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Ensuring climate resilient water supplies in the Comoros Islands

The Government of Comoros in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and a broad coalition of other international actors is stepping up efforts to ensure climate-resilient water supplies for 450,000 people with a GCF-financed project on "Ensuring climate resilient water supplies in the Comoros Islands."

The project will reach over half of the people living in the Comoros directly, and 9 out of 10 people indirectly, ensuring children have water to drink, farmers can grow successful crops and feed their families, and the Small Island Developing State of Comoros can adapt its economy and society to the catastrophic risks brought on by climate change.

Climate change impacts threaten to derail recent development gains in Comoros – where approximately 80 percent of the rural population is reliant on rain-fed agriculture. United Nations models indicate a potential reduction in dry-season rainfall of up to 47 percent by 2090 in Comoros, increased rains in the wet season, and more severe cyclone activity.

Access to surface water on three of the small islands of the Comoros is a challenge. The main island of Grande Comore has no surface water, requiring coastal towns to exploit marginally fresh groundwater resources. The rural upland communities, making up 50 percent of the island’s population, rely solely on rainwater harvesting. On the two more remote and poorer islands of Anjouan and Moheli, there are no proven groundwater resources and the people there are completely reliant on seasonally variable streams.

The project aligns with Comoros’ Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy and the government’s vision to reduce poverty and expand access to reliable and safe drinking water and sanitation, especially for the most vulnerable people like smallholder farmers that rely on rainfed agriculture to feed their families. The eight-year project works to achieve a national paradigm shift in water resources management, allowing the Government of Comoros to make good on commitments to increase water supply to 100 percent of its citizens by 2030 and provide all of our farmers with access to irrigation water.

The project will strengthen water resources management and environmental monitoring, improve groundwater management and preservation, expand hydrological and meteorological monitoring infrastructure, protect ecosystems and regulate stream flow, and integrate local populations into water resources management.

The US$60 million project will be implemented by the Comoros Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Environment, Territory Planning and Urban, in conjunction with national and state governments, water service providers, water user associations and communities, and their development partners. A broad coalition that includes the China Geo-Engineering Corporation, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (FADES), and UNDP came together to provide over US$18 million in co-financing for this project, including a US$2 million grant from UNDP, a US$1.9 million in-kind donation from the China Geo-Engineering Corporation and US$290,000 from FADES.

The project will build integrated water resource management improvements in 32 watersheds with improved water monitoring and management, build capacity for water planning to support strong institutions and inform a water tariff system to ensure sustainability, build important infrastructure to increase the resilience of water supply facilities so they can operate year-round during both the wet and dry seasons, and build infrastructure to protect people from floods and droughts.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.318179830864 -11.697069261276)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
450,000 direct, 800,000 indirect
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$41.9 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$18 million (Co-financing from UNDP, Chinese Geo-engineering company, FADES, Government of Comoros)
Project Details: 

Comoros is one of only two countries in the world to be classified as a Least Developed Country, an African State and a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) by the UN System. The hydro-physical features of Comoros significantly contribute to its high vulnerability to climate change impacts. The entire country, separated into three islands, has a land area of only 2,612 km2 and no land further than 7km from the coast. Comoros therefore has very small watersheds and aquifers with very limited natural storage which respond rapidly to changes in rainfall and are consequently highly vulnerable to rainfall variability and intensity, resulting in significant drought, flood erosion and salinization impacts.

Climate change predictions for Comoros include an increase in rainfall variability, lengthening of droughts and increasing frequency and intensity of storm floods and resulting erosion.

The main island of Grand Comore has no surface water, requiring coastal towns to exploit marginally fresh groundwater resources, whilst the rural upland communities, making up 50% of the island’s population, have to rely solely on rainwater harvesting. On the two more remote and poorer islands of Anjouan and Moheli there are no proven groundwater resources and therefore are completely reliant on the seasonally variable streams.

Comoros is also one of the poorest countries in the world, with an estimated 80% of the rural population considered poverty-stricken and 46% of the population living in absolute poverty (<$1.25/person/day). This severely constrains its national adaptation capacity.

One of the most urgent needs in Comoros, as stated by the NAPA, is to build the resilience of their water supply to the impacts of climate change. More specifically Comoros needs to increase the resilience of its limited water resources and watersheds, protect its water supply infrastructure and strengthen the adaptation capacity of its institutions and communities to plan and operate in increasing climatic extremes.

National capacity to adapt to climate change risks in Comoros is extremely limited, as it is for many SIDS, but particularly those that are also LDCs. At least 14.3% of the population is unemployed. The unemployment rate among those aged 15-24 is very high at 50.5%. Between 70-80% of the Comorian population are small-scale farmers that are dependent on rain-fed water resources for subsistence agriculture. National food security is therefore closely linked to water security and to climate change impacts and their successful adaptation. More widely, poverty issues and limited employment opportunities are severely hindering the country from self-sustaining economic growth.

Comoros is therefore not only intrinsically vulnerable to climate change impacts but has little current capacity to strengthen its adaptive capacity to be resilient to these impacts. This lack of resilience extends as far as the capacity to submit grant applications to the global climate change adaptation funds.

