Coastal Zone Development
Taxonomy Term List
Strengthening the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas and Communities to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau
The "Strengthening the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas and Communities to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau" Project will leverage a proposed US$12 million Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund Grant to develop the strong institutions and policies needed to improve risk management in coastal zones, protect investments in coastal infrastructure and diffuse new technologies to strengthen resilience within coastal communities.
According to Guinea-Bissau’s NAPA (2006), the primary drivers of the climate vulnerability of the coastal areas and communities are physical exposure, dependence on agriculture and fishing as main livelihood options, and poor governance. Low-elevation coastal zones are especially vulnerable in Guinea-Bissau. Most of Guinea-Bissau’s land consists of coastal swamps and mangroves, and over 19 percent of its land area lies in areas less than 10 meters above sea level. The majority of the population (about 82 %) work as subsistence farmers and climate change has already begun to affect coastal farmers through increased flooding and saltwater encroachment into their rice paddies due to global sea level rise. The coastal communities and the whole population of Guinea-Bissau rely on mangrove stands and coastal lowlands for rice cultivation as a main source of income and food.
A recent study (Sally Brown and all, 2011) has projected sea-level rises (in comparison of 1995 level) of 0.13 m, 0.35 m, 0.72 m and 1,22 m for 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 respectively. With a large and growing population in the coastal zone and a low adaptive capacity due to low national wealth and other development indicators, Guinea-Bissau appears to be highly vulnerable to sea-level rise. Without adaptation, the physical, human and financial impacts will be significant.
Sea-level rise has the potential to displace hundreds of thousands of people over the next 100 years. With a rise of 0.13 m in 2025, 77,800 people will be flooded per year. with a rise of 0.35 m in 2050, 179,800 persons will be flooded per year. The total cos t of sea-level rises for Guinea-Bissau combining costs of forced migration, land loss, salinization, sea floods and river floods will be US$8 million per year for 2025, US$29.9 million per year for 2050 and are estimated at US$361.8 million per year by 2100.
Climate change is predicted to also have adverse effects on fisheries and fishing. Rising sea temperatures and changes in the oceans’ other dynamics, such as acidification and loss of nursery areas, are predicted to reduce fish populations. Meanwhile, in places with rich fisheries like Guinea-Bissau, the destruction of coral reefs and mangroves destroys fish spawning grounds, decreasing the availability of fish, limiting the livelihoods of fishermen, and leading to precarious food security as sea foods are the main sources of proteins for the coastal communities.
To address these challenges, the preferred situation is for Guinea-Bissau to have the capacity at national, regional and local levels to develop, plan and implement coastal management measures that increase resilience of coastal communities’ livelihoods and economic activities to climate change induced risks. This would imply that the climate change risks and relevant adaptation options be mainstreamed in the coastal development policies, strategies and initiatives, and the decision makers and technical staffs of the line sectors. This would also mean that the coastal communities have the required institutional support and technical and economic capacity to gradually and sustainably transform their structures, functioning, social organization and economy in order to increase their capacity to absorb shocks as well as slowly manifestation changes that undermine economic development.
Outcome 1 - Policies, regulations institutions and individuals mandated to manage coastal areas strengthened to reduce the risk of climate change
Outcome 2 - Vulnerability of coastal investments to climate risks reduced through the design, construction and maintenance of coastal protection measures
Outcome 3 - Rural livelihoods in the coastal zone enhanced and protected from the impacts of climate change
The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Liberia to ensure investment of a new tranche of US$4 million from the Least Developed Countries Fund is used to reduce the vulnerability of physcial assets and natural systems, protect coastal areas, and mitigate carbon dioxide emmissions. The "Enhancing Resilience Of Liberia Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas To Climate Change Risks" project will work to build national capacity and drive policy coordination in the coastal county of Montserrado to plan and respond to climate change. The project will benefit from a proposed US$2.2 million Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund grant and US$2.1 million in co-financing.
The project will contribute to global environmental benefits and improve the livelihoods of the citizens of Liberia with the improved management of 300 million hectares of seascapes, placing 120 million hectares under sustainable land management practices. It will promote the collective management of transboundary water systems, and implement a full range of policy, legal and institutional reforms and investments to contribute to the sustainable use of ecosystem services.
Large environmental benefits are also planned. Most notably, 750 million tons of Carbon Dioxide will be mitigated and 1000 tons of mercury will be reduced.
The Liberia coastline is subject to see level rise. Indeed, by the year 2090, the SRESB1 predicts a rise of sea level between 0.13m and 0.43m, whereas SRESA1 predicts a rise of between 0.18m and 0.56m , relative to 1980 - 1999 mean , (INC, 2013). This forecasted sea level rise, combined with increased intensity of storms and potential storm surges is very likely to accelerate the present catastrophic situation of coastal erosion. The orientation of Liberia’s coastline and its location on the Gulf of Guinea coastline, make it particularly exposed to the southern Atlantic annual sea storm surges. These surges lead to average tidal rises of over 2m during a brief period in spring – a major driver of coastal erosion. According to the NAPA (2008), the areas along the coast where erosion is most severe are Montserrado County coastlines, (West Point and New Kru Town and River Cess), Buchanan and Cestos Cities.
