Health

Taxonomy Term List

Building Resilience of Health Systems in Pacific Island LDCs to Climate Change

The Pacific Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are among the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and change.  A common problem is the triple burden of communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, exacerbated by health impacts of climate change that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality.  

Working in Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu, the project, Building Resilience of Health Systems in Pacific Island LDCs to Climate Change, this UNDP and World Health Organization supported project will provide overall adaptation benefits through adjusting health systems and associated capacities of health professionals to incorporate climate risks and resilience into health practices. Coupled with enhancing the operation of information and early warning services, and the effectiveness of disease control practices, these efforts will serve to reduce climate-induced disruptions in the function of primary health care facilities. It is expected that these in turn will reduce the occurrence and intensity of climate-sensitive disease outbreaks and their associated effects on communities and individuals. 

The revision of health strategies will not only help to build national capacities for analyzing climate-induced risks to health and identifying adaptive preventive and curative measures, but it will also support review of operational aspects, such as institutional structures and capacities,  financial and budgetary planning processes for their implementation. The programmatic approach to address barriers of tackling burdens of communicable and non-communicable diseases, will build climate resilience in vulnerable populations and communities, and in the health systems in LDCs, to better manage the health risks of climate variability and change.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (159.25781246428 -8.2223638578622)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities living in Kiribati, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$17.2 million (GEF LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$76 million (co-financing)
Project Details: 


Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Outcomes:

  • 1. Governance of health system and institutional capacities strengthened by mainstreaming climate-related risk and resilience aspects into health policy frameworks
  • 2. Capacities of health system institutions and personnel strengthened in managing health information and weather/climate early warning systems
  • 3. Improved coverage and quality of health services addressing climate-related diseases, and reduced climate-induced disruptions in the function of health care facilities
  • 4. Enhanced south-south cooperation fostering knowledge exchange, the provision of technical assistance and scientific advisory, and the integration of national health policy frames and related adaptation plans with ongoing NAP-related processes
Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1. Governance of health system and institutional capacities strengthened by mainstreaming climate-related risk and resilience aspects into health policy frameworks

Outcome 2. Capacities of health system institutions and personnel strengthened in managing health information and weather/climate early warning systems

Outcome 3. Improved coverage and quality of health services addressing climate-related diseases, and reduced climate-induced disruptions in the function of health care facilities

Outcome 4. Enhanced south-south cooperation fostering knowledge exchange, the provision of technical assistance and scientific advisory, and the integration of national health policy frames and related adaptation plans with ongoing NAP-related processes

Civil Society Engagement: 


Enhancing Adaptive Capacities of Coastal Communities, especially Women, to Cope with Climate Change-Induced Salinity in Bangladesh

Lead by the Bangladesh Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, this project focuses on strengthening the adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women and adolescent girls, to cope with impacts of climate change-induced salinity on their livelihoods and water security.

The 6-year project (2018-2024) focuses on the Southwestern coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira, both of which frequently experience cyclones and tidal flooding and experience severe drinking water scarcity due to salinity.

Under the project, communities will be empowered as ‘change-agents’ to plan, implement, and manage resilient livelihoods and drinking water solutions.

The project will promote a paradigm shift away from a focus on short-term responses and technology-led interventions towards community-centric solutions that build ownership and capacities across multiple stakeholders, to sustain and scale-up adaptive responses to safeguard livelihoods and water security.

An estimated 719,229 people (about 245,516 directly and 473,713 indirectly) are set to benefit.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (91.40624997644 24.696934228745)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
An estimated 719,229 people (about 245,516 directly and 473,713 indirectly) are set to benefit from this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$32.98 million total financing. $24.98 million from Green Climate Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$8 million from the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs
Project Details: 

Under three inter-related outputs, the project will implement the following:

Output 1. Climate-resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities (responsible party for execution of the activities is DWA, department of Ministry of Women and Children Affairs)

Activity 1.1 Enterprise- and community-based implementation of climate-resilient livelihoods for women

Activity 1.2 Strengthened climate-resilient value-chains and market linkages for alternative, resilient livelihoods

Activity 1.3 Community-based monitoring and last-mile dissemination of early warnings for climate-risk informed, adaptive management of resilient livelihoods

Output 2. Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions (responsible party for execution of the activities is the Department of Public Health Engineering)

Activity 2.1 Participatory, site-specific mapping, beneficiary selection, and mobilization of community-based management structures for climate-resilient drinking water solutions

Activity 2.2 Implementation of climate-resilient drinking water solutions (at HH, community, and institutional scales)

Activity 2.3 Community-based, climate-risk informed Operation & Maintenance (O&M) and management of the resilient drinking water solutions

Output 3. Strengthened institutional capacities, knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security (responsible parties for execution of the activities are DWA and Department of Public Health Engineering)

Activity 3.1 Strengthen the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs’ technical and coordination capacities for design and implementation of gender-responsive, climate-resilient coastal livelihoods

Activity 3.2 Strengthen DPHE capacities for climate-risk informed innovation and management of drinking water solutions across the Southwest coast

Activity 3.3. Establish knowledge management, evidence-based learning, and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) mechanisms to promote long-term, adaptive capacities of coastal communities

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Overall, the project will benefit 719,229 direct and indirect beneficiaries in vulnerable coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira (about 16.25 per cent of the total population of the two districts) with 245,516 people directly benefiting from the project interventions in building resilience across water and livelihoods through household, community, government, and partner capacities.

The interventions will provide indirect benefits to 473,713 people to the nearby communities in the targeted Wards and other unions in the 5 Upazilas through integration of climate change concerns into planning and implementation of the mandated agencies as well as the pathways established for replication to other communities through knowledge and learning mechanisms.