 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1. Climate informed water supply planning and management

Activity 1.1 Prepare recommendations and legal guidance on the integration of climate change adaptation into the national (federal) and regional (state) water sector agencies governance frameworks, regulations and operations

Activity 1.2 Develop water sector climate change risk reduction awareness raising programme for national and state agencies and establish CCA knowledge and information exchange mechanisms

Activity 1.3 Develop and apply criteria for assessing socially sensitive water pricing mechanisms ensuring prices take into account the actual costs of production, storage and processing required in view of the projected climate stresses

Activity 1.4 Develop planning guidance on source protection and water quality standards in view of climate change, operating procedures during periods of drought/floods; and safety plans

Activity 1.5 Design and conduct trainings on best practices and gender-sensitive techniques of climate change adaptation in the context of water management, health and nutrition among national, regional and local water stakeholders

Activity 1.6 Strengthen decentralized water resources management capacities to undertake climate risk reduction assessments and develop and deliver awareness campaigns and training programmes to Water Management Committees and users

Output 2: Climate Informed Water Resources and Watershed Management including forecasting and early warnings of climate risks

Activity 2.1 Establish climate resilience focused IWRM Committees and Watershed Risk Reduction Action Plans in the project intervention areas

Activity 2.2 Implement the water protection and risk mitigating measures on the ground/operationalize the risk reduction plans

Activity 2.3 Support IWRM Management Committees to establish water source protection zones and raise public awareness on climate risk reduction benefits of watershed management

Activity 2.4 Establish water resource monitoring network and upgrade the existing monitoring infrastructure to enable the collection of the required climate/weather data

Activity 2.5 Build the capacities of the meteorological services to analyse and produce drought and flood forecasts for targeted users, including for flood early warning system

Activity 2.6 Build the capacity of the key government, local authorities and committees to interpret the climate information and raise awareness of the local population to act upon the forecasts and EWS 

Output 3: Climate Resilient Water Supply Infrastructure Activity

3.1 Undertake climate risk assessments of existing groundwater abstraction wells to develop risk reduction pumping strategies, and construction of additional boreholes in zones at risk of drought water scarcity in Grande Comore Activity

3.2 Build infrastructure to increase resilience of water supply facilities to extended duration low flow periods, greater intensity flood flow damage and flood flow higher turbidity and bacteria loadings (Grande Comore, Anjouan island and Moheli island)

Activity 3.3 Installation of flowmeters to support climate resilient tariff adjustments, and leakage reduction programmes to improve the water pricing and management system taking into account the additional costs associated with climatic hazards

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

New climate resilient water project will ensure reliable water supplies for 450,000 people in Comoros
‘Children will have water to drink, farmers can grow successful crops and feed their families, and we can adapt our economy and our society to the catastrophic risks brought on by climate change’ says Minister Abdou on GCF board approval for groundbreaking UNDP-supported project

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Climate informed water supply planning and management

Output 2 - Climate Informed water resources and watershed management including forecasting and early warnings of climate risks

Output 3- Climate resilient water supply infrastructure

Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future

The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.

The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.

As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.

Mauritius

Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.

Seychelles

Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (57.518920845025 -20.175168965217), POINT (55.458984343507 -4.5267773873685))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
81,326 Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$10 million
Project Details: 

Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.

According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.

According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.

Output 1.1.1:  Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).

Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.

Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.

Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.

Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.

Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.

Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration

Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)

Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries

Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites

Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis

Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation

Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion

Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure

Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified

Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.

Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)

Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives

Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared

Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated

Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration

Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.

Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.

Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2018
Description: 
Project Approval

Supporting Moldova to advance their NAP Process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country with a continental climate, characterised by relatively mild winters with little snowfall, warm summers and low humidity. Favourable farming conditions and a rural population of 60 per cent  indicate that Moldova’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture.  Furthermore, with around 90 per cent of the crop production being rain-fed, the agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change, which poses risks such as droughts, floods and hail. 

Moldova has effectively responded to the challenges posed by climate change, and under the coordination of their national strategic framework, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM), it has already successfully completed the 1st phase of their NAP process (NAP-1), which aimed to ensure the development of systematic capacities to support medium to long-term adaptation planning and budgeting. 

In 2017, on top of completing NAP-1 and turning their efforts to the formulation of NAP-2, Moldova also submitted their Intended NDC to the UNFCCC in 2015, which later became their First NDC, as they ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017. The NDC includes an Annex containing a comprehensive assessment of the country’s engagement with adaptation planning, including; (1) climate change trends, impacts and vulnerabilities; (2) mid-term adaptation vision, goals and targets; (3) current and planned adaptation undertakings; (4) gaps and barriers; (5) summary of needs; and (6) monitoring and reporting progress. The NDC outlines agriculture, health, water resources, energy, forestry and transport as the most climate-sensitive sectors, also a priority for the NAP process. Moldova is working towards the consideration of climate change adaptation at all levels of planning, which will secure more sustainable development and advance the progress towards the SDGs.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Provided support for the to other adaptation projects

 

 

The "Supporting Moldova’s National Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process" project  is funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation Agency (ADA). The NAP-GSP helped support this project.

 

 

Organised the Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia Regional Workshop on the NAP process

 

 
 

In June 2016, the NAP-GSP organised a Regional Workshop, in Chisinau, Moldova. The workshop convened government representatives from across the region to share experiences and knowledge on how best to advance the NAP process.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

Specifically supported with the drafting of the Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal, outlining finance needs for the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2), to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The Readiness proposal was submitted to the GCF on 19th August 2016 for review.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (24.257812488468 42.342305277685)
Funding Source: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

 > Improving meteorological services in Moldova

11 April 2016, Moldova  - This UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures how improved meteorological services can provide advanced warning on extreme weather, allowing farmers and communities to further plan ahead and prepare for the exacerbating impacts of climate change

Display Photo: 
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2013
Description: 
The first phase of the NAP process (NAP-1) is initiated
Month-Year: 
Sep 2016
Description: 
Moldova submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
A survey with line ministries is finalised and identifies further areas in Moldova's adaptation that require support
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
A workshop is held to discuss adaptation priorities
Month-Year: 
Jun 2017
Description: 
Moldova ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
The NAP-1 is completed, with almost all activities in the initial document implemented within an overall budget of US$ 1.2 million
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
Two Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposals are being drafted, with support from UNDP and FAO, to request funding from the GCF to support the second phase of the NAP process (NAP-2)

National Adaptation Plans in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The project to “Advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate sensitive sectors in Bosnia-Herzegovina (B&H)” will support the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and reach goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Green Climate Fund (GCF) resources will be used to enable the government to integrate climate change-related risks, coping strategies and opportunities into ongoing development planning and budgeting processes.

