almost exclusively on rain-fed agriculture and have little or no coping mechanism in Regions I, IIa1 and IIb was expected (World Meteorological Organization, El Niño/La Niña Update, 12 May 2016).

Context of agriculture sector

Zambia is a landlocked country with a tropical climate favourable for agriculture and produces a variety of crops including fruits and vegetables. As a result, agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70 percent of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods (Sitko & Tembo, 2013; World Bank, 2013). Overall, the agriculture sector accounts for approximately 9.6 percent of national GDP as of 2013 (World Bank). Increasing risks of climate change, particularly related to droughts, highly variable rainfall and occasional floods make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of the last 30 years, the impacts of floods and droughts have been estimated to cost the country USD 13.8 billion. If no measures were to be taken, climate change is expected to reduce GDP growth by USD 4.3-5.4 billion in the next decade, equivalent to a loss of 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent in GDP growth.

Smallholder subsistence farmers, defined as farmers with farms of less than five hectares in size represent 96 percent of the country’s 1.1 million farmers and cultivate 76 percent of the total cropped area. Most female farmers come under this category. Currently, approximately 48 million hectares of land in Zambia is suitable for agricultural use. This area is suitable particularly for growing staple crops under rain-fed conditions, but is likely to decline by 80 percent by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Climate impacts on the agriculture sector

Both Regions I and II are highly exposed to climatic hazards due to more frequent drought and flood events and to lack of adaptive capacities (NAPA, 2007). Projections show that rainfall is expected to be more erratic, less frequent but more intense, with more precipitation coming from extreme events, and that this would be concurrent with a general drying trend overall. The decline in precipitation and shortening of growing seasons would reduce agricultural productivity, while extreme precipitation events could, through flooding and run-off, destroy crops.

In particular, climate variability is forecast to reduce yields of major crops (including maize, sorghum and soybean) (Adhikari et al., 2015) and to reduce total GDP for the agricultural sector by USD 2.2-3.1 billion in midterm projections (10–20 years), representing more than 50 percent of the expected GDP losses from climate change (Zambia INDC, 2015). Rain-fed agriculture, on which small-scale farmers depend, has in the past shown high sensitivity to climate variability in terms of both droughts and floods (Climate Investment Funds, 2011).

Given the diversity of crops grown in the country as well as the climate in the agro-ecological regions, it is also important to understand potential impacts of climate change at a regional level. For example, Agro-Ecological Region I in the south of Zambia has the least rainfall in the country and is considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Climate Investment Funds, 2011). Certain crops are likely to do better under climate change scenarios: for example, cassava is considered to be drought tolerant and resistant to high temperatures (Jarvis et al., 2012). Currently, it is grown predominantly in Agro-Ecological Region III as well as parts of Region II.

On the other hand, maize, grown by nearly 83 percent of Zambian households (World Bank, 2013), is considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Maize in particular dominates in Agro-Ecological Regions I and IIa (Hagglade and Nyembe, 2008). Yet as Adhikari et al. (2015) notes, “Despite large variations in projected impact on maize yield, there is a general consensus that climate change will adversely affect maize yield in East Africa [includes Zambia in this study]. Multiple studies indicated that East Africa could lose as much as 40% of its maize production by the end of the 21st century” (pp.116-17).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

1.1 Strengthen generation and interpretation of climate information and data collection to ensure timely and detailed weather, climate, crop and hydrological forecasts are available to support smallholder farmers in planning and management of water resources used in resilient agricultural practices

1.2 Strengthen dissemination and use of tailored weather/climate-based agricultural advisories to ensure smallholder farmers receive the information they need for planning and decision-making

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

2.1 Promote irrigation schemes, water storage and capture as well as other resilient water management strategies to increase access to water for agricultural production in the target districts within Agro-Ecological Regions I and II

2.2 Increased access to agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, soil kits, tools) for resilient crops

2.3 Introduction of new resilient agricultural production practices to strengthen production and diversify crops amidst climate variability and change