The primary measurable benefits that will be realized include:

  • 25, 425 women will directly benefit from the interventions to switch to (or phase in) climate-resilient livelihoods with associated 500 people benefiting from capacity building and support to value-chain and market actors.
  • 245, 516 people will benefit from timely, gender-responsive early warning information and climate risk reduction strategies, facilitated through the women and girl volunteer groups established by the project at each of the targeted wards.
  • 68, 327 females and 67, 783 males  will benefit through year-round access to safe and reliable drinking water improving their health and safety, and significantly decreasing the unpaid time burden of women in regards of water collection and thereby creating opportunities for education and/or enhanced income generation.
  • 525 government staff will benefit from improved capacities for climate-risk informed planning and implementation of resilient solutions for water and livelihood security.
  • The project support to women groups for climate resilient livelihoods options in aquaculture and agriculture yields increased income benefits and enables participation in the formal economy, for a total expected increase in income of USD15 million (over the full life of the project). By providing an alternate higher quality source of water, salt intake by the population in the target communities will substantially decrease deaths and averting quality adjusted life years (the rainwater harvesting technologies have sufficient capacity to provide for basic drinking water needs even in times of low precipitation), for net benefits measuring US$4 million.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The annual report will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.

An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. 

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation arrangements will comply with the relevant GCF policies and Accreditation Master Agreement signed between GCF and UNDP.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Advisor - Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Regional Technical Advisor - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

'Bangladesh to empower women and girls in the face of increasing climate impacts' - UNDP Bangladesh, February 28 2018.  The world's largest multilateral fund for climate change action, the Green Climate Fund, has approved almost US$25 million in grant funding in support of Bangladesh’s efforts to build the adaptive capacities of vulnerable coastal communities. With a focus on women and adolescent girls, a new 6-year project is set to benefit 700,000 people living in disaster-prone southwestern districts.

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
Lead by the Bangladesh Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, this project focuses on strengthening the adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women and adolescent girls, to cope with impacts of climate change-induced salinity on their livelihoods and water security. The 6-year project (2018-2024) focuses on the Southwestern coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira, both of which frequently experience cyclones and tidal flooding and experience severe drinking water scarcity due to salinity. Under the project, communities will be empowered as ‘change-agents’ to plan, implement, and manage resilient livelihoods and drinking water solutions.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Climate resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities

Output 2: Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions

Output 3: Strengthened institutional capacities knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2024
Civil Society Engagement: 

The project was designed through extensive stakeholder consultations, including with civil society, bi-lateral donors, and communities and contributes towards the Government of Bangladesh's priorities outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change strategies.

Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) were consulted with the objective of gathering feedback, particularly on gender considerations and gender empowerment strategies in Bangladesh, as well as on the full design of the project and the proposed activities, including the exit strategy.

 

Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change

Climate change brings with it serious risks to public health, particularly in Asia.  While heat waves are expected to increase morbidity and mortality in vulnerable groups, altered rain patterns and water flows will impact crop production and thus increase malnutrition.  At the same time, changes in air and water temperatures, as well as increased incidence of extreme events, will affect transmission of infections diseases.  Those in low-lying coastal zones and flood plains are particularly at risk. 

The problems are exacerbated in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), where adaptive capacity and economic vulnerability limit adequate preparation for the impacts of climate change on health. 

The Building Resilience of Health Systems in Asian Least Developed Countries to Climate Change project will support Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste by:

  • strengthening institutional capacity to integrate climate risks and adaptation into health sector planning
  • improving surveillance and/or early warning systems for effective decision-making
  • enhancing health sector service delivery
  • supporting regional cooperation and knowledge sharing to promote up-scaling and replication of best practices
  • and integrating health into the National Adaptation Plan process

This project will be implemented in partnership with the World Health Organization and is funded by the Least Developed Countries Fund.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 
In Asia, the least developed countries (LDCs) of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar, Nepal, and Timor-Leste, have limited technical capacity of health care systems and personnel to effectively integrate climate-related risks into policy, planning, and regulatory frames, and into interventions to control the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes. 
 
Existing climate early warning systems managed by national meteorological organizations lack systematic coverage of observational data from regions and areas of the countries with high risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes. 
 
Climate information services are not adequately tailored to the needs of public health professionals.  
 
Primary health care facilities are ill-equipped to prepare for and respond to extreme weather and climate events, lacking information and cost-effective methods and technologies to provide adequate water and sanitiation services during extreme events. 
 
Recognizing these challenges, the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) of the above-mentioned countries prioritize adaptation to the health risks of climate variability and change. 
 
Designed in consultation with stakeholders, this project will increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks, through the following complementary outcomes: 
 
• Outcome 1: Institutional capacities are strengthened to effectively integrate climate risks and adaptation options in health sector planning and implementation 
• Outcome 2: Effective decision-making for health interventions is enabled through generation of information and improved surveillance and/or early warning systems
• Outcome 3: Climate resilience is enhanced in health service delivery
• Outcome 4.1: Enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge exchange for promoting scale-up and replication of interventions 
• Outcome 4.2: HNAP are effectively integrated into ongoing NAP processes 
 
The regional approach of the project will ensure partnerships across countries are developed and the regional-level systematization of lessons and best practices are documented and assessed to develop technical guidelines, manuals and tool-kits – thereby ensuring that these can be replicated and scaled-up across the region. 
 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
The objective of this project is to increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-national level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks in six Asian Least Developed Countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste).
 
This will be achieved through interventions and policy-level actions, under five outcomes. The project will be overseen by UNDP with project components implemented by the World Health Organization and UNDP, in cooperation with Ministries of Health.
 
Outcome 1: Institutional capacities are strengthened to effectively integrate climate risks and adaptation options in health sector planning and implementation
 
• 1.1 Integrated health national adaptation plan (H-NAP) is designed/updated to achieve the national health adaptation goals
• 1.2 Standard operating procedures developed for managing climate-sensitive health outcomes
• 1.3 Capacity building to support the implementation of standard operating procedures
 
Outcome 2: Effective decision-making for health interventions is enabled through generation of information and improved surveillance and/or early warning systems   
 
• Output 2.1 Vulnerability assessment conducted for future health burdens considering development and climate change 
• Output 2.2 Integrated surveillance system strengthened of climate-sensitive health outcomes
• Output 2.3 Early warning system and response strengthened 
 
Outcome 3: Climate resilience is enhanced in health service delivery 
 
• Output 3.1 Health care infrastructure strengthened to the impacts of climate change
• Output 3.2 Capacity of health personnel improved to identify and treat to climate-sensitive health issues 
• Output 3.3 Climate-sensitive disease control/water programmes strengthened
 