Bosnia-Herzegovina’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) will build on the country’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy of 2013. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes: supporting evidence-based policy development for climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities; creating effective institutional and regulatory frameworks; mainstreaming climate change adaptation approaches into decision making; and effectively assigning resources and reaching implementation goals. The implementation of the strategy has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to undertake adaptation measures.

To overcome these challenges, and support reach UNDP’s signature solutions to “strengthen effective, inclusive and accountable governance” and “enhance national prevention and recovery capacities for resilient societies,” the project will advance adaptation planning in B&H with a focus on sectoral approaches, upgrading the knowledge base for adaptation, prioritising adaptation interventions for the medium term, building institutional capacities for integrating climate change adaptation, and demonstrating innovative ways of financing adaptation at sub-national and local government levels. Proposed activities will result in the compilation of a NAP and an implementation strategy focused on scaling-up adaptation in key sectors for the medium-term. Through the project, the Government of Bosnia-Herzegovina will also develop municipal-level investment financing instruments with public and private sector engagement, and build national, sub-national and sectoral capacity to integrate and mainstream risk informed planning and budgeting.

The project will be implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of climate change adaptation activities throughout the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (17.720947240891 43.901586712827)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,278,920
Project Details: 

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign state with a decentralized political and administrative structure. It comprises two entities: Republika Srpska (RS) and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H), and Brčko District. Decision making involves the Council of Ministers, two entities (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska) and Brčko District. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is sub-divided into 10 Cantons, while Republika Srpska has a centralized structure. The entities have a very high degree of autonomy, with their president, parliament, government and courts. The entities have jurisdiction in the areas of environment, water management, agriculture, forestry, energy, civil administration, health, education, police department and physical planning. Authority at the state level covers foreign policy, defense, border monitoring, foreign trade, fiscal and monetary politics.

With a population of 3,791,622 and total surface area of 51,209.2 km², Bosnia and Herzegovina is located at Balkan Peninsula. It is composed of 51,197 km² of land and 12.2 km² of sea and belongs to the Adriatic basin and the Black Sea basin. Of the total land area, 5% is lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karst regions.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has several climate types: the temperate continental climate type (northern and central parts), the sub-mountainous and mountainous type, the Adriatic and modified Adriatic climate type. Temperature increase on annual level and change of precipitation schedule is evident in the entire area, resulting in extreme weather conditions.

Extreme climate events in Bosnia and Herzegovina are becoming more frequent. In the past 16 years, drought was experienced during seven years (2000, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013). In addition, years with floods are very common (2004, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2014). Economic damages are vast, especially in the water, agricultural and housing sectors. The total economic impact of the 2014 floods is estimated to have reached 2.04 billion EUR, or 15% of B&H's GDP in 2014. Extreme climate events were especially pronounced during the last seven years:

  • in 2009, 2010 and 2014 major floods were recorded;
  • in 2011, 2012 and 2013 there were severe droughts and waves of high/tropical temperatures;
  • in early 2012 there was a wave of extreme cold; and
  • In mid-2012 there were windstorms.

 

The NAP process

The Bosnia and Herzegovina UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology, RS, officially launched the NAP process in 2016. The NAP process began with a national consultation that engaged sector ministries and local government units via associations of cities and municipalities in both entities (Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H).

As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) has undertaken important steps towards understanding and addressing climate change issues. It is increasingly recognized not only by the Government and scientific community, but also by its citizens that climate change is an issue of key strategic importance. B&H has put great emphasis on climate change as one of the most significant development challenges facing the country. The importance of adaptation was clearly reflected in its Second National Communications and Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy (CCA LEDs), adopted in 2013. In 2015, B&H submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), as part of the negotiations leading to the historic Paris Agreement, which it signed in April 2016.

In 2017, B&H submitted its Third National Communication (TNC) to the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The TNC provides further update and strengthens information regarding national circumstances, vulnerabilities to climate change, steps taken to adapt to climate change and information on public awareness, education, training, systematic research and observation and technology transfer.

B&H’s Climate Change Adaptation and Low Emission Development Strategy itself is of key importance to the NAP process. The strategy was adopted by the B&H Council of Ministers on October 8, 2013 and utilized the then available observed and projected climate change impacts on key sectors in the country including agriculture, water, hydropower, human health, forestry, biodiversity/sensitive ecosystems and tourism. The strategy is based on four specific outcomes covering climate change risks, vulnerabilities and opportunities supporting evidence-based policy development, effective institutional and regulatory framework, mainstreaming CCA approaches into decision making, and effective resourcing with timely and effective implementation.  However, its implementation has slowed mainly due to lack of knowledge and institutional capacity to project, attract finances and undertake adaptation measures.

Authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina and key domestic stakeholders realize the increasing threat posed to them and the development of the country by climate change and the need of adapting to it in order to avoid or minimise negative consequences. The government is motivated to support and implement the NAP process as adaptation issues are becoming very important for the country’s further development. The problem that this readiness and preparatory support project will address is that despite the government motivation and extreme climate events already observed in the country, climate change is insufficiently integrated into development planning processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main identified barriers to change are:

  • Limited institutional capacities and weak vertical and horizontal coordination for adaptation planning and implementation caused by complex administrative structure and top-down approach, limited stakeholders’ participation in B&H strategic planning for adaptation, inadequate level of technical knowledge on climate change adaptation of staff in sectoral ministries, limited training on climate change issues and low capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse, communicate, and use climate risks and impacts for sectors.
  • Limited climate Information to support integration of climate change into planning and budgeting due to limited existence of scientific data and information on climate impacts and vulnerability assessments, limited knowledge of current climate variability, and a lack of systematic information on environmental protection.
  • Alternative sources of finance, including innovative funds are not optimized as neither climate change adaptation, nor disaster-risk reduction (DRR) activities are included in budgeting on any level (municipal, cantonal, entity), and effective finance plan for securing adequate funds from a range of sources for adaptation does not exist.

 

By addressing the above barriers, this project will contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

The preferred solution is to advance the NAP process through a) improving coordination mechanisms, b) strengthening technical expertise, and c) establishing mechanisms for financing climate change adaptation in the medium- to long-term.  The proposed project aims to overcome these barriers by:

  • Improving national coordination mechanisms for multi-sectoral planning and implementation at the national and sub-national levels. Capitalizing on lessons and knowledge gained from successful cross-entity and local development planning and management methodology such as that of Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP), the proposed project will support the strengthening of coordination between: i) different levels of government within the country; ii) technical experts; iii) private sector; iv) local communities v) civil society and vi) academia. The improved coordination will increase efficiency, ensure vertical connectivity, avoid redundancy and allow Bosnia and Herzegovina to leverage capacity that is present or being supported by other initiatives. In order to strengthen national coordination mechanisms, climate adaptation planning at municipal and cantonal levels will need to be included in the planning process from the outset, by a) differentiating capacity needs in municipality and cantonal from those at the entity level, b) clearly establishing roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders at the entity, municipal and cantonal levels. This will clarify the institutional arrangements for formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s NAP.  Existing policies and strategies will be used as entry-points for advancing the NAP process. Building on existing plans such as the CCA LEDS will ensure avoidance of parallel structures and processes that may lead to conflict or redundancy.
  • Enhancing in-country knowledge and technical capacity to a) appropriately apply policy guidance on climate change adaptation planning, and b) use existing climate assessments and analyses to inform medium- to long-term adaptation budgeting and planning. The project will support the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina by i) drawing on lessons from a successful Energy Management Information System (EMIS)[1] in developing a management information system with database open to all stakeholders across different levels of government on the NAP process, on-going institutional and technical capacity building, etc., ii) identify institutional and technical capacity gaps in utilization of climate information, data collection and analysis, and iii) build capacity of relevant staff to generate and analyse climate and socio-economic data and to select most efficient adaptation solutions. This suite of solutions will support science- and evidence-backed arguments (and proposed interventions) to convince policymakers at the planning and finance ministries and ensure appropriate attention is given to climate change adaptation and ensure sustainability of the National Adaptation Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
  • Establishing a financing framework for climate change adaptation action in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the bottom-up. The project will support the development of a financing framework at the municipal level, including identification of possible innovative financing solutions for climate change adaptation action. The project will further seek to i) conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors in selected municipalities; ii) identify policy options for scaling up adaptation, including by engaging and incentivizing the private sector in adaptation, in addition to its corporate social responsibility; iii) development of municipal assistance tools for adaptation planning and financing, and iv) training of staff to apply the tools in the design of ‘bankable’ adaptation interventions. By undertaking these interventions, appropriate financing for climate change adaptation action is expected to be met for medium- to long-term planning. 

 

Stakeholder engagement

The most important Governmental institutions include, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology (MSPCEE) as B&H UNFCCC and GCF focal point, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (MoFTER) as a state level ministry in charge of coordination of CCA activities throughout the country, Federal Ministry for Environment and Tourism (FMoET)  and entity ministries of agriculture, forestry and water management (Republic of Srpska Ministry of  Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management – MAFW RS and Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry – FMAWF), having in mind vulnerability of water, agriculture and forestry sectors in B&H. The non-state actors, in addition to international organizations, include non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as associations of municipalities, chambers of commerce and civil society, active in environmental sector. The principal Donors and International Organizations are the UNDP, World Bank, European Commission and other bilateral donors. Private sector can be divided into consulting companies specialized in water management, agricultural services etc. and construction companies. Research institutions (the Agricultural Institute and Economics Institute), along will state (faculties of sciences and faculties of civil engineering) and private universities, are also stakeholders of huge importance.

The National Adaptation Plan of B&H will require greater coordination between the MoFTER and entity ministries, as well as coordination among ministries for climate change to be included in the budget policy. Important part of NAP will be devoted to municipalities to strengthen their role in CCA and its budgeting.