2.4 Introduce alternative livelihoods to strengthen resilience in target communities

2.5 Establish farmer field schools and learning centres of excellence to further document and scale up successful practices

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

3.1 Strengthen processing of resilient products

3.2 Strengthen storage, aggregation and transportation of resilient products to enhance commercialization and linkages to market and SMEs

3.3 Increase access to finance and insurance products for smallholder farmers by engaging with potential financing sources including public, private, bilateral and multilateral sources

3.4 Identify available markets and promote climate-resilient products

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Smallholder farmers are able to plan for and manage water resources to support resilient agricultural production

Output 2: Resilient agricultural livelihoods in the face of changing rainfall, increasing drought and occasional floods

Output 3: Increasing farmers' access to markets and commercialization of resilient agricultural products

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025

Supporting Indonesia to advance their NAP process

NAP-GSP support to Indonesia

In response to a request from the Government of Indonesia in 2017, Indonesia received supported from the NAP-GSP with a stock-taking exercise to identify gaps and needs to advance the NAP process as well as key areas for adaptation planning through the enhancement of its National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API).

The stocktaking looked at areas for enhancing tracking and monitoring, improving the vulnerability assessment process in adaptation, and enhancing the integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and budgeting processes.   Based on this support, Indonesia is developing a funding proposal to access international climate finance. 

[Stocktaking report coming soon] 

> More NAP-GSP supported countries

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Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
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Location: 
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Project Dates: 
2018

Supporting Armenia to advance their NAP process

Status of assistance to Armenia for their NAP process:

Through the NAP-GSP, UNDP provided NAP technical support for Armenia with a stakeholders’ consultation in December 2016. 
 
This included a rapid capacity assessment and stakeholder identification to advance the NAP process. 
 
The consultation was followed up by a the development of a Stocktaking Report for the NAP process in Armenia, and a preliminary roadmap to advance the NAP process in February 2017. 
 
Since then Armenia has issued a Government Decree to ‘Develop and submit to the Republic of Armenia Government’s approval of the Concept of Ecosystem Approach to Climate Change Adaptation, and National Adaptation Programme (NAP).’  Armenia has further sought access to the GCF Readiness Programme and a funding proposal has been submitted in 2017.
 
A NAP process in focus publication has been developed by NAP-GSP, in coordination with Ministerial representatives.
 
> Please email nap.gsp@undp.org to access the NAP Stocktaking Report for the NAP process in Armenia
 
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Project Dates: 
2018

Integrating adaptation into cities, infrastructure and local planning in Uruguay

This GCF-financed project will support the Government of Uruguay to advance its National Adaptation Planning process in cities and local governments (NAP-Cities). The objectives of the National Adaptation Planning process are to:  Reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience in cities, infrastructures and urban environments; and to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies that apply to cities and local planning. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment (MVOTMA).

The focus on cities and local governments has been chosen in line with the priorities set forth in the National Policy on Climate Change, particularly as climate change adaptation in cities requires collaborative problem solving and coordination across many sectors and across central and local governments (land use, housing, transportation, public health, tourism, water supply and sanitation, solid waste, food security, energy, disaster risk management, etc).

Cities and local governments are well positioned to act as conveners of a wide range of stakeholders. Indeed, adaptation efforts in cities and local governments will often involve multiple government agencies, as well as broad partnerships that include other local governments, local communities, civil society organizations - including trade unions, academic institutions, and the private sector. The project builds upon important opportunities in Uruguay, in particular the development of the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017 and an increased awareness and desire of various national agencies to improve adaptation planning.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-57.842285346257 -33.96037159508, -57.88623065875 -33.96037159508, -57.842285346257 -33.96037159508)), POINT (-57.402832221337 -33.814449534364))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.7 million
Project Details: 

The project will address the main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into cities and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in a stakeholders’ consultation process that was undertaken in 2016 and in line with the priorities under the National Climate Change Response Plan of 2010 and the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017, as well as the framework of the 2012 LEG Technical Guidelines on NAP.