Outcome 4.1: Enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge exchange for promoting scale-up and replication of interventions
 
• Activity 4.1.1 Regional experiences synthesized and shared among countries in the region and across different regions;
• Activity 4.1.2 Definition of normative aspects related to climate-resilient health systems by developing regional-level guidelines, manuals, and other relevant technical documents (e.g. climate-resilient health care facilities (CR-HCFs) and climate resilient Water Safety Plans (CR-WSPs), as required by countries;
• Activity 4.1.3 Regional capacity-building events for different topics (on policy, science and implementation of interventions) and conferences;
• Activity 4.1.4 Systematization of regional experiences and promotion of North-South and South-South cooperation and knowledge exchange (which may include virtual communities of practice and platforms)
 
Outcome 4.2: Health National Adaptation Processes are effectively integrated into ongoing National Adaptation Plan processes
 
• Activity 4.2.1 Training and technical support for Ministries of Health to conduct economic analyses to inform integration of health into adaptation planning and budgeting.
• Activity 4.2.2 Training and tech support for designing/developing bankable projects to secure public or other finance
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
The project will be monitored through the following M&E activities:
 
Project start
 
A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first two months of project start after the project document has been signed by all relevant parties.
 
The inception Workshop addresses a number of key issues including:
• Re-orienting project stakeholders to the project strategy and discussing any changes in the overall context that influence project strategy and implementation;
• Discussing the roles and responsibilities of the project team, including reporting and communication lines and conflict resolution mechanisms; 
• Reviewing the project results framework and finalizing the indicators, means of verification and monitoring plan; 
• Discussing reporting, monitoring and evaluation roles and finalizing the M&E budget; identifying national/regional institutes to be involved in project-level M&E; discussing the role of the GEF OFP in M&E;
• Updating and reviewing responsibilities for monitoring the various project plans and strategies, including the risk log; knowledge management strategy, and other relevant strategies;
• Reviewing financial reporting procedures and mandatory requirements, and agreeing on the arrangements for audits 
• Planing and scheduling Project Board meeting and finalizing first year annual work plan
 
An Inception Workshop report is a key reference document and must be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements and plans decided during the meeting. 
 
Quarterly reports
 
Project Progress Reports (PPR) quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. The risk log will be regularly updated.
 
Annually reports
 
An annual Project Implementation Report (PIR) will prepared to monitor progress made since project start, and in particular for the previous reporting period (July to June). The PIR submitted to the GEF will be shared with the Project Board. UNDP-GEF and WHO will coordinate the input of the GEF OFP and other stakeholders to the PIR as appropriate.  The quality rating of the previous year’s PIR will be used to inform the preparation of subsequent PIR. Portfolio level indicators (i.e. GEF focal area tracking tools) are used by most focal areas on an annual basis as well. 
 
Periodic Monitoring through site visits will be conducted, based on the agreed schedule in the Project Inception Report and Annual Work Plan to assess first-hand project progress. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared and circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
 
Mid-term evaluation of project cycle
 
An independent Mid-Term Evaluation of the project will be conducted after completion of the first two years. The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  
 
End of project evaluation
 
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place upon completion of all major project ouputs and activities.  The terminal evaluation process will begin three months before operational closure of the project allowing the evaluation mission to proceed while the project team to reach conclusions on key aspects such as project sustainability.  The project manager will remain on contract until the TE report and management response have been finalized.  The terms of reference, the evaluation process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance prepared by UNDP IEO for GEF-financed projects available at the UNDP Evaluation Resource Center.  As noted in this guidance, the evaluation will be “independent, impartial and rigorous”.  The consultants that will be hired to undertake the assignment will be independent from organizations involved in designing, executing or advising on the project to be evaluated.  The GEF Operational Focal Point and other stakeholders will be involved and consulted during the terminal evaluation process.  Additional quality assurance support is available from the UNDP-GEF Directorate.  The final TE report will be cleared by the UNDP-GEF Regional Technical Advisor, and will be approved by the Project Board.  The TE report will be publicly available in English and the corresponding management response to the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC).  Once uploaded to the ERC, the UNDP IEO will undertake a quality assessment and validate the findings and ratings in the TE report, and rate the quality of the TE report.  The UNDP IEO assessment report will be sent to the GEF IEO along with the project terminal evaluation report.   
 
Project Terminal Report
 
The project’s terminal PIR along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package.  The final project report package shall be discussed with the Project Board during an end-of-project review meeting to discuss lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.
 
Learning and knowledge sharing
 
Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project.  The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects and disseminate these lessons widely.  There will be continuous information exchange between this project and other projects of similar focus in the same countries, region and globally.
 
A detailed plan for disseminating results will be developed within the first 2 months of project implementation, in consultation with relevant parties including the project management unit of UNDP’s Adaptation Learning Mechanism.
 
There will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. This will be supported by knowledge management activities in Outcome 4.1, including the development and sharing of case studies, national and regional seminars/workshops and exchange visits, and information exchange via a project website and national/regional level workshops. 
 
Auditing
 
The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies for agency-implemented projects.
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Ms. Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Adaptation
Ms. Mari Tomova
Regional Technical Advisor, Climate Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

The objective of this project is to increase the adaptive capacity of national health systems and institutions, and sub-national level actors, to respond to and manage long-term climate-sensitive health risks in six Asian Least Developed Countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal and Timor-Leste).

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2022

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Uzbekistan

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Uzbekistan" is working to pilot adaptation measures in Tashkent and Syrdarya provinces. These efforts are working to increase the adaptation capacity of health care system in the provinces to cope with climate induced diseases.

More specifically, the Uzbekistan project aims to reduce negative impacts of climatic drivers by equipping health care personnel and the wider population with essential tools and knowledge to prevent detrimental effects of climate on human health. Effective prevention will be monitored through the reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality of acute intestinal, cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases induced by climatic factors.

