Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Resilience to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector in Mali

Project Overview

According to current information on climatic variability and predicted climate change scenarios for Mali, the country's long-term development is expected to be significantly affected by: both insufficient and unpredictable rainfall; increased frequency of flooding; and more violent winds in the Sahel and Sahara regions. As Mali's agriculture sector is highly dependent on climatic factors, it is generally agreed upon that climate change will produce great impacts in this sector, even when considering the uncertainty of the forecasting models. Scientific assessments carried out in the context of the Initial National Communication (INC) and the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) has shown that climate change will most probably lead to significant losses in crop production. In turn, these impacts on the agriculture sector will have direct effects on food security in the country. 

Contributions to respond to these barriers and reduce the level of vulnerabilities to climate change were achieved through the pursuit of specific outcomes including: (i) the improvement of capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security; (ii) the strengthening of climate resilience of agricultural production systems and the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities; and (iii) the dissemination of the best practices generated by the project.

This project was initially funded through the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund (US$2,340,000), with later complementary funding from the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) of US$2,145,000.

As part of the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF), the project is aligned with the CCAF’s aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches. The Facility works to document results and share experiences between the CCAF-supported projects in Cambodia, Cape Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Sudan.

Expected Outcomes

Outcome 1 - Capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security are improved

Outcome 2 - Climate resilience of agricultural production systems and of the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities strengthened

Outcome 3 - Best practices generated by the program capitalized on and disseminated at the national level

Project Details

Levels of Intervention

Municipality

Source of Funds

LDCF

Key Implementers

Country Office
Local Governments
National Governments
Non-Governmental Organizations

Funding Amounts

2,340,000 (As of March 25, 2010)
8,480,000 (As of March 25, 2010)

Project Partners

Mali National Directorate of Agriculture
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Introduction

According to current information on climatic variability and predicted climate change scenarios for Mali, the country's long-term development is expected to be significantly affected by: both insufficient and unpredictable rainfall; increased frequency of flooding; and more violent winds in the Sahel and Sahara regions. As Mali's agriculture sector is highly dependent on climatic factors, it is generally agreed upon that climate change will produce great impacts in this sector, even when considering the uncertainty of the forecasting models. Scientific assessments carried out in the context of the Initial National Communication (INC) and the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) has shown that climate change will most probably lead to significant losses in crop production. In turn, these impacts on the agriculture sector will have direct effects on food security in the country. 

Contributions to respond to these barriers and reduce the level of vulnerabilities to climate change were achieved through the pursuit of specific outcomes including: (i) the improvement of capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security; (ii) the strengthening of climate resilience of agricultural production systems and the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities; and (iii) the dissemination of the best practices generated by the project.

This project was initially funded through the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund (US$2,340,000), with later complementary funding from the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) of US$2,145,000.

As part of the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF), the project is aligned with the CCAF’s aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches. The Facility works to document results and share experiences between the CCAF-supported projects in Cambodia, Cape Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Sudan.

Project Details

Though only 14% of Mali’s land is considered to be cultivable, the country’s economy is nevertheless strongly dependent on agriculture. In fact, Mali’s economy is largely dominated by the primary sector, which employs 83.4% of the working population. The secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy are still not well developed. They employ 4.1% and 12.5% of the active population, respectively. The agricultural sector in Mali is very sensitive to climate variations including droughts and desertification, both of which have been occurring for several decades. Increasing demographic pressure has led to the conversion of the marginal or forested land into agricultural land and has consequently caused a shortening of the fallow periods and a general degradation of the soil’s fertility.

According to the World Bank, despite annual variability due to repeated shocks, Mali’s economic growth has been generally favorable in recent years, averaging 5.1% per year for the 2003-07 period. Mali’s economy did not perform as well in 2007 due to unfavorable weather conditions and technical difficulties that affected gold production. Mali’s macroeconomic stability has been maintained in 2008 despite the world economic crisis but in spite of these recent trends, Mali remains one of the world's poorest countries and ranks 168 out of 179 countries, according to the 2008 UNDP Human Development Index.

With 83.4% of the population working in the primary sector, availability of and access to natural resources are a first priority for the Malian people, both factors being particularly vulnerable to climate change. As Mali’s agricultural sector is highly dependent on climatic factors, it is generally agreed upon that climate change will produce great impacts in this sector.

Scientific assessments carried out in the context of the Initial National Communication (INC) have shown that climate change will most probably lead to significant losses in crop production. Generally speaking, the area suitable for agriculture, the length of the growing season and potential yield, particularly along the margins of semi-arid and arid areas, are expected to decrease. Climate change could also have the potential to impact livestock by affecting factors such as animal health and the availability of fodder. The impact of these could differ depending on the type of species. Some species such as goats and sheep are more heat tolerant than cattle and thus could potentially withstand higher temperatures with more success. However, large farms are more dependent on species such as cattle, which are not heat tolerant.