Underlying challenges include: Limited awareness and consideration of future climate change in local and urban planning; limited access to and integration of national and international available data on climate change, risks and socio-economic vulnerabilities; in most cases, current risk assessment of climate-related hazards do not consider future climate change scenarios; and imited linkages and synergies between adaptation actions, public and private investments and long term land planning and public budgeting.

By its very nature, the NAP-Cities project would facilitate integration of climate change adaptation into existing strategies, policies and programmes, and the project  aims at achieving this with a focus on urban and spatial planning through: Building and strengthening capacities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems in both central and local governments improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses with future climate scenarios to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments for cities and local governments; the design and integration of methods, tools and information systems to effectively inform decision-making on the climate risks to development in an integrated fashion; the formulation of financing strategies and mechanisms for scaling up adaptation in cities and local governments

Whereas the reduction of vulnerability will be achieved through implementation of adaptation programmes and projects that will ultimately emanate from the NAP-Cities, project aims to strengthen institutional coordination and capacities, and build the foundation for integrating climate change scenarios and climate risks to inform planning and decision making both at central and local governments.

It will further identify pathways to reduce vulnerability through the implementation strategies to be defined in the NAP-Cities. The project will ultimately contribute to the GCF Fund level impacts of (i) Increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions, (ii) Strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate- responsive planning and development, (iii) Increased generation and use of climate information in decision making, and (iv) Strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

1.1 Launch the NAP-Cities process and establish institutional arrangements for coordination

  • Establish a coordination mechanism, with a clear scope and mandate, to steer the development of NAP-Cities, and establish and fund a secretariat to coordinate the development and implementation of the plan
  • Integrate and harmonize climate change messaging in communications of sectoral agencies to local government and develop targeted climate change adaptation information products for urban areas
  • Develop specific climate change information products to raise and strengthen awareness of key decision makers at central and local level on needs for adaptation planning
 
1.2 Stocktake of urban adaptation planning, and assess gaps in available information on climate change impacts at city level
  • To inform adaptation planning (risk, hazards, vulnerability, gender, socio-economic and environmental) and assess obstacles and limitations to its use and shareability for urban planning with the objective of developing an integrated information management system
  • Conduct an inventory and stocktaking of on-going and past adaptation activities by all sectors in urban areas (Health, Water, DRR, Development Planning) with a rapid assessment of their effectiveness
  • Identify, document and analyse existing national experiences and best practices that have successfully integrated climate change in urban planning and develop options to scale them up
  • Assess strengths and weaknesses of current institutional planning mechanisms with regards to urban areas and identify potential barriers and disincentives to the planning, design and implementation of adaptation

 

1.3 Identify capacity gaps and weaknesses in implementing  NAP-Cities 

  • Undertake a capacity needs assessment for planning, decision making and implementing adaptation in urban areas, both at central government agencies, local governments and other target groups

 

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs from a climate perspective

  • Screening of existing development and investment plans of central agencies that involve cities (e.g. spatial planning, health, tourism, water, sewage treatment…) and existing local land-use plans to identify needs regarding the assessment and integration of climate-related risks. 

 

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

2.1 Undertake multi-hazard risk assessments addressing major climatic hazards to cities

  • Carry out multi-hazard risk assessments addressing flood and extreme weather events, and other major climate related risks in selected Uruguayan urban areas, building on existing information and taking account future climate scenarios to inform planning, preparedness and adaptation actions in at least 4 urban areas (The multi-hazard risk assessments will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)

 

2.2 Assess new and important climate-induced vulnerabilities in urban areas

  • Analyse vulnerabilities to water-born diseases, heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change.

