Infrastructure/Climate Change Risk Management

Taxonomy Term List

Integrating adaptation into cities, infrastructure and local planning in Uruguay

This GCF-financed project will support the Government of Uruguay to advance its National Adaptation Planning process in cities and local governments (NAP-Cities). The objectives of the National Adaptation Planning process are to:  Reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience in cities, infrastructures and urban environments; and to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies that apply to cities and local planning. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment (MVOTMA).

The focus on cities and local governments has been chosen in line with the priorities set forth in the National Policy on Climate Change, particularly as climate change adaptation in cities requires collaborative problem solving and coordination across many sectors and across central and local governments (land use, housing, transportation, public health, tourism, water supply and sanitation, solid waste, food security, energy, disaster risk management, etc).

Cities and local governments are well positioned to act as conveners of a wide range of stakeholders. Indeed, adaptation efforts in cities and local governments will often involve multiple government agencies, as well as broad partnerships that include other local governments, local communities, civil society organizations - including trade unions, academic institutions, and the private sector. The project builds upon important opportunities in Uruguay, in particular the development of the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017 and an increased awareness and desire of various national agencies to improve adaptation planning.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-57.842285346257 -33.96037159508, -57.88623065875 -33.96037159508, -57.842285346257 -33.96037159508)), POINT (-57.402832221337 -33.814449534364))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.7 million
Project Details: 

The project will address the main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into cities and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in a stakeholders’ consultation process that was undertaken in 2016 and in line with the priorities under the National Climate Change Response Plan of 2010 and the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017, as well as the framework of the 2012 LEG Technical Guidelines on NAP.

Underlying challenges include: Limited awareness and consideration of future climate change in local and urban planning; limited access to and integration of national and international available data on climate change, risks and socio-economic vulnerabilities; in most cases, current risk assessment of climate-related hazards do not consider future climate change scenarios; and imited linkages and synergies between adaptation actions, public and private investments and long term land planning and public budgeting.

By its very nature, the NAP-Cities project would facilitate integration of climate change adaptation into existing strategies, policies and programmes, and the project  aims at achieving this with a focus on urban and spatial planning through: Building and strengthening capacities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems in both central and local governments improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses with future climate scenarios to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments for cities and local governments; the design and integration of methods, tools and information systems to effectively inform decision-making on the climate risks to development in an integrated fashion; the formulation of financing strategies and mechanisms for scaling up adaptation in cities and local governments

Whereas the reduction of vulnerability will be achieved through implementation of adaptation programmes and projects that will ultimately emanate from the NAP-Cities, project aims to strengthen institutional coordination and capacities, and build the foundation for integrating climate change scenarios and climate risks to inform planning and decision making both at central and local governments.

It will further identify pathways to reduce vulnerability through the implementation strategies to be defined in the NAP-Cities. The project will ultimately contribute to the GCF Fund level impacts of (i) Increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions, (ii) Strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate- responsive planning and development, (iii) Increased generation and use of climate information in decision making, and (iv) Strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

1.1 Launch the NAP-Cities process and establish institutional arrangements for coordination

  • Establish a coordination mechanism, with a clear scope and mandate, to steer the development of NAP-Cities, and establish and fund a secretariat to coordinate the development and implementation of the plan
  • Integrate and harmonize climate change messaging in communications of sectoral agencies to local government and develop targeted climate change adaptation information products for urban areas
  • Develop specific climate change information products to raise and strengthen awareness of key decision makers at central and local level on needs for adaptation planning
 
1.2 Stocktake of urban adaptation planning, and assess gaps in available information on climate change impacts at city level
  • To inform adaptation planning (risk, hazards, vulnerability, gender, socio-economic and environmental) and assess obstacles and limitations to its use and shareability for urban planning with the objective of developing an integrated information management system
  • Conduct an inventory and stocktaking of on-going and past adaptation activities by all sectors in urban areas (Health, Water, DRR, Development Planning) with a rapid assessment of their effectiveness
  • Identify, document and analyse existing national experiences and best practices that have successfully integrated climate change in urban planning and develop options to scale them up
  • Assess strengths and weaknesses of current institutional planning mechanisms with regards to urban areas and identify potential barriers and disincentives to the planning, design and implementation of adaptation

 

1.3 Identify capacity gaps and weaknesses in implementing  NAP-Cities 

  • Undertake a capacity needs assessment for planning, decision making and implementing adaptation in urban areas, both at central government agencies, local governments and other target groups

 

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs from a climate perspective

  • Screening of existing development and investment plans of central agencies that involve cities (e.g. spatial planning, health, tourism, water, sewage treatment…) and existing local land-use plans to identify needs regarding the assessment and integration of climate-related risks. 

 

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

2.1 Undertake multi-hazard risk assessments addressing major climatic hazards to cities

  • Carry out multi-hazard risk assessments addressing flood and extreme weather events, and other major climate related risks in selected Uruguayan urban areas, building on existing information and taking account future climate scenarios to inform planning, preparedness and adaptation actions in at least 4 urban areas (The multi-hazard risk assessments will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)

 

2.2 Assess new and important climate-induced vulnerabilities in urban areas

  • Analyse vulnerabilities to water-born diseases, heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change.