In the Montserrado County, sea-level rise would lead to shoreline retreat. The intensity of the retreat would vary along the coast from between 10 meters/year in the higher cliffed zone (e.g. between Mamba Point and Sinkor) to about 20 meters/year in the lowlands on Bush Rod Island. A considerable population is currently residing and working in these threatened zones, particularly around West Point. Another important expected impact of sea level rise is direct inundation of low-lying wetlands and dry land areas. For example, over the last 40 years, Liberia has experienced a number of climate-induced and sea-induced disasters. Communities such as New Kru Town and Hotel Africa in Montserrado are regularly under water. According to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), it is projected that a one meter sea level rise (scenario B2) would lead to permanent inundation of about 95 km2 of land in the coastal zone of Liberia. With a one-meter sea level rise, densely populated parts of t he capital city of Monrovia and its environs – including West Point, Hotel Africa, Kru Town and River Cess would be submerged. These are currently the housing areas for tens of thousands of people. A conservative estimate suggests about 250 million United States Dollars worth of land and infrastructures (such as the Hotel Africa complex) would be lost . The anticipated socio-economic impacts of the nexus of sea-level rise, coastal erosion and regular coastal flooding are largely negative and potentially disastrous for coastal communities. These factors are likely to have most impacts in the most densely populated areas such as the coastal areas of the County of Montserrado with large numbers of poor people. They are likely to destroy property, destroy rural infrastructure (markets, roads, centres, clinics), to destroy land, to destroy livelihood equipment (boats, mobile market stands, stoves, etc). Quite simply, the poor people have nowhere to go and no way to protect their personal and community belongings. Montserrado coastal communities are already observing and feeling the impacts of the sea-level rise, coastal erosion and coastal flooding nexus.
Output 1 – Capacity of the climate change secretariat enhanced to drive policy coordination in the coastal county of Montserrado to plan and respond to climate change.
• 1.1. Raised awareness of senior county officials, decision-makers and stakeholders.
• 1.2 Capacity of the National Climate Change Secretariat (NCCS) is strengthened
• 1.3 A county coastal protection unit is established, staffed and equipped
• 1.4 Semi-skilled workers able to prepare, build and maintain gabions and revetments etc.
• 1.5 A system for monitoring the maintenance of coastal protection measures is established,
• 1.6 County Development Agenda that fully addresses climate change prepared and approved.
Outcome 2 – At the sites of Hotel Africa and Kru Town, sustainable and affordable measures to protect coastal areas against climate change impacts are demonstrated.
• 2.3 Hotel Africa and New Kru Town communities protected from climate change impacts.
Local Project Appraisal Committee members attending a one-day appraisal meeting yesterday at a resort in Monrovia agreed that the US$2 million provided by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) must be directed to the ongoing New Kru Town coastal defense project. Among other things, the project aims to ensure that the D. Twe Memorial High School and the Redemption Hospital are not swept away by erosion. The participants were drawn from the Ministry of Lands & Mines and Energy (MLME), the Ministry of Public Works, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), civil society members, the Forestry Development Authority (FDA) and the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (MFDP). The local Project Appraisal Committee members, before the unanimous decision, examined a summary project document presented by the EPA and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The meeting was held under the theme: “Enhancing Resilience of Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas to Climate Change Risks.”
Outcome 1 – Vulnerability of physical assets and natural systems reduced.
Outcome 2 – At the sites of Hotel Africa and Kru Town, sustainable and affordable measures to protect coastal areas against climate change impacts are demonstrated.
Climate-induced pressures are negatively impacting impacting the energy sector in Benin. As average temperatures rise, electricity demand is increasing - with more intensive and longer use of air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration needed during the year. Coupled with inefficient household and commercial equipment (fridges, TV, AC, fans) and non-efficient lighting of buildings, there are critical imbalances in the energy sector.
With a view to improving the energy supply system, the quantity and the quality of energy sources and enhance the efficiency of energy supply and demand, this project, Strengthening the Resilience of the Energy Sector in Benin to the Impacts of Climate Change, will work with the Government of Benin to enhance the human, institutional and regulatory capacity for a better planning and management of the energy resources; to increase the production, transport and distribution of the different forms of energy; and to improve poor rural access to energy. The main objective of the project is to reduce the impacts of climate change and variability on Benin’s energy sector
The project will support the achievement of the following key results: Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools, introducing sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of wood energy supplying areas, and promoting the transfer of efficient technologies of production and use of wood energy and alternative forms of energy.
Component 1 : Mainstreaming climate change into energy policies and management and planning strategies and tools
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures
Component 2: Sustainable land and forest management practices for strengthening the climate resilience of the zones supplying wood for energy
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts
Component 3: Technology transfers to strengthen the resilience of livelihoods and living conditions of the vulnerable communities
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector
The project was officially launched on the 22nd November 2016, by the Minister Energy at Viga Hotel in Bohicon (Centre of Benin).