Uzbekistan is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments) and their related health risks.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (69.2552459245 41.3361191504)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large. In specific, the project is focused on piloting adaptation measures in two provinces: Tashkent and Syr-Darya.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Uzbekistan Project Objective

To pilot adaptation measures in Tashkent and Syrdarya provinces that will increase adaptation capacity of health care system in these provinces to cope with climate induced diseases.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Uzbekistan will have significant health affects caused by climate change and rising temperatures. Most of the health problems are related to water and its availability. Water Borne diseases play a major role in Uzbekistan's health issues. More than 30% of household's nationwide lack quality drinking water and over 1000 settlements have no potable water at all. The water quality is poor with microbial and chemical pollution due to insufficient infrastructure to treat waste water and purify drinking water. Bacterial pollution increases in warmer temperatures and is reflected in the number of cases of intestinal diseases during summer.

As an example, bacterial dysentery increases by a factor of 3 in the summer. Dust storms are a particular problem for Uzbekistan and water shortages and increasing aridity caused by climate change coupled with land degradation problems have aggravated the desertification processes. As a major consequence, this has resulted in an increased number of dust storm events. Excessive exposure to dust constitutes a major health risk for many parts of the country already. For instance, Karakalpakstan exceeds the maximum safe threshold of the concentration of total suspension particles (TSP) by more than a factor of 2.  Winds transport the sand particles for long distances extending the geographic boundaries affected by this phenomenon and over 5.5 million people have become increasingly affected by the dust storms.

Results and Learning

The project aims to reduce negative impacts of climatic drivers on health by equipping health care personnel and the wider population with essential tools and knowledge to prevent the detrimental effects of climate on human health. The effective prevention will be monitored through the reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality of acute intestinal, cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases induced by climatic factors. It will achieve this by addressing the following barriers:

  • Knowledge - Health care system personnel are not fully aware of the relationship between climate change and variability and health impacts. There has been no specific training of the personnel in regard to adaptation to climate change and mitigating its negative health impacts.
  • Capacity - The level of knowledge and skills to prevent diseases connected with climatic factors are also limited among the general population.
  • Monitoring and surveillance - The climate and health monitoring and surveillance systems are not conducted at the right geographical and temporal scale that would allow observations of trends and make advance forecasts to direct interventions against climate sensitive diseases.
  • Research - No mechanisms currently exist to give early warning to the health system and undertake preventive measures. No research is currently conducted to observe the trends and the health system does not have clearly developed indicators that would give a chance to react. Thus no early warning system has been developed. 
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit expected from this project is the reduced number of acute intestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that are induced by climate change. Other benefits include:

  • Improved general health of the national population and through this will contribute to the human development in Uzbekistan.
  • Increased knowledge and skills to monitor variations in climate and make preventive steps in order to minimize possible detrimental effects on human health.
  • The public will have enhanced knowledge on how to protect themselves against diseases that can be triggered by climate factors.
  • People would be equipped with the concrete instruments to cope with climate variability and change.
  • The Government will benefit from healthier and more economically active population and fewer social payments to disabled (sick) people.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: An early warning system that provides reliable information on likely incidence of climate-sensitive health risks established

  1. Cooperation agreement on information flow sharing between governmental agencies is reached.
  2. Computer-based information system established to share climate change and health information to Government decision makers in the two pilot states.
  3. An early warning system of potential health impacts of climate events on vulnerable groups will be designed and tested.
  4. Contingency plans for health care system developed in the event of adverse climate variation.

Outcome 2: Skills and knowledge of health care personnel to cope with climate sensitive diseases enhanced and awareness of the population to take self-preventive measures for climate-induced diseases are increased

  1. Capacity building training programs for medical personnel and primary care workers on the relationship between diseases and climate developed and introduced.
  2. Increased awareness raising to the local population in the health risks associated with climate change and how to take self-preventive measures against climate sensitive diseases.

Outcome  3: Action plans to address climate sensitive diseases successfully implemented within the 2 study provinces

  1. Intervention plans for climate-sensitive health outcomes implemented within the study regions.
  2. Effectiveness of interventions will be monitored.

 

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project coordination

Project activities will be executed following established UNDP national execution modality (NEF). The Ministry of Health will act as the Executing Agency (EA) for the project and will be executing the project in cooperation with WHO and UNDP-GEF. The project will establish a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) which will consist of the Project Manager (PM), and an administrative/finance assistant. National consultants will be recruited upon necessity according to an established plan of activities developed by the PM.

Contacts: 
Natalia Sharipova
Ministry of Health
WHO
Dr Michel Louis Marie Tailhades
Head of WHO Country Office
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department WHO
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya" is working to strengthen national focus and adaptive capacity to prevent epidemic highland malaria.

The Kenya project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas.

Kenya is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.2868011226 -0.367682342201)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large. Specifically, the beneficiaries of this project are the communities in the highlands of Kenya: Kericho zone, Nandi zone, Trans-nzoia zone and Kisii zone.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Project scope

The pilot project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas. A model for predicting highland malaria was developed in 2006 and validated with previously observed malaria epidemics. It indicated a very high utility in predicting malaria epidemics three months in advance at areas higher than 1800 m. This project aims to take the model to the next step by operationally validating it and developing better tools for malaria forecasting to support decision-making on public health interventions that help prevent epidemics. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity development will the specifically targeted in the project:

  • Improved use of weather forecasting - Forecasting through global weather networks can provide the data needed to predict malaria epidemics. Currently there is limited access to short-term and long-term health specific weather information at the community, district and national levels.
  • Improved disease prediction capacity - The development of an Early Warning System will significantly improve preparedness for malaria epidemics, despite current deficiencies in the quality of routinely collected health data.
  • Improved epidemic preparedness, and disease detection - Districts have the capacity to develop plans for epidemic preparedness and response, however timely availability of the required resources has been a challenge. Most districts have adequate data to calculate threshold levels for existing epidemic detection only.
  • Improved outbreak response - Many barriers to effective response currently exist and will be addressed in the project.

Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Malaria has always existed in Kenya, however in the past, the higher altitudes of the highlands region limited highland malaria transmission to seasonal outbreaks, with considerable year-to-year variation.