 

2.3 Identify and appraise adaptation options for major hazards affecting Uruguayan cities

  • Evaluate the adaptation potential of urban ecosystems, urban green areas and urban forestry, including the cost-effectiveness of conservation measures and design ecosystem-based adaptation strategies to buffer the impact of extreme weather events and heat waves
  • Analyse effectiveness and cost/benefit of the on-going pilot urban flood adaptation measures to improve urban water planning in mid-sized cities, and develop a strategy to scale up implementation of the most effective measures
  • Analyse current climate related early warning systems for urban environments and develop a strategy to strengthen the development of those systems for scaling up their implementation.
  • Review, appraise and prioritise adaptation options for water-born diseases heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change, as well as adaptation options related to water and sewage managements.
  • Identify and analyse adaptation options in relation to infrastructure and built environments, in particular improved building codes in relation to climate variability and change.
  • Review and design of adaptation options for other climate hazards identified in activities 2.1.

 

2.4 Formulate and disseminate the NAP-Cities

  • Carry out participative workshops to discuss and formulate the NAP-Cities, including participation of national and local governments, civil society, academia, private sectors and other relevant stakeholders
  • Compile the NAP-Cities integrating review comments and process the adoption of the Plan at the national level
  • Develop a communication strategy and tools for NAP-Cities

 

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and local development and sectoral planning and budgeting

  • Develop and test interactive and multi-criteria decision support tools to help national and local governments and communities to assess, visualize and understand the potential impacts of climate change and develop adaptive solutions. (The decision support tool will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)
  • The engagement with the private sector is an essential strategy to include climate resilience aspects in their investment in urban areas and infrastructure and also contributing to climate adaptation on the ground.

 

 

 

 

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national and local planning and budgeting

  • Develop and pilot a standardized method, and policy recommendations, to integrate adaptation planning in city and local spatial plans and budgets for the medium-term period, considering gender and age, as appropriate.
  • Develop and test criteria for screening urban public investment programmes in adaptation, and prioritising budget allocations of public and private investments with adaptation benefits

 

3.2 Develop an implementation strategy for NAP-Cities

  • Develop an inter-institutional management model for the NAP-Cities implementation and adaptation mainstreaming in infrastructure design and investment and urban land planning.
  • Design integrated Geographic information systems that enables sharing and utilising data to inform urban planning and incorporating gender and age-disaggregated data.
  • Advance on a specific effort to find areas of revenue in the NAP Cities and Infrastructure where private capital equity might find interesting to invest, such areas might be associated with urban built environment and infrastructure insurances; built environment technology development; among others.

 

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

  • Develop and execute a three-year work plan for capacity building of local and national authorities to address the gaps and priorities identified in the capacity needs assessment. The capacity building programme should target at least 100 officials and planners from local governments and 100 officials from central agencies
  • Undertake specific trainings for at least 60 planners in central and local agencies on methodologies for planning under uncertainty
  • Develop training tools and undertake training on integrating gender and age through the use of gender and age disaggregated data and gender and age analysis tools in programme formulation and monitoring
  • Training and building awareness of the private sector, national and local professional associations and trade unions on investing in adaptation planning, both in their businesses through risk reduction measures and climate proofing their supply chain, and exploring new market opportunities and investments for the development of resilience building goods and services.
  • Technical assistance to local governments on the preparation of local adaptation frameworks or options.
  • Training and building awareness to local communities and local education institutions regarding climate risks in urban environments and in relation to early warning systems.
  • Develop capacities to evaluate the prioritization of actions and projects through training courses at national and local level for adaptation options appraisal (e.g. Cost Benefit Analysis/Multicriteria Analysis etc).

 

 

 

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP-Cities process and adaptation progress

  • Collect data and develop indicators for adaptation planning, readiness, and resilience of infrastructure and urban areas. These indicators will be integrated with the National Climate Change Response Plan, and the National Climate Change Policy and with other urban and territorial planning tools.

 

4.2 Review the NAP-Cities process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

  • Develop and implement mechanisms to monitor and update the National Policy on Climate Change, and the NAP cities building on the above mentioned indicators

 

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP-Cities process and report on progress and effectiveness

  • Undertake an outreach programme to local government to present the NAP cities and its various tools, and assess progress and effectiveness at the local level.

 

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

5.1 Conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors at the cities and local level

  • Identify suitable incentives, and evaluate their costs and effectiveness to foster private investment in new climate-sensitive and resilience-building approaches and to encourage public-private partnerships to implement climate adaptation measures in the Uruguayan planning and budgeting context

 

5.2 Identify, analyse and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

  • Undertake a policy analysis for future financing instruments/options for adaptation including identification of alternative funding sources (private, local, etc.) as well as municipal level financing instruments that can be leveraged for financing in cities

 

5.3 Develop a financing strategy for the NAP-Cities

  • Develop a financing strategy for the implementation of NAP-Cities. The strategy will be updated iteratively in the framework of the NCCRS after the Readiness is concluded.
  • Develop a funding strategy for the NAP Readiness which will include more traditional approaches regarding funding from international climate related sources, such as the GCF, and/or national sources such as the national and subnational budgets.  

