Sudan's Second National Communication - In Progress
The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.
Major adaptation activities and needs that have been identified in Sudan include: community-based forest and range land management and rehabilitation and replacement of household goat herds with sheep herds to reduce pressure on fragile range lands. The unreliable nature of rainfall, together with its concentration in short growing seasons, heightens the vulnerability of Sudan’s rain-fed agricultural systems. The most extreme temperatures are found in the far northern part of the country, where summer temperatures can often exceed 43oC and sandstorms blow across the Sahara from April to September.
To view progress on Sudan's SNC click here.
Adaptation to climate change is a very compelling subject for the people of Sudan, burdened as they already are with devastating and recurring droughts, as well as severe hardships in the ability to coping with even current climatic variability.
Major adaptation activities and needs that have been identified across the five ecological zones include, Community-based forest and range land management and Rehabilitation and Replacement of household goat herds with sheep herds to reduce pressure on fragile range lands.
Sudan is the largest country in Africa. Its total area is over 250 million hectares, much of which is comprised of arid lands and desert.
Sudan lies within the tropical zone between latitudes 3o and 22o North and longitude 22 o to 38o East. Mean annual temperatures vary between 26oC and 32oC across the country. Rainfall, which supports the overwhelming majority of the country's agricultural activity, is erratic and varies significantly from the northern to southern ranges of the country.
The unreliable nature of rainfall, together with its concentration in short growing seasons, heightens the vulnerability of Sudan’s rain-fed agricultural systems. The most extreme temperatures are found in the far northern part of the country, where summer temperatures can often exceed 43oC and sandstorms blow across the Sahara from April to September.
These regions typically experience virtually no rainfall. In the central area around and just south of Khartoum, average annual temperatures are around 27oC, with rainfall averaging about 200 mm/year and rarely exceeding 700 mm/year.
Key Results and Outputs
- Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
- Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
- Measures contributing to addressing climate change
- Research and systematic observation
- Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
- Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring and Evaluation
In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.
Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.
The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.
Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.