Related projects

Other important project initiatives in B&H of relevance to the NAP process in relation to its planned outcomes and activities include: 

  • Capacity Development for the Integration of Global Environmental Commitments into National Policies and Development Decision Making (GEF) - for facilitating cross-sectoral and participatory approaches to natural resource management planning and implementation; including developing individual and institutional capacities to better adapt and apply global environmental management indicators as a monitoring tool to assess the intervention performance and institutional sustainability
  • Flood Hazard and Flood Risk Maps of B&H of the Western Balkans Investment Framework (WBIF). The overall objective of this project is to prepare the expert basis needed to ensure protection against floods for existing and future facilities and raise the level of knowledge on flood hazard and flood risk in the most prone-to areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It will be achieved via development of flood hazard and flood risk maps. Therefore, its aim is to raise awareness of the likelihood of floods among stakeholders (population, state and local government, future investors, etc.) and, thereby, reduce the vulnerability of the population and properties (injury, death, material and economic damages, etc.) to flooding under extreme conditions. This 2-year project started in July 2016.
  • Technology Transfer for Climate Resilient Flood Risk Management – SCCF funded UNDP implemented project. The SCCF funds will be used to enable the communities of the Vrbas basin (12% of B&H) to adapt to flood risk through the transfer of adaptation technologies for climate resilient flood management, upgrade and rehabilitation of the hydrometric monitoring network, development of a flood forecasting system and early warning system, development of emergency response plans, and provision of training in flood-specific civil protection. Importantly, the project will provide targeted training on climate-induced Flood Risk Management (FRM) to over 100 practitioners and decisions makers and will develop an institutional capacity development plan for the long-term development of capability and capacity in FRM.
  • Emergency Flood Relief and Prevention Project - EIB Loan. The total value of this project is 55 million Euros with implementation period 2012-2017. The purpose of the project is to safeguard the agriculture, industrial and housing areas prone to flood impacts and to enable a stable basis for future development. The main focus of this project is construction of hard engineering structures, mainly along the Sava River. The project also makes an inventory of damages to flood protection infrastructure within the main Danube tributaries
  • DRR Initiative and Disaster Reduction and Response Application for Municipalities (UNDP), UNDP has launched several initiatives with a purpose to support DRR efforts in B&H in a form of a road map to contribute to the achievement the four priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
  • Floods and Landslides Housing Risk Assessment – EU, The European Union launched the EU Flood Recovery Programme for B&H, in order to support recovery efforts after the floods of May 2014. The Programme aims at assisting people in the flood affected areas and communities in the 24 most affected municipalities to normalize their lives. Furthermore, the Programme recognizes the importance of investing in future risk informed decision making and it thus initiated the development of a Flood and Landslide Risk Assessment for the Housing Sector in B&H (Assessment). The Assessment focuses on the flood and landslide risk for the housing sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina, prioritizes locations based on risk ranking and makes recommendations for risk reduction.
  • Support to Flood Protection and Water Management – EC Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA II 2014 – 2020), The Action supports the development of integrated flood risk management in B&H observing the cornerstone relevant European Union Floods Directive. The assistance is provided within two components through sets of activities aiming to increase capacities (in terms of prevention, protection and preparedness) for integrated flood risk management. Component 1 is designed for the development of hydrological forecasting system for Bosna River Basin. The scope of Component 2 is re/building infrastructure for protection from potential floods at the sites with highest flood risk. The two components are implemented with synergetic efforts to establish and strengthen the network of key stakeholders and institutions for integrated flood risk management in the country.
  • West Balkans Drina River Basin Management Project (GEF)- World Bank project to assist the countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro to achieve improved planning and implementation for integrated, cooperative management of the trans-boundary Drina River basin
  • Municipal Infrastructure Development Fund (MIDF)- EBRD/KfW, The Fund is registered in Luxemburg and will involve local banks to provide loans in the amount of up to EUR 5 mln. In B&H no loans have been processed by the Fund yet and EBRD would be very interested in collaborating through NAP initiative to support sub-sovereign resilient development finance.
  • Integrated Local Development Planning (ILDP) – SDC. This project, launched in 2008 has resulted in application of a methodology for Integrated Local Development Planning, as an instrument for proactive and responsible planning and management of local development in B&H. The methodology has been adopted by both Association of cities and municipalities in Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H and recommended for implementation by entity governments. It has been used by more than 50 municipalities across B&H.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process.
Under the first outcome, the project aims to lay the groundwork for the NAP process by strengthening institutional coordination, including through i) an establishment of a coordination structure that includes among others, key multi-sectoral actors and municipalities, ii) development of manuals, standard operating procedures and trainings, iii) formulation of the NAP and iv) enhancement of communication and outreach.

1.1 National institutional arrangements to coordinate adaptation processes are in place.

This sub-outcome responds to the identified barrier on weak coordination, by examining the current structure and instituting a multi-sectoral steering mechanism to formulate and implement the NAP. The steering mechanism will be built on lessons from and be fashioned around the sound and proven approach applied by the Integrated Local Development Planning project, while furthering the development of mid-term municipal investment programming and financial planning (outcome 3) that integrates CCA.

Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:

1.1.1 Establish an inter-agency working group to enable an active and participatory approach to advance the NAP

1.1.2 Conduct gaps assessments focused on existing processes, technical capacity, frameworks and coordination to improve coordination across sectors and levels of government

1.1.3 Analyse existing regulatory framework, policies and plans and assess entry points to identify opportunities to integrate climate risk considerations

1.1.4 Develop Standard Operating Procedures for coordination of adaptation within sectors and between agencies and among working groups at the state, entity, cantonal and municipal levels

1.1.5 Constitute a multi-disciplinary drafting team (a subset of the working group in 1.1.1), compile available technical studies and assessments and draft the NAP for B&H

1.2 Mechanisms for regularly reviewing and updating NAP are in place
Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on gender sensitive monitoring, learning and review of NAP, adaptation processes as well as development of tracking and reporting mechanisms of financial investments for adaptation. These will in turn support the iterative development of B&H’s NAP.