 

2.3 Identify and appraise adaptation options for major hazards affecting Uruguayan cities

  • Evaluate the adaptation potential of urban ecosystems, urban green areas and urban forestry, including the cost-effectiveness of conservation measures and design ecosystem-based adaptation strategies to buffer the impact of extreme weather events and heat waves
  • Analyse effectiveness and cost/benefit of the on-going pilot urban flood adaptation measures to improve urban water planning in mid-sized cities, and develop a strategy to scale up implementation of the most effective measures
  • Analyse current climate related early warning systems for urban environments and develop a strategy to strengthen the development of those systems for scaling up their implementation.
  • Review, appraise and prioritise adaptation options for water-born diseases heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change, as well as adaptation options related to water and sewage managements.
  • Identify and analyse adaptation options in relation to infrastructure and built environments, in particular improved building codes in relation to climate variability and change.
  • Review and design of adaptation options for other climate hazards identified in activities 2.1.

 

2.4 Formulate and disseminate the NAP-Cities

  • Carry out participative workshops to discuss and formulate the NAP-Cities, including participation of national and local governments, civil society, academia, private sectors and other relevant stakeholders
  • Compile the NAP-Cities integrating review comments and process the adoption of the Plan at the national level
  • Develop a communication strategy and tools for NAP-Cities

 

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and local development and sectoral planning and budgeting

  • Develop and test interactive and multi-criteria decision support tools to help national and local governments and communities to assess, visualize and understand the potential impacts of climate change and develop adaptive solutions. (The decision support tool will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)
  • The engagement with the private sector is an essential strategy to include climate resilience aspects in their investment in urban areas and infrastructure and also contributing to climate adaptation on the ground.

 

 

 

 

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national and local planning and budgeting

  • Develop and pilot a standardized method, and policy recommendations, to integrate adaptation planning in city and local spatial plans and budgets for the medium-term period, considering gender and age, as appropriate.
  • Develop and test criteria for screening urban public investment programmes in adaptation, and prioritising budget allocations of public and private investments with adaptation benefits

 

3.2 Develop an implementation strategy for NAP-Cities

  • Develop an inter-institutional management model for the NAP-Cities implementation and adaptation mainstreaming in infrastructure design and investment and urban land planning.
  • Design integrated Geographic information systems that enables sharing and utilising data to inform urban planning and incorporating gender and age-disaggregated data.
  • Advance on a specific effort to find areas of revenue in the NAP Cities and Infrastructure where private capital equity might find interesting to invest, such areas might be associated with urban built environment and infrastructure insurances; built environment technology development; among others.

 

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

  • Develop and execute a three-year work plan for capacity building of local and national authorities to address the gaps and priorities identified in the capacity needs assessment. The capacity building programme should target at least 100 officials and planners from local governments and 100 officials from central agencies
  • Undertake specific trainings for at least 60 planners in central and local agencies on methodologies for planning under uncertainty
  • Develop training tools and undertake training on integrating gender and age through the use of gender and age disaggregated data and gender and age analysis tools in programme formulation and monitoring
  • Training and building awareness of the private sector, national and local professional associations and trade unions on investing in adaptation planning, both in their businesses through risk reduction measures and climate proofing their supply chain, and exploring new market opportunities and investments for the development of resilience building goods and services.
  • Technical assistance to local governments on the preparation of local adaptation frameworks or options.
  • Training and building awareness to local communities and local education institutions regarding climate risks in urban environments and in relation to early warning systems.
  • Develop capacities to evaluate the prioritization of actions and projects through training courses at national and local level for adaptation options appraisal (e.g. Cost Benefit Analysis/Multicriteria Analysis etc).

 

 

 

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP-Cities process and adaptation progress

  • Collect data and develop indicators for adaptation planning, readiness, and resilience of infrastructure and urban areas. These indicators will be integrated with the National Climate Change Response Plan, and the National Climate Change Policy and with other urban and territorial planning tools.

 

4.2 Review the NAP-Cities process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

  • Develop and implement mechanisms to monitor and update the National Policy on Climate Change, and the NAP cities building on the above mentioned indicators

 

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP-Cities process and report on progress and effectiveness

  • Undertake an outreach programme to local government to present the NAP cities and its various tools, and assess progress and effectiveness at the local level.