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Umberto Labate
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Secretariat: 8 January 2018
Project submitted to GCF Secretariat: 13 February 2017
Framework Readiness and Preparatory Support Grant Agreement: 2 September 2016

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021

Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal

The"Strengthening Land and Ecosystem Management Under Conditions of Climate Change in the Niayes and Casamance Regions in the Republic of Senegal" project supports ecosystem-based adaptation and builds the enabling environments required for long-term climate resilience. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. According to Senegal’s NAPA, the country is experiencing repeated droughts that have severely changed the water regime and vegetation cover. In addition, periodic flooding is also experienced. Targeted project areas (Niayes and Casamance) are being impacted by climate change and variability that can be summarized as: reduced rainfall (200-400 mm from north to south); high rainfall variability within and between years; increased rainfall pauses; shortening of the rainy season (the country has one rainy season with an average duration of 3 months); and an increase in temperature.

The impacts of climate change combined with human activities in the project areas, as in the rest of the country, result in a dramatic degradation of ecosystems that are the only means of survival for poor people in rural areas, which account for the vast majority. There are serious threats to agricultural production in eco-geographical areas of Niayes and Casamance due to climate change impacts such as water shortage, land degradation, salinization, siltation of valleys linked to soil erosion in highlands, and degradation of habitats among the most productive and sensitive such as mangroves and coastal areas.

Almost all social, economic, and environmental aspects in the two project areas are already seriously affected negatively by observed climate change impacts. It is also clear that these impacts will worsen in the short term and perhaps medium to long term as well, unless appropriate solutions are implemented. The desired alternative situation would be to promote the adoption by local communities of systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability. The implementation of this alternative requires the removal of several barriers including: inadequate production systems to cope with climate variability and change; weak institutional capacities for the production and use of climate information; insufficient capacity of local communities, technical services and local governing bodies to develop and implement climate change adaptation practices; and, limited technical and financial capacities of producers and households. This project, classified as a priority in Senegal’s NAPA, is designed to contribute to the desired solution through its main objective to strengthen the enabling environment for the implementation of appropriate adaptation measures based on ecosystem management in Niayes and Casamance.

The project is implemented through the Senegal Directorate of Water, Forests, Hunting and Soil Conservation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-17.424316410316 14.725304271151)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.1 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$12.2 million
Project Details: 

Despite various strategies, policies and measures that were undertaken, the current socio-economic situation in the Niayes and in Casamance is characterized by low resilience to climate change and variability. The weakness of the physical environment (low and erratic rainfall, low groundwater levels, salinization and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, regression of mangrove and forest) under high human pressure and degradation of systems and production tools have led to falling incomes of local people. The sources of income for local communities mainly based on the services and products from these ecosystems will be increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change and variability. Unless appropriate solutions are implemented, these effects will have negative impacts on productivity in all sectors, resulting in difficult socio-economic conditions, including increased poverty and an impediment to national development efforts.

The long-term solution promoted through this project would be to promote the adoption of integrated agro-sylvo-pastoral systems and practices that are resilient to climate change and variability, that will improve horticulture and rice production, strengthen the protective and production function of the band of casuarinas and ensure sound management of water resources, forests and mangroves for the benefit of local communities in the project target areas of Niayes and Casamance.

The long-term solution for local communities’ sustainable resilience to climate change will necessarily involve an understanding of climate information with the implementation of adequate financial, institutional and technical measures for a better adaptation of the socio-economic activities to climate change. Therefore, these challenges, sources of population vulnerability must be overcome by the producers to adapt to climate change in order to increase the resilience of the production systems in the intervention sites identified in the Niayes and Casamance.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Output 1.1: The climate, meteorological and hydrological network for the target areas and the capacities are strengthened in order to produce reliable data needed to monitor and analyze hydro-climatic phenomena.

Output 1.2: An integrated information system producing climate information and generating the products needed to identify risks related to climate change (e.g., maps for risk, vulnerability, etc.) is developed to help identify efficient adaptation options and develop actors’ capacities in adaptation.

Output 1.3: A platform for sharing information is established to support the management of climate risks and long-term planning for adaptation.

 

 

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Output 2.1: At least 100 hectares of mangrove plantations are managed sustainably to restore this important ecosystem as a means of support (oyster farming, for example) and reduce the impact of swell and coastal erosion.

Output 2.2: Multi-purpose community forests resilient to climate change tested in the vegetable gardens of Niayes to protect crops from wind erosion and prevent encroachment by sand dunes.

Output 2.3: At least 10 community groups, particularly women’s groups, will be supported in Casamance to improve climate resilience through agro-pastoral and agro-forestry activities and sustainable water management practices in rice paddies.

 

 

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Output 3.1: Local governments and decentralized technical services have the necessary capacities to support communities in implementing adaptation activities.

Output 3.2: The benefits from implemented adaptation solutions are monitored and shared with government officials, target communities and partners to inform them about project results replication opportunities.