Outcome 1: Key energy policies, strategies and management and planning tools for the energy sector have integrated climate risks and adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: The climate resilience of the most vulnerable wood supply zones (for energy) is strengthened in response to climate change and variability impacts.
Outcome 3: Livelihood options and living conditions of the most vulnerable communities are made more resilient to the impact of climate change in the energy sector.
1.1: A comprehensive shoreline management plan developed and budgeted for the entire coast of Timor Leste (as part and a direct contribution to NAP) ($220,000)
1.2: Tibar Bay coastal protection and resilience strategy adopted and budgeted as part of the Port construction and management plan ($180,000)
1.3: Technical skills (through specialized trainings), hardware (at least two sets of hydro-meteorological stations and wave gauges), methods (economic valuation and cost-benefit analysis) and software (e.g. InVest) introduced to monitor climate change induced coastal change and plan for management responses ($650,000)
1.4: Forestry and Fisheries Directories under the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries have their roles, coordination planning mechanisms clarified and enforced for improved management of mangrove and other critical coastal habitats (as emerges from NAP consultation process) ($50,000).
2.1: At least 1000 ha of degraded mangrove areas rehabilitated through natural recruitment and restoration of hydrological regimes both in the northern and southern coasts with a direct employment of local coastal communities; - based on hydrological study, restoration of mangrove hydrological support system (i.e. pond and marchlands); - based on mangrove inventory and GIS mapping of coastal changes from SLR and inundation cycle and extent, implement mangrove rehabilitation on the identified priority segments; - establish mangrove nurseries and maintenance protocols under the MAF and with direct participation / employment of coastal communities, particularly women ($2,520,000)
2.2: Mangrove-based, diversified livelihoods / social businesses (e.g. silvo-fisheries, fuel wood plantations, agroforestry, see grass cultivation, salt production etc) established in at least 10 coastal sucos benefitting at least 20,000 people and empowering women ($1,400,000);2.3: at least 10 suco development plan include mangrove-based livelihood support measures ($80,000)
3.1: Upstream watershed replantation demonstrate risk reduction, (including reduction of excessive sediment loads) to downstream coastal waterways and areas ($600,000)
3.2: Coastal wetland restoration and artificial groundwater recharge plans developed and initiated to increase storm water absorption capacity and buffer seawater intrusion ($600,000)
3.3: Based on economic valuation study of ecosystem services, infrastructure offset for coastal protection scheme (and other financial mechanisms, such as payment for ecosystem services - PES) devised to secure financial resources for coastal resilience ($400,000)
With financial support from the Global Environment Facility‘s Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) – a fund that was established to support adaptation and technology transfer in all developing country parties to the UNFCCC - the project, Addressing Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Risks in Vulnerable Coastal Areas of Tunisia is being implemented by the Ministry of Local Affairs and the Environment, and the Coastal Protection and Planning Agency (APAL).
The coastal region constitutes the backbone of Tunisia's economy with important agricultural activity, industry, and ports offering access to external markets. It is also considered an important water reserve for the whole country, with coastal aquifers accounting for over 50% of Tunisia’s shallow groundwater resources. As a result, the government of Tunisia has identified sea level rise and coastal development as a top priority for adaptation action. The SCCF-funded project aims to promote innovative adaptation strategies, technologies, and financing options in Tunisia’s most vulnerable coastal areas.
The project is designed to address the main national adaptation priority on integrated coastal zone management and takes a three-pronged approach for building long term resilience of the coast. Firstly, it revises critical national regulations on coastal zoning based on impact scenarios generated by coastal models and develops local adaptation plans for Tunisia’s most vulnerable coastal locations.
Secondly, the project provides direct investments for climate resilient coastal defence options, considering coastal land use practices and future priorities, geomorphology of the coastline, and a range of plausible scenarios of sea level rise impacts.
Thirdly, the project introduces economic and financial instruments, such as taxes and insurance mechanisms both to mobilise internal resources for coastal defence and adaptation investments, and to regulate development in highly sensitive and exposed coastal regions.
By strengthening and implementing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction at the local and national level, the project is working to create a more climate-resilient nation.
The project has three components with the following associated outcomes –
- Enabling policy and institutional frameworks through regulations and enforcement mechanisms governing coastal land use to include climate risks management requirements (Outcome 1.1); the introduction of advanced methods and tools for coastal risk assessment and adaptation planning (Outcome 1.2); delivery of hardware and software observation capacities, data collection and treatment (Outcome 1.3) and; the revision of zoning regulations and disaster management strategies on impact scenarios, shoreline management planning and cost-benefit analysis of adaptation options (Outcome 1.4).
- Replicable adaptation measures are developed in the target coastal sites including shore protection practices and technologies to mitigate long-term risks (Outcome 2.1); controlled extraction and improved management systems for coastal fresh aquifer (Outcome 2.2); Strengthening of technical capacities, institutional functions and associated budgets for the maintenance, planning and expansion of the introduced shore protection and coastal adaptation practicies (Outcome 2.3) and; Development of a coastal risk monitoring and early warning system (Outcome 2.4).