 

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

5.1 Conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors at the cities and local level

  • Identify suitable incentives, and evaluate their costs and effectiveness to foster private investment in new climate-sensitive and resilience-building approaches and to encourage public-private partnerships to implement climate adaptation measures in the Uruguayan planning and budgeting context

 

5.2 Identify, analyse and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

  • Undertake a policy analysis for future financing instruments/options for adaptation including identification of alternative funding sources (private, local, etc.) as well as municipal level financing instruments that can be leveraged for financing in cities

 

5.3 Develop a financing strategy for the NAP-Cities

  • Develop a financing strategy for the implementation of NAP-Cities. The strategy will be updated iteratively in the framework of the NCCRS after the Readiness is concluded.
  • Develop a funding strategy for the NAP Readiness which will include more traditional approaches regarding funding from international climate related sources, such as the GCF, and/or national sources such as the national and subnational budgets.  

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Umberto Labate
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Secretariat: 8 January 2018
Project submitted to GCF Secretariat: 13 February 2017
Framework Readiness and Preparatory Support Grant Agreement: 2 September 2016

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021

Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods, Sub-National to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin

The "Strengthening the Resilience of Rural Livelihoods and Sub-National Government System to Climate Risks and Variability in Benin" project will work to ensure that climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgetary processes, improve agricultural infrastructure and human capacity to cope with changing rainfall patterns, and diversify income-generating activities on the community level.

From an economic perspective, the implementation of the project will generate agricultural revenues. Moreover, the construction phase will generate direct, indirect and temporary jobs in the five selected communes. Furthermore, this project targets sectors (agriculture in particular) that contribute greatly to the economy in Benin in terms of GDP and employment, and by supporting these sectors and improving their resilience, the project will make a clear and direct contribution to the economy. It will create opportunities for rural livelihood diversification leading to increased economic security and less reliance on climate-sensitive rural activities. It is expected that the introduction of new adaptive practices and appropriate technological packages into crop production will increase productivity in the long run. This will help rural communities and farmers to improve their overall production and better manage risks from droughts or floods. The project will improve the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable community members and most disadvantaged groups.

The social benefits from this project are therefore manifold, since, with the acquired greater economic power, the concerned beneficiaries and communities will be able to invest in healthcare and education. Enhanced nutrition will be experienced by beneficiaries – through improved food supplies and a greater diversity of available food. With stronger health, beneficiaries will be able to engage more fully in livelihood activities. Regarding security threats in the country, the project aims at increasing cohesion between different local groups, through new infrastructure making essential resources such as water more accessible to all.

This project will have several environmental benefits, notably by improving land, soil and water management, mitigating land erosion and introducing improved agro-sylvo-pastoral practices and techniques. In all, 6237 hectares of land will be protected and improved through sustainable land management practices.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (2.2521972508485 9.0015580242753)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.4 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$30 million
Project Details: 

Benin is vulnerable to climate change. Medium-term climate projections for its territory indicate important risks of insufficient levels of rain, increased evapotranspiration and more rainfall variability from one year to another. Therefore, droughts are more likely to become more and more intensive. This will impose significant challenges – most notably on growing rain-fed crops, natural tree regeneration and grazing animals. The National Land Planning scheme further describes droughts, floods and late rains as three major climatic risks. Projects aiming at preserving these areas are therefore a clear priority at the Government level.

Climate change has important impact on the agricultural sector. Agro-climatic parameters are constraining for the agricultural and forestry sector, especially in the South-West and in the Far-North that suffer frequent droughts. Academic work from Boko (1988), Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999) et de Ogouwalé (2004), are showing that rainfall decrease, reduction in the length of the agricultural season, persistence of negative anomalies, minimal temperature increase is now typical for Benin’s climate. Rainfall regimes and agricultural production systems are therefore modified.