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Ndeye Fatou Diaw Guene
Oumar Diaw
Project Manager
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective forecasting, preparedness, and decision making information management systems for determining and tracking climate impacts on ecosystems are established

Outcome 2 - Ecosystem based adaptation options including the adoption of climate resilient land and ecosystem management practices in two target areas (Niayes and Casamance) reduce exposure to climate induced risks

Outcome 3- Community, household, and individual capacities will be strengthened for greater advocacy towards climate change responses and effective support to adaptation efforts.

Senegal National Adaptation Plan

The "Senegal National Adaptation Plan" project will strengthen the capacity of sectoral ministries and local governments to better assess the implications of climate change and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures. With US$2.9 in proposed funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the project will develop technical and functional capacities of climate and hydrological monitoring centers, and build the necessary instruments to prioritize climate change adaptation into national and subnational budgets and plans.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-14.238281261823 15.074775638102)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million proposed GEF-LDCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9 million total co-financing (Ministry of Finance and Planning US$6.5 million, Ministry of Environment US$200,000, UNDP US$2.3 million)
Project Details: 

As part of an early response to the challenges posed by a variable and changing climate, the Government of Senegal (GoS) formulated and published a National Adaptation Programmes for Action in 2006. The NAPA seeks to facilitate capacity building and in particular address urgent and immediate adaptation needs. However, while a number of development projects are currently being conducted in the agriculture and fisheries sectors , few take into consideration the complexities and multi-sectoral impacts of climate change. Furthermore, few economic assessments in Senegal showcase the economic impacts of climate change (with and without adaptation considered as a factor). As a result there is very little political traction for implementing proactive adaptation responses and climate risk management.

In the absence of systematic action or a strategic framework to guide adaptation over the medium and long term and without the mainstreaming of climate change responses and climate risk management into national development planning and budgeting processes, climate change will continue to pose a serious threat to hard-won development gains.

Given the uncertainties on future climate and economic circumstances and the high risks that need to be accounted for, there is need to start building “country systems” (including capacities, institutions, mandates and information sources) at national and local levels to support medium- and long-term planning and budgeting.

With resources from the GEF-LDCF, the capacity of sectoral Ministries, local governments and communities will be strengthened to better assess the implications of climate change, and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures.

Relevant national policies will be targeted such as: the Strategy Paper on Poverty Reduction III (2013 - 2017), the National Programme for Local Development (PNDL), the IWRM Plan, the Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection’s Multiyear Framework of Sector-based Expenses (DPPD ) and local development plan.

The National Adaptation Plan process offers an opportunity to take a more considered approach, working towards transformational change in the country’s capacity to increase resilience to climate change. By promoting adaptation investment into key development sectors and territorial plans , it will ensure environmental, social and economic development in a long-term, sustainable and resilient manner.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers ( LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA ) and decisions makers ( staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Output 1.1. The generation and use of climate, geophysical, geotechnical and socio-economic data by c limate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE) and research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) to support the projection of climate risks.

Output 1.2. The establishment of data collection/production, information and communication platforms.

Output 1.3. The design and institutionalization of training kits and programmes to improve decision maker’s skills. 

Output 1.4. The identification & categorisation of adaptation options to address priority vulnerabilities in target national and sectoral policies.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Output 2.1. Relevant national and local development plans reviewed and budgets appropriately adjusted in support of effective adaptation 

Output 2.2. A climate readiness strategy developed and implemented to ensure that necessary funds will be in place to support the adaptation options identified.

Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) and decisions makers (staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Enhancing Climate Resilience of the Vulnerable Communities and Ecosystems in Somalia

With financing from the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) Least Developed Country Countries Fund, the Federal Government of Somalia, in partnership with UNDP, is working to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems to climate change. The project is working in semi-autonomous states in Somalia: South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland, which unilaterally declared itself an independent republic in 1991. The project is working to respond to the adverse impacts of climate change and improve the adaptive capacity of vulnerable farmers in pilot areas, and the ecosystems on which they depend.

Building resilience to climatic events is critical for Somalia as the country stabilizes after decades of conflict and commits long-term development for its people.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (45.70312499461 4.0505767912589)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the selected areas in South West State, Galmudug State, Puntland, and Somaliland - especially small-scale farmers
Funding Source: 

News Highlight: XILI ROOBAB AY KA DA EEN DEEGANADA PUNTLAND AYAA RER MIYIGU SHEEGEN IN BIYO XIREENADII LA SAMEEYAY A

Sand dams save lives - Fatima's story

Sand dams save lives- Mohamed Ismail's story

UNDP Somalia Climate Resilience Project - Documentary Film

UNDP under its Enhancing Climate Change Resilience (CCR) project of the Poverty Reduction and Environment Protection Programme (PREP), in partnership with the Somali Government, have initiated innovative project activities aimed at enhancing the climate resilience of vulnerable communities and ecosystems. The project also seeks to address some of the underlying drivers of conflict by empowering both the concerned National and Civil Society institutions, as well as the women, men and children from the most vulnerable communities.