Climate change will alter the quantity and quality of available natural pastures and will undoubtedly lead to new forms of transhumance corridors in the region, and perhaps to new forms of emerging animal diseases. It is also likely that breeders will have to deal with growing agricultural pressures and greater environmental constraints in the years to come. Another possible impact of climate change on the agricultural and food security sectors is the potential conflicts occurring between farmers and pastoralists as both land and water become scarce. With increasing population, transhumance can become unsustainable, and it will become more important for livestock breeders, investors and governments to give more attention to animal feed processing.

The above mentioned impacts on the agricultural sector will, in turn, have direct impacts on food security in Mali. To ensure food security in the context of expected climate change will be difficult given the low level of capacity of the Malian decision makers at all levels and of the food producers to implement adaptation measures. Capacities of decision makers and of food producers need to be strengthened in order to reduce the potential adverse impacts of climate change and its potential repercussion on national food security.  Moreover, measures including: improved crop varieties to deal with droughts; livelihood and production diversification; improved use of meteorological information and alert systems; and the development of new crop systems to name but a few, will have to be piloted and disseminated in the most vulnerable areas of the country.

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Level of Intervention: 
Implementing Agencies & Partnering Organizations: 
Mali National Directorate of Agriculture
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Project Status: 
Under Implementation
Location: 
Rural
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
2,340,000 (As of March 25, 2010)
Co-Financing Total: 
8,480,000 (As of March 25, 2010)

Country Initiatives

Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali

Mali National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

Mali's NAPA is aimed at addressing the need to develop a realistically achievable country-driven program of action for adaptation to climate change in key sectors such as agriculture, forestry, water resources, coastal zone and human health. It will specifically develop a program of priority activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns of Mali, relating to the adverse effects of climate change. Mali shares with other LDCs a low adaptive capacity to respond to climate change impacts, arising from weak socio-economic conditions.

Mali's Second National Communication - June 2011

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.

Strengthening the resilience of women producer groups and vulnerable communities in Mali

The Government of Mali is currently tackling development constraints which include various agricultural and rural development initiatives focusing on stimulating rural economies, improving agricultural productivity and promoting sustainable land management. This UNDP-supported "Strengthening the resilience of women producer groups and vulnerable communities in Mali" project aims to integrate climate variability into development strategies, with a special focus on food security.

Supporting Mali to advance their NAP Process

A NAP support mission to Mali is being prepared, which will help to enhance the understanding of the NAP and of the tools and methods available to advance the process. High level decisions makers will be sensitized on the NAP process during this upcoming support mission.

Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali

Like other countries in the Sahel, Mali is susceptible to climate variability and is suffering from the impacts of global climate change. According to forecasts, rainfall will fluctuate even more in the future and the frequency of extreme events such as drought or heavy rain will increase. The poorest groups are harder hit by the impacts of climate change because they depend directly on natural resources for their livelihoods.

Key Results and Outputs

  • Outcome 1: Capacities to prevent and manage the impacts of climate change on agricultural production and food security are improved
    • Output 1.1: Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on the agricultural and food security sectors are conducted within the targeted municipalities
    • Output 1.2: Guidelines are elaborated and awareness-raising campaign and training workshops (targeting local decision makers) are conducted in order to promote the integration of adaptation considerations within rural development policies, plans and programmes at the local level
    • Output 1.3: Local adaptation financing strategies are established
    • Output 1.4: Technical structures supporting rural development are informed, trained and provided with the tools to support the implementation of adaptation measures in order to manage climate risks
    • Output 1.5: A strategy for the integration of adaptation considerations within national level agriculture- and food security-related laws, policies, plans and programmes is developed and implemented
  • Outcome 2: Climate resilience of agricultural production systems and of the most vulnerable agro-pastoral communities strengthened
    • Output 2.1: An increased number of municipalities benefit from high quality agro-meteorological services
    • Output 2.2: Resilient agro-pastoral practices and technologies that reduce climate change risks are put in place in the most vulnerable agricultural zones 
    • Output 2.3: Resilient income-generating activities are adopted by vulnerable groups and individuals
    • Output 2.4: Adequate financial climate risks transfer instruments aimed at the most vulnerable rural communities, are developed
  • Outcome 3: Best practices generated by the program capitalized on and disseminated at the national level
    • Output 3.1: Lessons learned from the project are identified using a systematic framework
    • Output 3.2: Lessons learned are shared with other municipalities and local stakeholders
    • Output 3.3: Lessons learned are shared with other national and international stakeholders

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

 

 

Monitoring and Evaluation

Project Start Goals

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP Mali Project Document (March 25, 2010)

Contacts

UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Oumar Tamboura
Country Officer
UNDP
Aminata Diarra
Project Coordinator

Worked with women's organisations to provide them with multifunctional platforms.