- Economic incentives for coastal adaptation are created including a comprehensive coastal adaptation investment plan for the tourism sector (Outcome 3.1); introduction of regulations and disbursement procedures for the National Fund for the Protection of Tourism Zones (Outcome 3.2) and; introduction of property insurance and fiscal mechanisms that provide effective risk sharing and risk reduction incentives for highly exposed businesses and households (Outcome 3.3).
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Building resilience of Muanda’s communities from coastal erosion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s coastal zone stretches 40 km and comprises of the towns of Muanda, Banana and Nsiamfumu. The problem of coastal erosion has intensified since 1980 with significant retreat of the coast in the Banana-Muanda segment, this retreat has been estimated as much as 2,300 meters. In the future, the DRC can expect to see its territory reduced from 50-100 m on its coastal area.
In order to address this problem in its entirety, this UNDP-supported project in Muanda aims to address the root causes of information gaps, lack of technical knowledge to effectively support communities to identify, plan, design and implement adaptation options. The project has two main components, which will employ resources to support coastal management planning process (Outcome 1) and implement urgent and immediate adaptation measures in the most vulnerable coastal communities of Muanda (Outcome 2).
The project has two main components with the following outcomes –
- Integration of climate risks information into relevant planning policies through the mapping of climate change induced coastal erosion risk profile (Outcome 1.1); Development of guidelines and roadmap for the inclusion and the provision of climate smart finance into Muanda Urban development Plan (Outcome 1.2); Dissemination of knowledge and the design of an effective communication strategy to enhance understanding of climate change risks in the coastal zone, associated adaptation options costs/benefits, supporting policy planning policy process and sharing results and lessons generated from interventions made through this initiative (Outcome 1.3)
- Investment in coastal defence and monitoring including establishment of a climate risk monitoring system o monitor/record real-time coastal erosion/sea level rise observations and to support the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) of coastal risk for local coastal communities (Outcome 2.1); The pilot of a menu of “soft” (re-vegetation, land planning, etc.) and “hard” adaptation measures (composite beach revetments, off shore breakwater, etc.) to stabilize cliffs, secure the operations of docking and unloading of fishing and minimise losses (Outcome 2.2); Implementation of small-scale community-based adaptation initiatives among the Youth and Womens’ Association in Muanda focused on developing alternative climate resilient livelihood opportunities (Outcome 2.3).
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Mangroves cover more than 5% of the total area of Cuba and play a vital protective role against effects of storm surges and sea level rise. This UNDP-supported project, "Reduction of vulnerability to coastal flooding through ecosystem-based adaptation in the south of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces," seeks to reduce the vulnerability of communities in coastal areas of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces from climate change related coastal erosion, flooding and saltwater intrusion.
With the objective of increasing the resilience of populations in the coastal regions of Artemisa and Mayabeque provinces to the effects of climate change, the project will have the following key components –
Component 1: Reduction of the impacts of coastal flooding through the recovery of coastal ecosystems Re-establishment of coastal belt of red mangrove between Surgidero de Batabanó and Punta Mora (Output 1.1); Restoration of mangrove ecosystems between Majana and Surgidero de Batabanó (Output 1.2) and; Elimination and/or control of invasive alien species in coastal wetlands between Majana and Punta Mora (Output 1.3)
Component 2: Integrated and participatory management of coastal ecosystems to increase resilience to climate change Ecosystem-based adaptation mainstreamed into integrated coastal zone planning and productive sector activities (Output 2.1); Buy-in, participation and governance in local communities (Output 2.2) and; knowledge management systems at community level (Output 2.3)
Component 3: Establishment of a favourable enabling environment at regional level for the effectiveness and sustainability of adaptation investments Consolidated information on costs and benefits of EBA available to decision makers and planners (Output 3.1); Strengthened institutions including provincial and municipal Governments, Forest Guard Corps, Frontier Guards and Fisheries Department supporting ecosystem-based adaptation actions (Output 3.2)
CBA Viet Nam: Minimizing Climate Change Impacts for Sustainable Aquaculture in Con Truong, Hoang Chau Commune
Aquaculture is the main activity and source of income for the 8,264 residents of Viet Nam’s Hoang Chau community. The nearby Truong Islet plays a key role in the aquaculture development of the region, as it prevents ocean waves and winds from reaching Hoang Chau Commune and its small mangrove forest area, which helps to preserve local biodiversity. Due to climate change impacts, including saltwater intrusion from strong winds and high waves brought upon by global warming, the region’s ecosystem is very fragile. Local shrimp banks are constantly affected by the sea (winds, waves and salt contamination) and inland factors (water pollution from Ma River headwater and human activities). All these factors are destroying sea dykes, and the cost of reinforcing the degraded dyke is high. Since the 1970s, limited financial capacities have prevented shrimp farming methods from evolving, and they remain highly dependent on climate conditions. Climatic impacts have led to a reliance on natural resources, resulting in their overexploitation. To face these challenges, the local community is looking for appropriate production models that can adapt to extreme climate change.