Financing Amount: 
8,000,000 USD
Co-Financing Total: 
64,820,000 USD
Project Details: 

Green shoots of peace and development are emerging in Somalia, after a particularly difficult period of instability. UNDP is at the forefront to help the people of Somalia to recover from years of conflict, while setting the country on the path to sustainable development. In recent years, Somalia has experienced changes in weather and climate that are affecting the country’s economic and social development. Facing increasing uncertainty for seasonal and annual rainfall levels, rising surface temperatures, sea level rise, and the loss of lives and livelihoods dependent on fragile or over-exploited ecosystems and natural resources, there is concern that future climate changes could exacerbate displacement in the region and intensify conflict over scarce natural resources, including water.

Approximately 70% of Somalis are dependent on climate-sensitive agriculture and pastoralism. As floods and droughts become more severe and frequent in Somalia, there is a need to find approaches that can reduce the sensitivity of farmers and pastoralists to increasing rainfall variability. To address these issues, LDCF financing will be used to support ministries, districts, NGOs/CBOs to integrate climate change risks in Natural Resource Management and disaster preparedness. Climate risk management will be institutionalized from national to local levels. CBOs will be revitalized to take the lead on implementing community-based Ecosystem-based flood preparedness and other adaptation measures.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Signature Programmes: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Enhancing Policies, Institutional Frameworks and Government Capacities

1.1 Policies, plans and tools reviewed, revised, developed, adopted and implemented by government to mainstream and enhance adaptive capacity and mitigate the risks of climate change on vulnerable communities and critical ecosystem services

Component 2: Piloting Ecosystem Based Adaptation strategies

2.1 Models of community and ecosystem resilience developed and implemented in pilot areas selected in consultation with government and community stakeholders.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia

The "CCA Growth: Implementing Climate Resilient and Green Economy Plans in Highland Areas in Ethiopia" project will work to mainstream climate risks into national and sub-national planning processes thereby increasing the resilience of local communities across the Ethiopian highlands to climate change.

Today in Ethiopia, climate change considerations are not reflected in development planning and decision making at national and local levels. The expected changes in climate and its impact on livelihoods are severe, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. If climate change is not addressed, it is more than likely that expected development gains will not be realized. Recurrent drought is another persistent risk in Ethiopia, and continued stresses from severe weather events and changing rainfall patterns raise the spectre of hunger, malnutrition and diminishing returns on investments in poverty reduction. Furthermore, the impacts of weather variability and climate change will not be uniform across the country: some regions are more vulnerable than others. Vulnerability will depend on livelihood type and exposure to risk, both of which are highly variable even within small/local regions.

Changes in the weather patterns marked by greater variability are imposing additional risks to human development in Ethiopia. These risks are most heavily borne by farmers engaging in subsistence or rain-fed agriculture, both for landless households whose income largely derives from on-farm wage labour, and women-headed households because of their baseline vulnerability to external shocks. With funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, this project will strengthen the adaptive capacity and resilience of these targeted groups from the impacts of climatic variability and change.

The project will also put 17,800 hectares of agricultural, rangeland and forest landscapes under sustainable land management systems, including 800 hectares of new exclosure sites, maintenance of 8000 hectares of existing exclosures and planting of indigenous and multi-use plant species for over 8800 hectares of degraded land.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (37.265624991326 8.5918844125631)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6.2 million GEF-LDCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$10.4 million (US$10.3 million Government of Ethiopia, US$150,000 UNDP)
Project Details: 

The key underlying causes of vulnerability are multiple. Land is highly degraded due to deforestation for wood fuel and charcoal production as well as timber for construction, unsustainable farming practices, cultivation of fragile and marginal land and overgrazing, combined with rapidly increasing human and livestock populations.

Such environmental degradation has resulted in changes to the water cycle, poor soil quality, and in highland areas a barren land that is devoid of vegetation cover, which is exposed to soil and wind erosion, thereby creating a self-reinforcing cycle of reduced land fertility, reduced water resources, and lower crop and livestock production and productivity.

Other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic/invasive plant species in the rift valley lakes further reinforce this cycle. The long-term preferred solution is to build sustainable and climate-resilient economic growth among vulnerable communities, targeting eight highland areas in Ethiopia.

This will involve taking the essential elements of the participatory and capacity development approach of the MERET (Managing Environmental Resources to Enable Transitions) programme, but addressing identified weaknesses by adding strong elements of requirements for climate change adaptation (e.g. alternative livelihoods, crop diversification, resilient agricultural practices, better water management and irrigation), capacity development of Woreda and regional government (technical training and mentoring for participatory vulnerability assessments, environmental impact assessments, cost-benefit analysis of climate-smart investments, no regrets interventions, integrating climate change risks and opportunities in development planning and budgeting).

Additionally this involves addressing participatory monitoring, impact assessment and action learning in order to assess what makes for successful adaptation and growth strategies in highland areas across different climate and agro-ecological zones, cultural traditions and agricultural practices, as well as strengthening of learning pathways to national policy processes.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Output 1.1: Assessment of the capacity and resource needs of MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, MoWIE and NMA at federal, regional and Woreda-level to build climate resilience.

Output 1.2: Capacity development of staff from MoANR, MoLF, MoFEC, MEFCC, NMA and MoWIE at federal, regional and Woreda-level on climate change and climate-resilient planning.

Output 1.3: Training of extension agents and local communities to integrate climate change into planning processes.