Climate change is projected to make malaria control more difficult in many areas of Kenya.  In areas where malaria already occurs, transmission intensity is expected to increase along with the length of the transmission season. It is also expected that malaria will spread into new locations, particularly the higher altitudes of the highlands, where its prevalence is not currently actively monitored or forecasted. Communities living at altitudes above 1,100 meters are more vulnerable to malaria epidemics due to lack of immunity, lack of preparedness, climate variability and other factors.

Approximately 13 to 20 million Kenyans are at risk of malaria, with the percentage at risk increasing as climate change facilitates the movement of the malaria vector up the highlands.

Studies into the affect of climate change on health in Kenya also reported increases in acute respiratory infections for ASAL areas; emergence and re-emergence of Rift Valley fever; leishmaniasis and malnutrition.  Floods, occasional outbreaks of waterborne diseases e.g. cholera, dysentery and typhoid have been reported in lowland areas.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit envisioned to arise from this project is the reduction in the burden of highland malaria epidemics. Additional benefits include:

  • Increased capacity of health actors to climate sensitive diseases.
  • Harmonized management structures across all provisions provided by the Annual Operational Plans (AOPs)
  • Additional Implementation of malaria epidemic prevention measures through the National Malaria Strategy.
  • Strengthening partnerships, including: meteorological department provision of forecasting data to the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI).
  • Improved interactions between health officers and stakeholders and sharing of resources and reduction in duplication of tasks within a district.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: Climate-sensitive health risks are identified with sufficient lead-time for effective response

  1. Climate-sensitive health risk data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  2. Climate data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  3. Climate change-induced changes and drivers of health-risks are determined.

Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate-sensitive health risks will be improved

  1. Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public health.
  2. Training syllabus and long-term support mechanisms for community and national level health  protection from climate change developed.

Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change

  1. Advance planning of responses for pilot regions.
  2. Preventative interventions applied on the basis of plan, in response to warning system information.

 

 

Contacts: 
WHO
Solomon Nzioka
WHO Country Contact
WHO
Wilfred Ndegwa
WHO Country Contact
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Jordan

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Jordan" is working to increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change.

The Jordan project will focus on; (i) strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, (ii) development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and (iii) increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.

Jordan is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (35.9007628998 31.9791810374)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Jordan Project Objective

To increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change in Jordan.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Jordan is ranked among the poorest countries in the world in terms of water availability. Resources are already seriously limited and are far below under the water poverty line of (1000) m3 per capita per year. The threat of climate change will increase water scarcity. The lack of water and secondary effects of these changes are considered as the highest priority threat to health in Jordan.

Water scarcity will have a direct impact on the health of Jordanians. In 2005, a WHO/UNEP project determining minimum water requirements for health in Jordan showed a linkage between the per capita water consumption and the incidences of diarrhoea.

Due to the serious vulnerabilities of water scarcity, the national Government has prioritized the use of clean water for domestic supply. This should avoid much of the direct health risks from water scarcity: However, the proposed increase in use of wastewater reuse as an alternative water supply could raise a series of health risks.  Unless adequately managed, both untreated and to a lesser extent treated wastewater poses significant risks to health.

Increasing use of wastewater in agriculture, driven by climate change, will therefore increase the potential of intestinal diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals for farmers, consumers, and neighbouring communities.

Expected Benefits

The greatest benefit expected from this project is the elevated level of national preparedness and adaptation to protect human health from a key risk associated with climate change and variability. Other expected benefits include:

  • Enhanced coordination and cooperation among different governmental and non-governmental organization concerned with climate change adaptation  to protect human health.
  • Increased awareness and strengthened institutional capacity to address other health risks from climate change within Jordan.
  • All areas where wastewater reuse is practiced will have a safer and healthier environment and the health conditions of farmers and farm workers will also be improved.
  • Economic benefits will be attained on both national and local levels through fresh water savings and higher value of safer agricultural products.

Results and Learning:

This project will focus on; (i) strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, (ii) development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and (iii) increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.  To achieve this goal, several adaptive capacity issues will be addressed:

  • Standards and criteria - The use of treated water in agriculture and points of monitoring treated wastewater effluent is currently unregulated there is also no reuse criteria related to hygiene, public health and quality control or  irrigation techniques, degree of wastewater treatment, and choice of areas and types of crops to be irrigated.
  • Monitoring - The lack of efficient control and monitoring on safe practices of wastewater reuse in agriculture.
  • Capacity - The lack of trained personnel both in the competent authorities and the treatment plants.
  • Communication - The low level of awareness of the farmers and the public at large and the lack of communication and information dissemination between different parties involved.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: A comprehensive and integrated monitoring and surveillance systems for wastewater reuse activities is in place.

  • Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems of quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture are improved.
  • Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems for food safety are improved.
  • Heath and epidemiological surveillance programs provide reliable data on wastewater-related diseases, linked to water and food quality monitoring.
  • Social acceptance of agricultural products irrigated by treated wastewater is increased.

Outcome 2: Regulatory and institutional frameworks for management of health risks associated with increased wastewater reuse in unrestricted agriculture are improved and implemented.

  • National health guidelines or standards for safe wastewater reuse are developed and promoted.
  • Institutional responsibilities to operationalize the national health guidelines for safe wastewater re-use are defined.
  • A legislative tool to define institutional responsibilities for different components of the system is issued.
  • Institutional capacity needed to execute the system is established.

Outcome 3: Health protection measures for safe wastewater reuse are defined and implemented in X pilot sites.

  • A manual and operating procedure on health protection measures for all vulnerable groups (farmers, nearby communities, and consumers) is developed.
  • Operational wastewater reuse safety plan, applying the provisions of the national guidelines on safe wastewater reuse, is developed and implemented at 10 selected sites.
  • The manual and lessons learnt from applying the safety plan at the site are disseminated.
  • A mechanism for implementation of the needed safety plan at all farms using treated wastewater is established and enforced.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project coordination

The project will be implemented in close co-operation and coordination with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) and Ministry of Environment (MoE). The Executing Agency of the project will be the Government of Jordan, MWI. The National Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the project will be the Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee (ISC). The ISC includes representatives from the MoH, MWI, Ministry of Planning, MoE, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Meteorology, a representative from CEHA/ WHO, a representative from UNDP/GEF, and representatives from major NGOs.