This Community-Based Adaptation project aims to promote sustainable fisheries development by testing climate change adaptation models in aquaculture and fishing. Thanh Hoa Fisheries Association initiated the project after extensive discussions with local residents through a participatory process actively involving the Hoang Chau community. The project aims at testing climate change adaptation models in aquaculture and fishing for sustainable fisheries development in Truong Islet, a brackish water region in Thanh Hoa Province and Hoang Chau Commune.
* This project is part of Viet Nam's Community-Based Adaptation portfolio. *
Thanh Hoa is a province in the north of Central Vietnam, with 102 kilometers of coastline, 17,000,000 square kilometers of ocean surface and a population of over 3.6 million. The coastal and gulf area is favourable for aquaculture development. Ponds, lakes and shallow areas for aquaculture and riziculture make up 7,500 hectares. About 480,000 people rely on aquaculture for their primary income. The annual gross of fisheries products is 75,000 tons, 45,000 tons of which come from ocean exploitation and 30,000 tons from aquaculture. The potential to develop aquaculture is great, yet crop failures are common due to frequent natural disasters, exhausted coastal resources, polluted water and diseases.
Located in the southeast of Hoang Chau Commune, Hoang Hoa District, Truong Islet has a crucial role to play in aquaculture development in both Hoang Chau and Thanh Hoa Province as a whole. The Islet has a brackish water aquaculture area of 300 hectares, accounting for 1/10 of the total brackish water aquaculture area in the Province. From an economic and social perspective, the Islet has a crucial role in preventing wave and wind impact on inner regions, including Hoang Chau Commune. From a biological perspective, Truong Islet has significant biodiversity on land and in the water.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the mangrove forest area in Truong Islet was relatively large (about 200 hectares), with many kinds of fisheries species like shrimps, crabs, oysters, and lots of fishes.
Shrimp farming first appeared in Truong Islet in the 1970s. At present, there are 5 divisions with 137 households doing aquaculture in Truong Islet, both natural resource exploitation and farming fisheries products. Hoang Chau fishermen are facing several challenges, including the impact of climate change. The change in salinity due to saltwater intrusion results in slow development or massive death of fisheries species. The residents have to make higher dykes to cope with higher sea levels. The temperature fluctuations weaken fisheries species and make them susceptible to disease and death. Small floods, which now come earlier in the year, make the residents harvest shrimp prematurely, affecting their economic value.
Fisheries resources in the region are seriously degrading. In recent years, Ma River has been polluted due to human activities, affecting the aquaculture in Truong Islet. Aquaculture in Truong islet is at high risk because of environmental pollution and unpredictable weather. Aquaculture techniques have not changed ever since they started this trade: they still use the conventional methods although breeds, climate and natural resources conditions have changed considerably as a result of environmental degradation and the negative impacts of climate change.
To address these challenges, this Community-Based Adaptation project implements the following key activities:
- Improve farming techniques in aquaculture and fishing to adapt to climate change
- Plant mangrove forests to reduce impact of natural disasters, to protect the surrounding banks and prevent erosion caused by sea level rise
- Protect and regenerate natural fisheries resources for sustainable exploitation of natural fisheries resources in the project area
- Experiment with a community revolving loan programme to assist affected fishermen in aquaculture development and disaster emergency
- Enhance community capacity and awareness on climate change and sustainable aquaculture issues
Outcome 1: Building and testing models to adapt to climate change in brackish water aquaculture and fishing
Design and test 3 Models with suitable species and crops (Output 1.1) and include 20 households that will benefit from these models (Output 1.2).
Outcome 2: Mangrove forests and resources are managed and used in a sustainable manner
Design a commune plan (Output 2.1) that plants at least 20 hectares of mangrove forests (Output 2.2), including beekeeping models that directly benefit at least 20 households (Output 2.3).
Outcome 3.0: A revolving loan programme is developed and managed by the community
Enroll at least 20 households in the loan programme in the first year (Output 3.1), and at least 30 more households by the end of the project (Output 3.2). Repay the investment for experimental models, to be put in the loan programme for revolving (Output 3.3).
Outcome 4.0: Training and awareness raising activities on CC issues and sustainable fisheries are conducted
Hold at least 4 awareness raising workshops for at least 300 participants (Output 4.1), at least 12 training sessions and 10 community workshops for at least 500 participants (Output 4.2), and about 50 community meetings to discuss project issues and activities (Output 4.3). Form and operate groups of key fishermen for monitoring environment protection, mangrove forest protection, exploitation of fisheries resources protection (Output 4.4) Develop and apply community regulation procedures (Output 4.5) while strengthening working relationships with related water management agencies to manage the water source and protect community’s rights (Output 4.6)
Outcome 5.0: Fisheries resources are regenerated.
Build a crab bank model at 3 different locations around Truong islet (Output 5.1) and organize 3 fish and shrimp releases in the project area (Output 5.2).
The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA) will be measured at the planning stage of the project, at the mid-point, and at the end of project. Given that the VRA is qualitative and is based on the community perceptions, the first VRA was conducted to establish a baseline during the Project planning phase as described above. A second VRA will be done at mid project after all the project model building activities have been completed. A final VRA will be done at the end of the project to assess the overall impact of the project on the community adaptive capacity.