Activities proposed under this sub-outcome include:

1.2.1 Development of technical guidelines for M&E activities

1.2.2 Identify appropriate gender-sensitive indicators for monitoring climate change impacts and a system to collect data

1.2.3 Undertake capacity building on M&E

1.2.4 Establish and maintain an effective M&E system for adaptation and inter-alia the NAP process, adaptation investments and assess their effectiveness and relevance

1.2.5 Undertake peer review of NAP and make it publicly available for information and comments from general public

1.3 Communication and outreach for NAP process enhanced
Within this sub-outcome, the strategy will be developed to communicate the importance of climate resilient development and medium to long-term adaptation planning. This activity will start with identification of most effective communication channels to highlight the NAP process and climate change adaptation concerns. Activities will include steps to raise awareness on both - the project results and climate change issues.

1.3.1 Develop and implement communication and outreach strategy for medium to long-term adaptation planning

1.3.2 Increase the coverage and visibility of project activities for both domestic and international audiences

1.3.3 Document and communicate lessons learned and best practice in order to encourage replication of successful approaches

1.3.4 Finalize the NAP for official endorsement and place online and submit internationally to the UNFCCC NAP central

Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors.
Under the second outcome, capacity of stakeholders and institutions will be strengthened to climate vulnerability assessments and development of socio-economic scenarios. Adaptation options for agriculture and water sectors will also be prioritized using multi-criteria and/or cost benefit analyses.

2.1 System to gather, organize and update relevant data and information on adaptation established or strengthened
Activities under this sub-outcome will establish a system to gather and organize climate change-related data from across sectors and levels of government, and train relevant staff to maintain it in the medium-to-long term. The Energy Management Information System model will be applied in development of a system to gather and share data across entities and all sectors/levels of government.

2.1.1 Create climate change data management system accessible to all stakeholders

2.1.2 Utilise information on key climate change vulnerability scenarios and projected impacts as informed by 2.3.1 to enhance initial capacity gaps assessments (carried out under 1.1.2)

2.1.3 Capacity building of relevant sectors and levels of government to report on and utilize information for decision making on adaptation interventions Data/ information utilisation will be part of capacity building programme implemented under sub-outcome 2.2.1.

2.2 Capacity for design and implementation of adaptation strengthened
Capacity gaps identified in sub-outcomes 1.1 and 2.1 will be addressed through this sub-outcome to strengthen the individual and institutional capacity to identify, prioritise and monitor effectiveness of adaptation interventions.

2.2.1 Informed by 1.1.2, 2.1.2 and 2.3.1, formulate a capacity development plan for upgrading skills and knowledge of government staff on adaptation.

2.2.2 Sensitize and train policy makers and stakeholders

2.3 Available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation investments increased or shared in at least 2 priority sectors and 4 or 5 municipalities.
Activities within this sub-outcome aim to increase the skills and capacity of staff in relevant institutions to generate and/or use assessments towards science-informed policy making in agriculture and water sectors as well as sub-national development.

2.3.1 Undertake a review of existing vulnerability assessments (including the information from National Communications) for key priority sectors

2.3.2 Quantitatively assess socio-economic and environmental change scenarios for the medium to long-term, for agriculture and water sectors in B&H

2.3.3 Identify and prioritize options for climate change adaptation in 2 priority sectors based on findings of 2.3.1-2

Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities.
Under the third outcome, the project aims to introduce an innovative, sustainable and bottom-up approach to adaptation investments in 4-5 selected municipalities informed by activities under outcomes 1 and 2. A set of guidance and tools will also be developed to potentially scale-up these activities through future adaptation investments outside these initial municipalities.

3.1 Studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors conducted and financing strategy developed
This sub-outcome will include development of a financing strategy, incorporating analyses of national and sectoral adaptation finance needs and a prioritisation of national adaptation investments.

3.1.1 Analyse current budgetary and extra-budgetary expenses, sources of funding and other financing mechanisms used to address climate change impacts

3.1.2 Identify financial resources required to meet adaptation strategies and develop a financing strategy

3.1.3 Develop two GCF concepts along with pre-feasibility studies concepts for 2 follow-up priority CCA projects

3.2 Policy options for scaling up financing adaptation analysed and recommended
Under this sub-outcome financing opportunities and new sources of funding will be identified, with particular focus on sub-national level to set the ground for active participation of municipalities in reaching out to complementary sources of funding that are available and feasible for accessing by local authorities.

3.2.1 Assess existing market barriers for up to 2 municipalities and identify effective means of de-risking market-based adaptation financing transactions

3.2.2 Assess feasibility of complementary sources of finance, including private sector capital

3.2.3 Define and demonstrate new financing approach for accessing adaptation finance by municipalities

3.2.4 Develop methodology and tools for multi-year capital investment risk informed programming and prioritization as well as for long-term forecasting and mid-term financial planning at municipal level

3.3 Practical methodology for CCA planning and access to finance introduced in selected municipalities
In order to introduce innovative financial mechanisms facilitating access to supplemental adaptation financing at the sub-national level, new financing approaches for accessing adaptation will be developed and tested in 4-5 municipalities. This will be undertaken through the application of pertinent financial tools with the aim of further replication. Adaptation projects will be addressed in budgetary planning and allocation processes.