Contacts: 
WHO
Basel Al Yousfi
Director CEHA
WHO
Mazen Malkawi
Technical Officer CEHA
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Fiji

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Fiji" is working to increase the adaptive capacity of the health sector to respond to climate sensitive risks.

The Fiji project has been designed to increase the Ministry of Health’s capacity to monitor, assess and respond to hydro-meteorological disasters (HMDs) and Climate Sensitive Diseases (CSDs) and thus reduce health risks associated with climate change and variability.

Fiji is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (178.187991157 -17.7989190171)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities living on Fiji’s inhabited islands
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Fiji Project Objective

To increase the adaptive capacity of the health sector to respond to climate sensitive risks.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Fiji has conducted a study looking at which afflictions have a clear link with climate change. Dengue fever, diarrhoeal diseases (food and water borne) and nutrition-related illnesses were all shown to be linked to climate and have the potential to worsen with increasing climate change and variability.

Climate change (and the associated temperature rise) will impact dengue-fever by increasing the frequency of epidemics, as well as the possibility that a larger proportion of the population will be affected by each epidemic. With severe climate change there is even a chance that dengue will become endemic rather than occur in isolated epidemics. Improper water storage practices in water stricken areas have also been associated with an increase in mosquito breeding sites and the risk for related diseases.

Diarrhoeal disease may become more common if Fiji becomes warmer and wetter and if droughts and tropical cyclones occur more frequently, disrupting water supplies and sanitation systems.

Nutrition-related illnesses are most likely to be affected by increases in frequency and/or magnitude of tropical cyclone and drought events. Further, it is also likely that if climate change leads to economic and social disruption and environmental degradation, disadvantageous effects on health may be serious.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The greatest national health benefit of the proposed project is having a functional Health Information System that is capable of generating Early Warning Systems for Climate Sensitive Diseases. Other linked benefits include:

  • Enabling field practitioners carry out required interventions as per requirement of EWARS Guidelines, the Psychosocial Intervention Guidelines.
  • Creating awareness amongst communities hence having communities that are more resilient to climate change and variability.
  • Strengthening both inter disciplinary collaboration and communication within all levels the Ministry of Health.
  • Strengthening inter sectoral collaboration at all levels with other key government agencies such as the Fiji Meteorological Service, the National Disaster Management Office.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: An early warning system providing reliable information on likely incidence of climate sensitive health risks.

  1. Climate sensitive health risks/CSD reporting system with prediction modeling.
  2. Institutional strengthening of health and key multisectoral partners in data management across sectors.
  3. Timely dissemination of data and advocacy.
  4. Information systems supporting integrated assessments of climate change and risks in management and long term health planning.

Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate sensitive health risks based on early warning systems improved.

  1. Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public  health.
  2. Health professionals in selected pilot regions have the capacity to respond to climate  sensitive health risks based  on early warning systems.
  3. Health professional in selected pilot regions have the capacity to effectively respond to HMDs and CSDs with specific attention on psychosocial intervention.

Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change

  1. Community members are aware of climate change on their community and take actions to make adaptations to minimize potential health risks.
  2. Community members are aware of CSDs, what to do when symptoms develop and how to take preventative  measures to avoid them.
  3. Community members are aware of the effects of climate change on their community and take actions to make adaptation to minimize potential risks.
  4. Detailed Communication Plans in place (for Outcomes 1-3).

 

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Results and Learning:

This project has been designed to increase the Ministry of Health’s capacity to monitor, assess and respond to hydro-meteorological disasters (HMDs) and Climate Sensitive Diseases (CSDs) and thus reduce health risks associated with climate change and variability.  In order to be able to achieve this goal, several specific needs have been identified:

  • Mainstreaming and planning - Climate Sensitive Diseases need to be incorporated in the Strategic Planning stages of the Ministry of Health and specifically reflected in the National Health Outcomes as well as the Disaster Preparedness Plans and the National Contingency Plans for Drought and Floods.
  • Evaluation - National policies and plans have to be evaluated with specific attention to Watershed and Water Resource Management.
  • Assessments - Incorporation of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (E&HIA) as an integral part of new land and infrastructure development approval, so as to address potential health issues, including those associated with climate change.
  • Response - Intensifying surveillance and response programmes for CSDs during HMDs and other disasters, and enhancing rapid and effective response, with specific attention to psychosocial intervention.
Contacts: 
Ministry of Health
Dr Salanieta Saketa
Permanent Secretary Ministry of Health (Chair) Jyotishma Naicker
Mr Steven Iddings
WPRO WHO Representative a.i.
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department WHO
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in China

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in China" is working to strengthen the national capacity to respond to the increased health risks due to heat waves in China.

The project will focus on reducing the impacts of climate change on cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the three project cities through the implementation of heat wave forecasting and early warning systems designed to protect human health.

China is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (126.645272745 45.7532092901)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Local governments, including health, meteorological, education, transportation, finance departments and the individuals in the pilot communities (i.e. three large cities in China, each with a population over 6 million: Harbin, Nanjing, Guangzhou).
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

China's Project Objective

To strengthen the national capacity to respond to the increased health risks due to heat waves in China.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

China, with its fragile ecological environment, is vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. In recent years, China has experienced more frequent and higher intensity extreme weather events. Floods, heat waves, freezing rain, snow weather etc which were once rare now happen on a regular basis causing great harm to health and society. The largest impact on health from climate change in China is heat; particularly in urban environments which can change the incidence and mortality of heat or cold related disease.

China experienced extremely hot summers in 1988, 1990, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2002 to 2008, resulting in thousands of excessive deaths. Mortality was particularly high among those 60 years of age and older, and heat waves present serious risks to infants. It is estimated that the number of deaths caused by the recorded heat waves is 2-3 times above normal summer periods. These deaths could be greatly reduced with an early warning system in place.  Heat waves can also increase the morbidity and mortality due to cerebro-cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases.

Cerebro-cardiovascular diseases already have a huge impact in China, with the country having the highest morbidity of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the world. 45% of all deaths in China, is due to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. The health care cost and labour force loss from cerebro-cardiovascular diseases is more than US$2,500 million per year.  This burden will only increase with climate change and rising temperatures.