The VRA questions that will be used are as follows:
- Rate the impact of climate change (extreme weather and early small flooding, temperature rise, sea level rise and salinity) on your income from aquaculture and fishing
- Rate your ability to cope with the negative impacts of climate change 3. Rate the impact on your livelihood if climate change impact doubles
- Rate how effective you think this project will be in reducing your risks from increasing natural disasters and temperature rise, sea level rise and salinisation.
- Rate your confidence that the project will continue to reduce climate change risks after the project ends.
The Impact Assessment System (IAS) indicator will be measured at the end of the project using the following components:
- The number of hectares/models of aquaculture development applying the project techniques in sustainable aquaculture and fishing to adapt to CC impact
- The number of hectares of mangroves protected and planted
- The number of innovations developed/applied under the project (4) The number of policy recommendations proposed in environmental protection and sustainable use of natural resources (fisheries and mangroves) for sustainable aquaculture and fishing in the climate change context
The targets for the above are as follows:
- Three (3) models will be tested by the project.
- 15-20 ha of mangroves will be protected and planted.
- 2-3 innovations developed/applied under the project
- Three to four recommendations on policies in sustainable aquaculture and fishing in the climate change context will be proposed to local authorities.
CBA Jamaica: Increasing Community Adaptation and Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change in Portland Bight (CCAM)
Jamaica’s Portland Bight Protected Area includes some of the best remaining examples of coastal dry forest, the longest contiguous mangrove coastline in Jamaica, and some of the most important fish nurseries in the country. The project site has outstanding national and global importance because of its highly threatened biodiversity and ecological services. Due to climate variability, however, the Portland Bight communities of Old Harbour Bay, Hellshire, and Salt River are high risk areas for hurricanes, floods, fire and tsunamis, with more than 20,000 people living in the danger zones. Climate change also causes the loss and degradation of ecosystems, the loss of habitat for biodiversity, and the loss of ecosystem services such as coastal protection, fish nurseries, recharging of aquifers, control of soil erosion, and natural regeneration of forests. These factors threaten the lives and livelihoods of the local communities, who are very dependent on the surrounding environment.
This Community-Based Adaptation project reduces the threats to globally endangered biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services by empowering communities to manage ecosystems more sustainably in the face of climate change. Through workshops, communities' awareness of their importance and contribution to the economy will be increased, and the implementation of sustainable ecosystem use and adaptive alternatives will be taught.
* This project is part of Jamaica's Community-Based Adaptation portfolio. *
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Portland Bight Protected Area (PBPA) includes coastline from Hellshire to Milk River on the South Coast of Jamaica. The coast is fringed with the longest contiguous stretch of mangroves in the country, seagrass beds, coral reefs and cays. These form the country’s largest nursery for fish, crustaceans and mollusks (including conch, Strombus gigas). The beaches provide nationally significant nesting habitat for globally threatened sea turtles (principally Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata) while the many rivers that drain the hinterland provide habitat for the globally threatened American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) as well as endemic fish. The wetlands include habitats for the globally threatened West Indian Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna arborea).
Overlooking the coast are three tropical dry forests – Hellshire Hills, Braziletto Mountains and Portland Ridge – which also house a variety of globally-significant species and ecosystems. These areas are surrounded by agriculture (mainly sugar cane) with pockets of settlement and industry, including 3 ports. All these habitats are already showing apparent signs of stress from climate change, including increased hurricane damage, increased drought and flood cycles and increased risk of fire. The neighboring marine ecosystems are likewise showing signs of stress. For example, coral reefs have low levels of living coral combined with high algae overgrowth and regular bleaching events.
The Protected Area includes three towns (Old Harbour Bay, Lionel Town and Hayes) and about forty-nine residential communities—nineteen of which are directly on the coast. This project focuses on the area’s most vulnerable settlements, which are close to the Portland Cottage, Salt River, Cockpit and Old Harbour Bay. These populations encompass a total of about 20,000 people whose main livelihoods depend directly or indirectly on fishing, sugar or bauxite. These areas form the hinterland for three fish sanctuaries. The communities are all low lying, mostly carved out of mangrove swamps and wetlands and their immediate environs. All have recent history of being affected by floods and hurricanes, and therefore have a high level of receptivity to vulnerability reduction measures in these areas.
The people of the area are particularly dependent on the maintenance of natural ecosystems because of the natural services they provide. This is true for all coastal communities but in Portland Bight the linkages are particularly close. The forests of the limestone hills in the immediate vicinity sustain the aquifers that support many springs and wells, while further inland forest hills reduce the frequency of flash flooding and reduce erosion. The area’s mangroves protect the coastline and the infrastructure behind it while providing nursery habitat for fishable resources.
Climate change is likely to increase temperatures, reduce summer rainfall, and increase the frequency of hurricanes, fires and floods. This will result in loss and degradation of ecosystems including tropical dry forests, wetlands (especially mangroves), coral reefs and seagrass beds. This will result in loss of habitat for biodiversity including the critically endangered species that occur in the area. There will also be loss of ecosystem services such as coastal protection, fish nurseries, recharging of aquifers, control of soil erosion, natural regeneration of forests.