Output 1.4: Annual knowledge-sharing forum of regional and Woreda-level sectoral experts, extension agents and community representatives.

Output 1.5: Public awareness-raising campaign and training programme for local communities – including for women and youths – on the implementation of climate-resilient adaptation interventions and diversified livelihoods

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Output 2.1: A functional climate information and early warning system to monitor weather conditions.

Output 2.2: Community-based climate forecast and decision-making support tool.

Output 2.3: Capacity development of extension agents, CBOs (women’s groups, school clubs and youth groups) as well as farmers on climate information and monitoring systems.

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Output 3.1: Vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management and landscape management plans.

Output 3.2: Integrated watershed management across the eight target Woredas.

Output 3.3: Diversified livelihoods, including animal fattening, value-addition to agricultural products and off-farm opportunities.

Output 3.4: Strategy for monitoring, evaluating and upscaling activities, including potential for local investment by microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Contacts: 
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Capacities enhanced for climate-resilient planning among communities, local government and central government

Outcome 2 - Use of climate information for risk management strengthened for smallholder farmers, with a focus on women and youth

Outcome 3 - Adapted and flexible income and employment opportunities generated for poor people, with a focus on climate-smart agriculture and integrated watershed management

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022

Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster

The "Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster" project will work to strengthen institutional, policy and regulatory frameworks to integrate climate and disaster risks into planning, improve knowledge and understanding of key climate drivers and natural disasters, and strengthen community resilience to climate-induced disaster risks. UNDP is currently working with the Government of Comoros to develop the project proposal for a US$8.5 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund.

The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate-related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long-term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.409728953023 -11.7745193387)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.5 million proposed GEF LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$36.3 million (UNDP US$1.6 million grant, UNIDSR US$1 million grant, PASDTR US$20 million grant, Qatar and Chinese US$14.5 million frant for medical facilities, ICO Natural Risks Management Project US$400,000)
Project Details: 

Comoros is highly vulnerable to natural disasters (floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami) and epidemics including cholera, dengue and chikungunya. In the last two decades in Comoros, 17 natural disasters were recorded with 148 deaths and more than 400,000 people affected. The biggest disaster was in 2005 when 245,000 people were affected by a volcanic eruption.

In addition, torrential rains, storms and floods have affected more than 117,000 people in the last two decades. Climate projections show that the situation faced by the Comoros in recent years could worsen. According to the IPCC, through projections of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM), the climate change scenarios for small islands in the Indian Ocean from 2040 to 2069 indicate an increase of the average annual rainfall to 3.1% (+ or -0.45%) .

The sea- level rise is expected to reach 20 cm by 2050 . Weather and climate extreme events such as cyclones, tsunamis are also expected to increase in frequency and intensity in the future. Therefore, it is likely that future tropical cyclones would gain intensity, that heavy rainfall and floods would be more intense during the hot season, that on the opposite droughts would be more intense during dry season and that land erosion would be exacerbated.

Among the factors of the Comorian populations’ vulnerability to natural disasters one can note the following:

  • Natural factors: the insularity, the rugged topography with many steep slopes, combined with the natural and soil triggered waterproofing (lava flow) stimulate the runoff strength of rainwater, causing multiple erosions and flooding and leading to destruction of villages.
  • Land-use planning: housing is often temporary and under precarious and anarchical conditions. The vulnerability of some areas is more acute because of their proximity to the sea that threatens to engulf houses built too close to the eroding coast, either as a result of rainfall, tides or because of sand removal used as construction material.
  • Poor transport networks: transport networks are poor and were built without taking in account climate-induced disaster risks. The Union of the Comoros road network comprises 800 km of roads, of which approximately 50% is classified as in “good and fair” condition and almost 30% in “bad and very bad” by the National Roads and Road Transport Office (DNRTR). In several areas the road network is either partially or totally degraded. This situation makes road networks very vulnerable and easily degraded and/or not fully operational in the event of climate induced disasters and this contributes to increased vulnerability of the Comorian communities. In disaster situation they are cut off from health infrastructure and food supply including drinking water and hardly access to emergency relief.
  • Weak socio-economic base of the community contributes a great deal to increase their vulnerability. The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long- term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Systemic and institutional capacities for the long -term management and adaptation planning of disaster risks caused by climate change are strengthened at local, provincial and national levels

Outcome 2 - Knowledge and understanding of medium- to long -term climate-related disaster risks and vulnerability are improved

Outcome 3 - The long-term resilience of the livelihoods and assets of vulnerable communities against climate disaster risks is strengthened

Strengthening the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas and Communities to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau

The "Strengthening the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas and Communities to Climate Change in Guinea-Bissau" Project will leverage a proposed US$12 million Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund Grant to develop the strong institutions and policies needed to improve risk management in coastal zones, protect investments in coastal infrastructure and diffuse new technologies to strengthen resilience within coastal communities.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$ 12 million (proposed GEF LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$26 million (including US$2.5 million from UNDP, US$14 million from World Bank, US$9.3 million from AFDB and US$300,000 from the Government of Guinea Bissau)
Project Details: 

According to Guinea-Bissau’s NAPA (2006), the primary drivers of the climate vulnerability of the coastal areas and communities are physical exposure, dependence on agriculture and fishing as main livelihood options, and poor governance. Low-elevation coastal zones are especially vulnerable in Guinea-Bissau. Most of Guinea-Bissau’s land consists of coastal swamps and mangroves, and over 19 percent of its land area lies in areas less than 10 meters above sea level. The majority of the population (about 82 %) work as subsistence farmers and climate change has already begun to affect coastal farmers through increased flooding and saltwater encroachment into their rice paddies due to global sea level rise. The coastal communities and the whole population of Guinea-Bissau rely on mangrove stands and coastal lowlands for rice cultivation as a main source of income and food.