3.3.1 Test new financing approach (linked to activity 3.2) and prepare investment programming, prioritization and financial planning tools to support municipal access to domestic market financing to leverage additional sources of funding for effective adaptation implementation

3.3.2 Carry out municipal CCA finance start-up and orientation workshops

3.3.3 Assist selected municipalities and local professionals through expert support and practical hands-on training

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Effective national adaptation coordination system established to drive the NAP process

Outcome 2 - Capacity for climate vulnerability assessments, development of socio-economic scenarios strengthened, and adaptation options prioritized for two key sectors

Outcome 3 - Innovative financing strategy for adaptation investments developed and tested in four to five selected municipalities

National Adaptation Plans in Ecuador

Through the “Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for National Adaptation Plan in Ecuador” project, the Government of Ecuador is working to develop a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, build adaptive capacity in prioritized sectors, and facilitate the coherent integration of climate change adaptation into development planning processes, policies and strategies related to food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; productive and strategic sectors; health; water patrimony; natural heritage; and human settlements.

The development of Ecuador’s NAP will follow the directives of the National Strategy for Climate Change (NSCC) and form an integral part of the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement, as well as efforts to reach the goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

The project will contribute to increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions; increased resilience of health and well-being, and food and water security; increased resilience of infrastructure and the built environment to climate change threats; improved resilience of ecosystems and ecosystem services; strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate-responsive planning and development; increased generation and use of climate information in decision-making; strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks; and strengthened awareness of climate threats and risk-reduction processes.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-79.584960937617 -2.1118256301711)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$3 million
Project Details: 

The project will be carried out for the four elements of the NAP process laid out by the UNFCCC technical guidelines, with special emphasis on elements A, B and C. The gaps in CCA integration into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels were identified during the inception workshop that took place in February 2017, and will be further addressed during the NAP process. The main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into sectoral, territorial and local planning and budgeting are: a. lack of policies and technical standards to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral and territorial scale; b. limited scale resolution of available climate projections and poor territorial coverage of vulnerability studies; c. insufficient information and limited capacities to perform climate risks analysis at sectoral and territorial level; d. limited capacities of the technical staff (public and private technical staff) to integrate CCA on development planning; and e. insufficient coordination between ministries and Decentralized Autonomous Governments (at different levels of governance) to implement CCA actions and integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local level.

GCF resources will enable the Government of Ecuador to contribute to the creation and strengthening of technical capacities (individual and institutional) to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into the central and local governments' development planning and budget processes. The resources will also enable the generation of climate information with better resolution and scale, as well as assessments of vulnerability and climate risks at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In addition, the funds will allow for the design of technical tools and instruments (guidelines, standards, strategies, etc.) to guide the integration of CCA into development planning and enable the dissemination of it progress and results. The funds will also allow the formulation of financing strategies / mechanisms for adaptation management at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

Objectives, outcomes and impact

The project will ultimately enable reducing vulnerabilities of communities and assets throughout Ecuador. By targeting processes of adaptation and development planning at both central and local levels, the project aims to strengthen planners and decision makers’ capacity to assess climate risks and vulnerability and to identify best suitable adaptation actions and investments to increase their resilience. The project aims particularly to build enabling conditions for integrating climate risk information in development planning through: (i) Improving the coverage and spatial and temporal resolution of climate projections, risk and vulnerability analyses; (ii) Strengthening institutional capacities through the development of guidance documents (standards, technical guidelines, etc.), regulations (at central and local levels), standardized methods and tools to facilitate managing climate risks; (iii) Providing training to key staff, partners and stakeholders (public and private) to facilitate the integration of CCA into development planning and budgeting processes at sectoral, territorial and local level; iii) Designing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) mechanisms for the NAP process and for the adaptation actions implemented by stakeholders; iv) Formulating strategies to ensure that financing, sustainability, scaling up and replication of CCA actions meet the surge in requirements during the NAP process.

The impacts of these activities will be far-reaching in creating the foundation for integrating climate risks in development planning through improved climate information, strengthened institutional and technical capacities, tools to identify and implement adaptation options and a financing strategy. It is expected that this would lead to an increased adaptive capacity and resilience and reduced vulnerability of human and natural systems. In addition, a few major current and planned national initiatives will be complemented, improved and strengthened through the NAP process, as is the case of: SENPLADES’s guidelines to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans; MAE’s guidelines to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local level; and, CONGOPE’s planned project to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies.

The NSCC and the proposed NAP are in line with the Constitution of Ecuador which outlines that the State would adopt measures to respond to climate change and protect the populations at risk, and are also aligned with the National Development Plan (NDP) of Ecuador which states the need to "Implement mitigation and adaptation to climate change to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability."

Ecuador started the NAP process with an inception workshop hosted in February 2017 involving several key national institutions as well as agencies that have shown an interest in integrating climate change adaptation into the development planning process at sectoral and territorial levels.

Context

Ecuador is an Andean country in the Western Hemisphere, in the north-west of South America, with a total area of 257,217 km2 including the Galapagos Islands, and 16.3 million habitants as of 2015. The Southern Andes mountain range divides the continental territory of Ecuador into three different regions: Coast, Andes and Amazon. It is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries on the planet.

The National Participatory Planning System (NPPS) considers and incorporates climate change criteria in its structure, through the “top-level planning tools,” consisting of: Constitution of the Republic, National Development Plan (NDP), National Agenda for Productive Transformation, and National Strategy for Equality and Eradication of Poverty.

The Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador is a global pioneer in its acknowledgment of the rights of Nature, and establishing the State's obligation to reduce the vulnerability of people, communities and nature against the negative effects of natural or man-made disasters (including climate related). The NDP further states the specific requirement to "implement climate change mitigation and adaptation to reduce economic and environmental vulnerability".

The NPPS is complemented by secondary-level planning tools such as: Sectoral Policy and Institutional Planning (tools that provide, at government level, the strategic guidelines that have been identified and prioritized by the top-level planning tools); Zonal Planning Agendas (which articulate the national public policy according to the provisions of the National Territorial Strategy (NTS)); and Inter-sectoral Coordination Agendas (which manage cross-cutting issues such as environmental and risk management, and climate change). Meanwhile, various policies related to the management of climate change are contained in the National Climate Change Strategy.