Direct impacts of climate change on agriculture concern crop behavior, pedological modifications and yield reduction. At the crop level, phenomenon of shortening of growth cycle and premature bloom are happening, due to the increase of temperature. Besides, agricultural yield will be seriously affected by the repeated effect of rainfall deficiencies and perturbations. Hence, integration of adaptation into the agricultural sector would be crucial for reducing vulnerability of the sector.

Available evidence suggests that the most certain manifestation of climate change on precipitation is an increase in variability while the directions of changes are much more uncertain. These predicted changes in climate, despite uncertainties, are likely to have an impact on farmers who engage in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, the landless who are usually dependent on on-farm labor opportunities, and women-headed households.

Many environmental and adaptation benefits are expected to be delivered by the project at the national and local levels, among which:

  • Improved living conditions of agro-pastoral communities (through diversifying and increasing production and income).
  • Ensuring food security in concerned communes and villages
  • Better linkages between disaster risk management and climate change, by addressing existing vulnerabilities through development and operational planning, policy processes, and incentive systems.
  • Creating a virtuous circle by reducing risks induced by flooding.  
  • Emphasis on a multi-level, integrated approach to pastoral and agriculture development through support and funding for a range of initiatives to help communities and households undertake income generating activities, accompanied by awareness raising, diversification of income sources, information and capacity building.
  • Mainstreaming gender issues into pastoral development namely by: (i) addressing in all initiatives the specific needs of women and men (for instance, through well-tailored training programs, gender-sensitive income generation activities, etc.); and (ii) by identifying interventions that specifically target women as main beneficiaries (for instance, to better address households’ subsistence priority needs, cash transfers will be provided directly to women).
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Output 1.1. The capacity of the five targeted departments and municipalities and all relevant ministries to integrate gender responsive climate change adaptation in their planning and budgeting work is improved 

Output 1.2. The technical capacity of agricultural extension agents and local NGOs concerning resilience to climate change is improved

Output 1.3. The coordination and communication between actors is improved

 

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Output 2.1. Small scale climate resilient water harvesting infrastructures are designed and implemented in the five targeted municipalities

Output 2.2. Risks of floods and riverbanks erosion are reduced through the stabilization of slopes of critical riverbanks using bamboo plantation

Output 2.3. Resilient practices, such as drip irrigation techniques or short cycle improved seeds, are adopted in the five targeted municipalities

 

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities

Output 3.1. Targeted population’s dependency and vulnerability to climate change effects is reduced through the introduction of alternative livelihoods

Output 3.2. All women of target population (3,281 women) are trained on alternative livelihoods to agriculture to better cope with climate change impacts

Output 3.3. The capacities of 300 rural entrepreneurs and 50 SMEs (aiming at 50% women) to develop business plans in the field of sustainable craft and small-scale manufacture are strengthened in order to stimulate employment and growth

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Le PNUD et le FEM appuient le Bénin à renforcer la Résilience des populations face aux risques climatiques

Cotonou, le 11 décembre 2017 : Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement (PNUD) a signé ce jour avec le Gouvernement du Bénin à travers le Ministère du Plan et du Développement un document de projet d’un montant total de 34 950 000 USD (dont une contribution de 4 450 000 du Fonds pour l’Environnement Mondial et du PNUD) pour aider le pays à renforcer la résilience des populations rurales face aux risques climatiques.

 

The United Nations Development Programme and GEF support Benin in strengthening resilience to climate risks

11 December 2017 Cotonou, Benin – The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) signed today with the Government of Benin, through the Ministry of Planning and Development, a project document for the total sum of U$ 34.95 million (including a contribution of US$4.45 million from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund and UNDP) to help the country strengthen rural populations’ resilience to climate risks.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate change and gender are included in development plans and budgets at national and sub-national levels

Outcome 2 - Productive agricultural infrastructure and human skills are improved to cope with altered rainfall patterns

Outcome 3 - Communities’ adaptive capacity is improved by more diversified income generating activities