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit of implementing effective adaptive measures will be the reduction of the incidence and mortality of the cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people's quality of life and greatly reducing the social-economic burden.
Other benefits include:

  • Facilitating the harmonization of health issues with economic development.
  • Strengthening health education and training on the impacts of climatic change on the environment and human health.
  • Increase awareness of the potential impacts climatic change across various media.

Results and Learning:

The project will focus on reducing the impacts of climate change on cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the three project cities through the implementation of heat wave forecasting and early warning systems designed to protect human health. The project will do this with a focus on the following capacity development:

  • Data collection - Additional data collection and research is needed to quantify the health risks of climate change and to identify effective and efficient adaptation options.
  • Data sharing - There are still some gaps in data sharing among environmental, meteorological and health agencies. Therefore a scientific research database will be created using national and international meteorological and disease data; this database will provide accurate, prompt, and authoritative disease monitoring and will produce products relevant for disease prevention.
  • Communication and Cooperation - The project will strengthen communication between decision-makers and the public health system. It also will encourage and support Chinese scientists to participate in the international activities to reduce the health impacts of climate change.
  • Public awareness - There is limited public knowledge of the health impacts of climate change and the actions individuals should take to protect themselves, particularly during heat waves.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: An early warning system is established for impending heat waves to protect people at risk of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases.

  • Establishment of a multi-sectoral cooperation mechanism of health sector, meteorological bureau and environmental protection bureau.
  • Collection and analysis of information on the relationship between meteorological and health data to establish a model to forecast health risks for vulnerable groups.
  • Design of a system for “early forecast, early prevention and early treatment”, providing graded forecasts of the severity of health risks in the project community.

Outcome 2: Systemic and institutional capacity of health sector will be improved to respond to climate-sensitive health risks.

  • Setting up a steering committee for actions during heat waves, and implementing resource sharing, information and skill exchange.
  • Community medical consulting personnel trained with respect to health risks during climate extremes, necessary health consultations and services, and self-protection measures.

Outcome 3: Improve the adaptation capacities and emergency medical plans implemented for cases of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases during heat waves.

  • Emergency plan and support system established for high risk people in the project sites.
  • Public awareness raised through a coordinated media campaign, including videocasts with health education lectures, and regular update of health education and consulting services in communities and schools.
  • Communication and education provided to Government and other decision makers on health risks associated with extreme heat, and effective behavioural responses.
  • Strengthened bilateral and multilateral cooperation through the participation and communication of decision-makers, government officers and researchers in international exchange.

 

Contacts: 
WHO
Mr Mao Jixiang
WHO Country Contact
Ministry of Health P.R. China
Mr. Zhao Yuechao
Deputy Director Division of Environmental Health
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department WHO
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Bhutan

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Bhutan" is working to strengthen national capacity to identify and prevent adverse climate change related health outcomes.

This pilot project will provide better information and surveillance of climate change related health risks in Bhutan. Improved data collection will allow the country to monitor and receive early warnings and thus the opportunity to prepare and respond to potential health risks. The project will also provide training and development of tools for health providers to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission of vector borne diseases, extreme weather events and other health issues.

Bhutan is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.7350463644 27.4744753599)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Bhutan suffers from high rates of a series of climate-sensitive health burdens.  Projected temperature rise (higher in mountainous areas than elsewhere in the world) is likely to increase the probability of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF); increases in the geographic range and incidence of vector-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue; and increase in the incidence of water borne diseases. With an estimated 2,674 glacial lakes in Bhutan, and 24 considered potentially dangerous, GLOF’s represent a major climate change concern in the country. Major incidents of glacial lake outbursts have been documented 1957, 1960, and 1994.  Flash floods and landslides are also common during the monsoon period of June to August.

Vector Borne diseases are becoming more prevalent in Bhutan due to the increasing temperatures. Two types of malaria are prevalent in Bhutan: the more severe Plasmodium falciparum (30-60% of cases) and Plasmodium vivax with over 50% of the population residing in malarial areas.  Dengue is an emerging infectious disease in Bhutan.  Dengue was first documented in Bhutan in 2004 and is now endemic during the monsoon period.

Diarrhoeal diseases represent a significant cause of morbidity in Bhutan for the last decade and contribute to about 10-15 % of the morbidity cases.  Climate change has also influenced water resources due to drying up of water sources or contamination due to flooding, increasing incidences of diarrhoeal disease.

Results and Learning:

This pilot project will provide better information and surveillance of climate change related health risks in Bhutan. Improved data collection will allow the country to monitor and receive early warnings and thus the opportunity to prepare and respond to potential health risks.  The project will also provide training and development of tools for health providers to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission of vector borne diseases, extreme weather events and other health issues. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity have been identified to be particularly targeted by the project:

  • Metrological and surveillance data - Bhutan has very limited metrological data and sparsely located metrological stations. There is also very limited surveillance for climate-sensitive health outcomes, resulting in insufficient data and lack of awareness of the possible health impacts of climate change across all government sectors including health.
  • Resources - There is a lack of sufficient national capacity in terms of human and financial resources for incorporating climate change risks into all levels of health activities.
  • Climate change mainstreamed - National Programs dealing with the climate sensitive diseases like the National Vector borne Disease Control Program (VDCP), ARI and Diarrhoeal Disease programs, Water and Sanitation programs do not currently take climate change into account.
  • Improved coordination - A new Environmental Health program has been formed in the Ministry of Health to coordinate and take through the climate and health initiatives.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large.
Additional benefits include:

  • Helping to plan and sustain the Vector borne Disease Control Program take into consideration the impact of climate change on the increase of malaria, DHF and vector diseases in the country.
  • Contribute towards improvement in rural water quality and community sanitation.
  • Help create awareness on the health impacts of climate change.
  • Improved rural water quality and community sanitation.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: Risk Assessment and integrated surveillance enhanced for effective management of climate sensitive health risks.

  • Vulnerability and impact assessment determines high-risk areas and populations, and establishes the disease burden (baseline) of climate sensitive diseases.
  • Integrated surveillance and alert network system piloted across high-risk (riverine and highland) areas to monitor and provide early detection of changes in climate sensitive diseases and health risks.