This Community-Based Adaptation project will reduce the threats to globally endangered biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services by seeking to empower communities to manage ecosystems more sustainably in the face of climate change. This will include increasing awareness of ecosystem importance and contribution to the economy, as well as promoting sustainable and alternative uses. The project will include awareness-raising on the impacts climate change presents for globally endangered biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services (and hence livelihoods). It will advocate for integrating ecosystem services into development frameworks at the local and national levels.
Outcome 1: All major stakeholder groups informed about climate change threat and adaptation options
Design and implement a stakeholder awareness programme (Output 1.1), including a technical workshop for administrators, planners, government officials, politicians, land managers, and developers (Output 1.2). Hold a community workshop (Output 1.3) and develop a manual (Output 1.4) intended to bolster community involvement in reviewing Environmental Impact Assessments. Hold two vulnerability reduction assessments (Output 1.5). Produce a teacher’s guide, a student booklet, and teacher training workshop (Output 1.6), then design and site a wetland interpretation centre (Output 1.7). Ensure that adaptation to climate change is included in management planning for fish sanctuaries (Output 1.8), hold a climate change adapotation expo (Output 1.9) and establish C-CAM as first responder to disasters (Output 1.10).
Outcome 2: Five stakeholder groups involved in monitoring impacts of climate change
Purchase monitoring equipment (Output 2.1) and establish notice boards on three fishing beaches (Output 2.2). Hire and train nine community monitors (Output 2.3) to establish and operationalize a beach monitoring programme (Output 2.4). Map fish sanctuary benthos (Output 2.5) and implement photographic monitoring of terrestrial areas (Output 2.6) to complement a community reporting system (Output 2.7).
Outcome 3: Establish at least two demonstration activities involving stakeholders in minimizing climate change impacts
Pilot a rainwater harvesting demonstration (Output 3.1), hold a sustainable livelihoods entrepreneurship workshop (Output 3.2), and submit at least two follow-up proposals implementing community suggestions for adaptation projects (Output 3.3).
Monitoring and evaluation for community-based adaptation is a new field, and the CBA project is piloting innovative approaches to evaluating the success of locally-driven adaptation projects, and generating lessons to inform ongoing practice.
Key considerations in M&E for CBA include:
- Grounding M&E in the local context: M&E for CBA should avoid overly rigid frameworks, recognizing community heterogeneity and maintaining local relevance
- Capturing global lessons from local projects: CBA projects are highly contextualized, but lessons generated should be relevant to stakeholders globally
- Incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative indicators: to ground projects in tangible changes that can be objectively evaluated, and to capture lessons and case studies for global dissemination
To these ends, the CBA project uses three indicator systems: the Vulnerability Reduction Assessment, the Small Grants Programme Impact Assessment System, and the UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework.
The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment (VRA)
The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims:
- To make M&E responsive to community priorities
- To use M&E to make projects more accountable to local priorities
- To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge
- To gather community-level feedback to guide ongoing project management
- To generate qualitative information
- To capture lessons on specific issues within community-based adaptation
- To generate case studies highlighting adaptation projects
The VRA follows UNDP's Adaptation Policy Framework, and is measured in a series of meetings with local community stakeholders. In these meetings, locally-tailored questions based on standard VRA questions/indicators are posed, and the community assigns a numerical score on a 1-10 scale for each question. Progress is evaluated through changes in scores over the course of implementation, as well as through qualitative data collected in community discussions surrounding the exercise.
The SGP Impact Assessment System (IAS)
The CBA, being a project of the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation, aims to increase the resilience of ecosystems and communities to the impacts of climate change, generating global environmental benefits, and increasing their resilience in the face of climate change impacts. To this end, the CBA projects use the SGP's impact assessment system for monitoring achievements in GEF focal areas (focusing primarily on biodiversity and sustainable land management).
The IAS is composed of a number of quantitative indicators which track biophysical ecosystem indicators, as well as policy impact, capacity development and awareness-building.
UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Indicator Framework
CBA projects also track quantitative indicators from UNDP's adaptation indicator framework, corresponding to the thematic area on natural resources management. More information on UNDP's indicator framework can be found on the UNDP climate change adaptation monitoring and evaluation website.
* This description applies to all projects implemented through UNDP's Community-Based Adaptation programme. Specific details on this project's M&E will be included here as they become available. *
The interconnected coastal and marine environment of Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, and Cape Verde is a highly productive ecosystem of significant marine biological diversity. It also underpins a significant portion of livelihood opportunities of the coastal communities. However, several assessments based on country specific National Communications to the UNFCCC, the second assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as well as GEF-funded projects such as the African Process have concluded that widespread coastal erosion due to climate change is one of the most serious anticipated environmental problems facing the region.