A recent study (Sally Brown and all, 2011) has projected sea-level rises (in comparison of 1995 level) of 0.13 m, 0.35 m, 0.72 m and 1,22 m for 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 respectively. With a large and growing population in the coastal zone and a low adaptive capacity due to low national wealth and other development indicators, Guinea-Bissau appears to be highly vulnerable to sea-level rise. Without adaptation, the physical, human and financial impacts will be significant.

Sea-level rise has the potential to displace hundreds of thousands of people over the next 100 years. With a rise of 0.13 m in 2025, 77,800 people will be flooded per year. with a rise of 0.35 m in 2050, 179,800 persons will be flooded per year. The total cos t of sea-level rises for Guinea-Bissau combining costs of forced migration, land loss, salinization, sea floods and river floods will be US$8 million per year for 2025, US$29.9 million per year for 2050 and are estimated at US$361.8 million per year by 2100.

Climate change is predicted to also have adverse effects on fisheries and fishing. Rising sea temperatures and changes in the oceans’ other dynamics, such as acidification and loss of nursery areas, are predicted to reduce fish populations. Meanwhile, in places with rich fisheries like Guinea-Bissau, the destruction of coral reefs and mangroves destroys fish spawning grounds, decreasing the availability of fish, limiting the livelihoods of fishermen, and leading to precarious food security as sea foods are the main sources of proteins for the coastal communities.

To address these challenges, the preferred situation is for Guinea-Bissau to have the capacity at national, regional and local levels to develop, plan and implement coastal management measures that increase resilience of coastal communities’ livelihoods and economic activities to climate change induced risks. This would imply that the climate change risks and relevant adaptation options be mainstreamed in the coastal development policies, strategies and initiatives, and the decision makers and technical staffs of the line sectors. This would also mean that the coastal communities have the required institutional support and technical and economic capacity to gradually and sustainably transform their structures, functioning, social organization and economy in order to increase their capacity to absorb shocks as well as slowly manifestation changes that undermine economic development.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Policies, regulations institutions and individuals mandated to manage coastal areas strengthened to reduce the risk of climate change

Outcome 2 - Vulnerability of coastal investments to climate risks reduced through the design, construction and maintenance of coastal protection measures

Outcome 3 - Rural livelihoods in the coastal zone enhanced and protected from the impacts of climate change

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh

Against the backdrop of high incidence of poverty and limited scope of formal employment of the poorer segments of its population, Bangladesh decision-makers have recognized the risks associated with climate change

The country has been allocating budget to climate-change adaptation for over a decade. In 2005, Bangladesh became one of the first two Least Developed Countries to produce a National Adaptation Programme of Action. In 2008–2009, the Government formulated the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, effectively grounding all subsequent national climate change adaptation activities.

With a grant approved by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund in December 2017, the project Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh ​will enhance the availability of information on climate change, in support of the NAP process; appraise adaptation options, including ecosystem and social costs and benefits; and build institutional capacity for effective integration of climate change into national budgeting and fiscal decision-making.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 24.056496493275)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5,700,000 grant via the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$17,700,000 ($15 million Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief of Bangladesh; $2.7 million UNDP);
Project Details: 


Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Adviser
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Civil Society Engagement: 


Promoting Index-Based Weather Insurance for Small Holder Farmers in Burkina Faso

The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Burkina Faso to develop a project proposal for a new US$4.5 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Promoting Index-Based Weather Insurance for Small Holder Farmers in Burkina Faso" project will include US$19 million in co-financing. The project looks to creating enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso, pilot an insurance program  for small-scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut production) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks, and capture and disseminate lessons learned from the index-based weather insurance experience.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.4 million (Proposed GEF LDCF Grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$19 million (Proposed Co-Financing)
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Outcomes

Outcome 1. Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed

Outcome 2. Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks.

Outcome 3. Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated

Expected Outputs

Output 1. Review the institutional and policy environment to identify gaps and barriers to implementing IBWI

Output 2. Conduct an assessment of institutional capacities and key actors to be trained (including farmers, insurance companies and government officials)

Output 3. Conduct financial literacy and awareness programs for target beneficiaries on IBWI

Output 4. Engage farmers in a participatory and gender sensitive insurance product design and MRV of losses

Output 5. Build a regular sharing and training platform for all stakeholders (farmers, insurance companies, rural banks, and agriculture input companies)

Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Enabling conditions for advancing an index-based weather insurance system in Northern Burkina Faso developed

Outcome 2 - Insurance program piloted for small scale producers (involved in maize and groudnut) to minimize the damage induced by climate risks

Outcome 3 - Lessons learned from the Index-based Weather Insurance experience are documented and disseminated

De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia

The "De-Risking and Scaling-Up Investment in Energy Efficient Building Retrofits - Armenia" project will build the market for energy efficient building retrofits in Armenia, leading to sizeable energy savings and Green House Gas emission reductions (up to 5.8 million tons of Carbon Dioxide of direct and indirect emission savings over the 20-year equipment lifetimes). It will also lead to green job creation and energy poverty reduction. It will directly benefit over 200,000 people and will catalyse private and public sector investment of approximately US$100 million.