Outcome 2: Community and health sector institutions have improved capacity to respond to climate-sensitive health risks.

  • Professional skills and health system strengthen in areas identified to have higher risks of extreme weather events or disasters, and epidemic diseases by providing training, capacity building and institutional support.
  • Strengthened awareness of climate relevance to health amongst national policy makers, and improved multi-sector health coordination improves effectiveness of prevention, monitoring and management of health risks.
  • Increased community awareness, capacity and empowerment helps communities prepare for and cope with increased stresses on the community posed by climate change or emergencies.

Outcome 3: Emergency preparedness and disease prevention measures implemented in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change.

  • Implementation of Health sector Emergency Contingency Plan.
  • Scale up and targeting of community level interventions for control of water and vector borne diseases, mental health and nutritional issues.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project coordination

The Environmental Health Unit (EHU), Department of Public Health (DoPH), and Ministry of Health (MoH) will be the principal executing agencies for the PDF-B phase of the project. The EHU will be the central coordinating body which is responsible for implementation, liaising with other units, sections and programs, as well as for timely reporting, monitoring and evaluation of the project. A Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be created in order to advise the Environmental Health Unit team, Department of Public Health. The PSC includes several Government Ministries as well as WHO and UNDP.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Rada Dukpa
Department of Public Health Ministry of Health Thimphu BHUTAN
WHO
Thinlay Dorji
WHO In-Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Barbados

This project will include two areas of action. The first will use treated wastewater to recharge an aquifer, while minimizing health impacts. The second will focus on using wastewater for irrigation, while ensuring no increase in adverse health outcomes. Results from the pilot projects will be used to develop water quality standards for the use of treated wastewater, policies and procedures to ensure adequate aquifer recharge and safe and effective use of wastewater for irrigation, and increase the proportion of the community who are aware of the need for the use of treated wastewater. 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-59.6143799275 13.1589997853)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the whole island of Barbados
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

Barbados Project Objective

To strengthen national adaptive capacity to address health issues related to climate change attributable water scarcity.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Barbados is already classified as a water scarce country.  A further reduction in the availability of water, due to changes in precipitation patterns could lead to serious health impacts.  Climate change is expected to affect the quantity and quality of available water.  Previous projects concluded that sea level rise causing saline intrusion and changing weather patterns will adversely affect the water supply.  With a limited water supply in the future there will be competition between various sectors with regards to the use of water.

Water scarcity can cause a variety of health problems by reducing the amount of water available to practice basic hygiene and by increasing the risk of chemical and microbial contamination; these can lead to gastrointestinal diseases and other health risks.  Treated wastewater will be needed for non-potable purposes in the future; this will require effective management of the resultant health risks.

Barbados has the highest rate of dengue fever in the Americas.  Studies in the Caribbean show an association between climate variability and increasing incidence of dengue fever. Rainwater storage is being promoted as an adaptation option to increase availability of freshwater, however, environmental health officers report an increase in the Aedes aegypti index due to mosquito breeding in domestic rainwater storage tanks.  To reduce the negative impacts on public health, there are requirements to improve storage facilities to eliminate vector breeding, provide technical guidelines with regards to the construction and maintenance of water tanks, and to increase public awareness with regards to effective and safe water storage.

Results and Learning:
This project will include two areas of action. The first will use treated wastewater to recharge an aquifer, while minimizing  health impacts. The second will focus on using wastewater for irrigation, while ensuring no increase in adverse health outcomes.  Results from the pilot projects will be used to develop water quality standards for the use of treated wastewater, policies and procedures to ensure adequate aquifer recharge and safe and effective use of wastewater for irrigation, and increase the proportion of the community who are aware of the need for the use of treated wastewater. These results will be achieved through addressing the following adaptive capacity issues:

  • Resources - There is a lack of sufficient national capacity in terms of human and financial resources for incorporating climate change risks into health sector activities.
  • Governance - There are a lack of guidelines and legislation for water storage. This means that any new storage facility that is developed does not take into consideration climate change and the related health impacts.
  • Waste water capacity - There is also a lack of capacity with regards to wastewater reuse issues. Barbados has little experience with regards to utilizing wastewater for non-potable purposes or for aquifer recharge. Human and technological capacity can be improved in this area.
  • Communication and Information - There is a significant lack of information and therefore communication on climate change and it impacts in Barbados. This includes those in the health sector as well as the general public.  Linked to this, there is a shortage of communication to the general public on climate change issues and how certain diseases, particularly dengue are related to climate.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The most substantial benefit expected to arise from this project is the reduced incidence of dengue fever while increasing water safety and
availability. Other significant benefits include:

  • Improved coordination and cooperation between relevant governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
  • Improved practices for the storage of rainwater, preventing the breeding of Aedes aegypti.
  • Increased awareness of A. aegypti breeding sites in rainwater tanks as well as other potential breeding sites and the reduction of overall breeding opportunities.
  • The level of public knowledge will be enhanced in regards to wastewater reuse.

Project Components:

  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning  systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage  climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks

Outcome 1: Policies and Programs are implemented to ensure health risks do not increase as a result of using treated wastewater to recharge aquifers and for irrigation.

  • Develop Procedures and guidelines for the effective recharge of aquifers using wastewater.
  • Develop Strategies, policies and procedures for the use of wastewater for irrigation, ensuring that the quality and safety of agriculture crops is assured.
  • Develop guidelines and standards for the safe use of wastewater.
  • Develop monitoring systems for using wastewater in agriculture and aquifer recharge.

Outcome 2: Public acceptance of the use of treated wastewater for non potable use.

  • Social Acceptance of the use of treated wastewater.

Outcome 3: Public safely stores water to prevent the breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

  • Enhance current rainwater storage facilities for the prevention of the breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

 

 

 

Contacts: 
Winfred Greaves
Project Manager
Government of Barbados
Honourable Donville O. Inniss
Minister of Health Ministry of Health
WHO
Dr Berzabe C. Butron Riveros
PAHO WHO Representative a.i.
WHO
Sally Edwards
PAHO WHO Representative
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: 
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