This UNDP project, "Adaptation to Climate Change: Responding to Shoreline Change and its human dimensions in West Africa through integrated coastal area management" is implemented by the UNDP Country Office in Dakar and UNESCO/IOC. The project seeks to implement priority country-driven strategies to adapt to climate-induced coastline erosion within the framework of integrated coastal area management planning. Through a combination of demonstration projects, integration of climate change into coastal management policies, capacity building initiatives including training, stakeholder consultations, climate and coastline erosion monitoring mechanisms, as well as the promotion of regional cooperation, this project will bolster ecosystem resiliency to climate change along the Canary Current coastline.
Training & Tools
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Board Meeting Reports
The project understands the risks that climate change poses to conservation efforts intended to sustain fisheries. The specific actions that the project is undertaking includes: country-specific coastal erosion assessments, consultations with stakeholders to identify exitisting strategies and capacities to address the problem of erosion, the selection of promising strategies (and implemented at pilot test sites), to monitor the results, and to disseminate lessons learned. “Strategies” include both adaptation actions (e.g., mangrove reforestation) and capacity-buildling (e.g., awareness-raising). Findings from the pilot projects will be used to integrate climate change and adaptation issues into existing coastal management, to develop plans and policies that induce cooperation across sectors, to spur the creation or improvement of national policies that facilitate adaptation to climate change in coastal areas, to enhance regional cooperation in undertaking these challenges, and to establish a clearinghouse to store and disseminate lessons and best practices.
Other partner organizations (local, national and international):
- Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la Nature, Direction de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la Nature (Senegal)
- Ministère du Développement Rural et de l’Environnement, Direction de l’Environnement (Mauritanie)
- Ministerio dos Recursos Naturais, Direcçao Geral do Ambiente (Guinea Bissau)
- National Environment Agency (Gambia)
- Ministry of Environment and Agriculture, Direction Générale de l’Environnement (Cape Verde)
The overall objective of the Full Project is to mainstream adaptation to climate change into Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) planning in the participating countries through the development and implementation of pilot adaptation activities in response to shoreline change. This will involve the development of strategies, policies and measures, based on technical/scientific information and appropriate policy instruments. A major preliminary objective will therefore be to pilot adaptation activities in a local to sub-regional context. There is a strong rationale for addressing the issue of adaptation and shoreline change not only at the national level but also through the development of a regional approach.
The ACCC project which is about adaptation to climate change in coastal countries of West Africa started in November 2008 by the regional inception meeting. Since then the main achievements of the project were: the installation of the regional and national teams; the organization of national inception meetings in 4 countries; the organization of 3 regional training workshops, one on climate change and coastal zones and two on technical aspects of mangrove restoration and dune stabilization; the new web site was launched (www.accc-africa.org).
Climate change scenarios for the West African region include an anticipated increase in mean surface temperature of up to 0.5º C per decade, increased evapotranspiration, increased rainfall variability and intensity, accelerated sea level rise of around 1 m per century, any reduced coastal upwelling resulting from weakening of the Azores high and the trade winds, exacerbated by disruption from freshwater plumes of continental origin (for additional details, refer to Annex A3). The resultant shifts in the hydro-graphical and oceanic conditions due to climate change are likely to exacerbate coastal erosion and sedimentation problems in the West African region (Allersman and Tilsmans 1993 – quoted in Africa Environmental Outlook (2000).
As all five countries are within the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (and thereby aligned across an important environmental transition which is likely to be modified by sea level rise and climate change), a coastwise shift in climatic, hydro-graphical and oceanic conditions northward along the coast with global warming will be better identified and addressed by each of these countries if they understand features and processes in neighbouring state (as highlighted by Eric Bird during the STAP review of this proposal).
This project is designed to foster such a collaborative effort by implementing a series of activities that lead to the improvement in the adaptive capacity to climate change of sensitive coastline ecosystems in the five countries. At the heart of the project is a combination of community based demonstration projects and UNDP & UNESCO led support to facilitate and build capacity to foster national level integration of policies that promote adaptive capacity to climate change of coastline ecosystems.
Overall Project Objective: Develop and pilot a range of effective coping mechanisms for reducing the impact of climate change induced coastal erosion in vulnerable regions in five countries in West Africa.
- Outcome 1: Pilot activities to increase he adaptive capacity and resilience of coastal ecosystems in regions vulnerable to climate change impacts implemented
- Outcome 2: Climate change and adaptation issues and coastal area management policies and programmes integrated
- Outcome 3:Monitoring of coastal erosion and capacity building in coastal management and planning enhanced
- Outcome 4: Learning, Evaluation and Adaptative management increased
Project monitoring and evaluation wa conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures and will be provided by the project team and the UNDP Country Office (UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan provides for a series of linked activities, including annual Project Implementation Reviews (PIR), Tripartite Reviews, Quarterly Project Reports, Work Plans, and independent mid-term and final project Evaluations. A novel feature of the monitoring strategy is that it provides for Program level monitoring, to ensure that project synergies are being realized, and activities dovetailed as planned.
Project Inception Workshop: held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.
Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.
Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July). The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.
Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:
UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress. Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
Mid-Term of Project Cycle:
Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.
End of Project:
Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.
Learning and Knowledge Sharing:
Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums.
The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.