Through this project GCF will invest a US$14 million loan to make energy efficiency loans for building retrofits more affordable. The Municipality of Yerevan will add US$8 million in co-financing. In addition, GCF will provide US$6 million in technical assistance to remove market and policy barriers to building retrofits, with UNDP providing US$1.4 million and the Ministry of Nature Protection US$0.4 million co-funding. The technical assistance will seek to overcome lack of information and awareness about the benefits of retrofitting through the establishment of measurement, reporting and verification measures, the development of policy frameworks. The cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives will address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for EE building retrofits that can attract private investments.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
210,000 direct beneficiaries, 1700 jobs will be created, 1.4 million tons of carbon will be offset
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$20 million (GCF grant according to GCF website)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9.8 million (US$8 million from Municipality of Yerevan, US$0.4 million from Ministry of Nature Protection, US$1.4 million from UNDP according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Armenia is a small, poor, land-locked country in the heart of Eurasia, and is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Unsustainable energy use in buildings underpins Armenia’s closely intertwined development, security and climate-related challenges. Approximately 30% of Armenian households are energy-poor, where energy poverty (often called ‘fuel poverty’) is defined as households spending more than 10% of their budgets on energy. Some 45% of apartments in multi-family buildings have indoor temperatures in winter below 19°C (i.e. below established international standards for human occupancy). About 50% of energy use in buildings depends on imported fossil fuels, and 4% of CO2 emissions come from energy use in buildings. With this in mind, over 50% of energy can be saved via energy efficient retrofits

Improving energy efficiency (EE) in buildings has been assigned the highest priority in Armenia’s housing, energy and climate strategies, including the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC and its UNFCCC Technology Needs Assessment.

UNDP will work with the Government, city administrations, the European Investment Bank, private sector stakeholders, ESCOs and local banks to deploy the most cost-effective combination of policy and financial de-risking instruments and targeted financial incentives to address market barriers and achieve a risk-return profile for energy efficient building retrofits that can attract private investments. The project builds on UNDP’s long experience supporting the Government of Armenia and on UNDP’s de-risking framework for low-carbon investment. It has the full backing of Armenia’s National Designated Authority (NDA) for the GCF, the UNFCCC National Focal Point, and the Municipality of Yerevan (home to one-third of Armenia’s population). The project is fully consistent with Armenia’s INDC.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 will establish building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and knowledge management. One of the identified barriers is a lack of information and awareness: energy efficiency is not a major concern for most people in Armenia. There is a low level of awareness among building owners, real estate agencies and occupants about operational costs and potential energy- and money-saving opportunities. There is also a misinformed perception that full compliance with efficient building codes and energy-efficient buildings would be prohibitively expensive in Armenia. The market for EE products and services is immature. Robust MRV will build the investment case for energy efficiency retrofits and, together with the dissemination of information, will support the communication of the financial and development gains to be made from energy efficiency investments, thus improving information availability and awareness of the benefits of buildings with improved energy performance.

Component 2 will support national, sub-national and local authorities to adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for energy efficiency retrofits. This will remove a number of policy, legal and institutional barriers through supporting legal reform, the introduction and implementation of regulation, and the modernisation and enforcement of standards. Component 2 will also remove technical and capacity barriers by providing technical assistance to selected market players, such as building owners / managers / owner associations and local government.

Component 3 will provide access to affordable capital for energy efficiency retrofits. This will help remove financial barriers, such as the fact that home-owners and public sector entities lack the financial resources necessary to undertake EE building retrofits without loans and the reluctance of local commercial banks to provide loans for EE renovation.

Component 4 grants from the GCF will be offered as a temporary targeted incentive. They will be targeted and will address the needs of the most vulnerable households. The financial analysis shows that, for those earning less than the median household income of US$400 per month, building retrofits are not affordable. For middle- and higher-income households, grants are not needed from an affordability point of view, and will only be used at a low level to overcome early-mover barriers. The grants will support poor and vulnerable households to secure access to improved thermal comfort and cost / energy savings. Incentive grants for low-income households are also needed to unlock building-level investments, as these households might otherwise block building-level investment decisions in multi-apartment buildings.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Establishment of building sector Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV): Robust MRV for the building sector established

Component 2: Policy de-risking: National, sub-national and local authorities adopt and implement an enabling policy framework for EE retrofits

Component 3: Financial de-risking: Access to affordable capital for EE retrofits provided

Component 4: Financial incentives: Affordability of EE retrofits for the most vulnerable households ensured through targeted financial incentives to building / apartment owners (directly or via private-sector ESCOs)