Stakeholders

The key actors for the NAP process are the members of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC), established in 2010 as the governmental organ for the coordination and integral execution of national policies related to climate change. The ICCC is led by the Ministry of Environment (MAE), through its Under-Secretariat for Climate Change. The ministry is also the National Focal Point for the UNFCCC, as well as the NDA for the GCF. Other key actors in the NAP process include various ministries, national secretariats, public research institutes, universities, Decentralized Autonomous Governments and their associated bodies, and civil society organizations, including women´s groups and indigenous populations, among others.

Ecuador began its NAP process in February 2017 with an Inception Workshop, which convened the main stakeholders involved in climate change adaptation management in the country. The workshop began a consultation- and interaction-oriented process, with the aim to compile useful information for the preparation of the initial proposal and subsequent activities. Participants to this workshop included representatives of nearly all ministries, local government representatives as well as specialized agencies (Meteorological institute), and civil society organizations.

The NAP process will include very extensive consultations at all levels to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensuring the participation of indigenous populations, and prevent the buildup of adverse social implications. The NAP will make use of all existing mechanisms and bodies (e.g. citizen council sectors) to enable as wide a participation of all relevant actors as possible.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

This output will address three of the four steps of the element A of the NAP guidelines. Its main objectives are to support the institutionalization of the NAP process as well as to assess and address the technical and policy gaps that limit the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in the country. Recognition of barriers is further promoted through studies and inventories of the needs, weaknesses and gaps that hinder assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors in Ecuador, as well as limitations and restrictions of available future climate information. Finally, communication and awareness strategies on the importance of climate change adaptation will be designed.

1.1 Establish a methodology and institutional coordination process for the development, implementation and review of NAP.

The NAP process has been initiated in the country through an Inception Workshop, but it is now necessary that this process be institutionalized. For that purpose, a common methodology needs to be agreed by the stakeholders outlining the main steps, tools and methods needed for steering, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the NAP. This methodology will be guiding the NAP development and implementation as well as possible future revision of the NAP with attention given to ways for financing the future exercises in an autonomous, sustainable manner.

The Inception Workshop also discussed the need for improved institutional coordination to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Participants agreed that the Ministry of Environment (MAE) should lead the NAP process in its capacity of chair of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC) and as the National Designated Authority of the Green Climate Fund, and the National Secretariat for Planning and Development (SENPLADES) should participate as main partner in the design and implementation of the NAP´s phases. While the ICCC provides a high-level coordination body for climate change policies on the country, there is a need to design coordination mechanisms at other levels to coordinate the development and implementation of NAP, including the creation of Sectoral Working Groups for the sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and to consider the inclusion of other stakeholders in addition to the government ministries and agencies.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.1.1 Design and establish through normative instruments (e.g. ministerial agreements) a specific and detailed methodology that guides the preparation and future revisions of the NAP, to be steered by the intra-institutional committee on Climate Change. This methodology will be developed through workshops, official consultations and other participatory and gender-balanced coordination mechanisms steered by the NDA’s office and will enable the institutionalization of the NAP process.

1.1.2 Establish institutional integration mechanisms for the coordination of the NAP, taking into account the structure and sectoral priorities established by the NSCC, and ensuring participation of all relevant stakeholders.  Priority will be given to the participation of women groups and indigenous people in consultation processes that will be carried out during NAP construction. Existing and other emerging mechanisms and bodies will be used (e.g., ICCC, Citizen Councils, Sectoral Working Groups related with the NAP process and other Working Groups that are being established for the National Determinate Contributions (NDC) construction phase).

1.2. Stocktake and assess gaps impeding adaptation planning, in climate information and analyses, technical capacity and skills at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In Ecuador, a limited degree of knowledge about the strengths, weaknesses and gaps in information, resources and tools necessary to facilitate, directly and indirectly, the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels remains. Some relevant actors and principal sources of information that support the development of this activity have been identified in the Stocktaking Report. A thorough assessment and gap analysis of climate information as well as capacity needs assessment are needed to enable identify adequate measures to palliate these gaps.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.2.1 Perform a comprehensive inventory with a proper analysis of the shortcomings and gaps of the social, economic and environmental information necessary for preparing assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors established by NCCS: i) food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; ii) productive and strategic sectors; iii) health; iv) water patrimony; v) natural heritage; and vi) human settlements. The inventory will be complemented with an assessment of available climate studies with focus on: a) a comparative study of their respective potentials to be used as inputs in the modeling of climate change impacts at the sectoral, territorial and local levels (useful in climate risk analysis); and b) a technical document with recommendations on complementary climate studies required.

1.2.2 Compile relevant experiences (from past and ongoing initiatives) of CCA actions in the six prioritized sectors that have been integrated (directly or indirectly) by ministries or GADs (sub-national governments) in development planning at territorial or local level. Additionally, complement these with information about other experiences relevant to CCA management in Ecuador (e.g. PRAA, PACC, REDD+ and other projects). This exercise will particularly attempt to synthesize lessons learned and best practices related to the private sector participation as well the incorporation of gender considerations and the effective participation of indigenous people in developed adaptive and/or consultation processes could be identified.

1.2.3 Analyze strengths, weaknesses (including technical skills) and resources needed to integrate climate change adaptation into current and in future processes of development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels (defined by NDP and oriented by SENPLADES through technical guidelines) as well as in policies, programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors, including planned private sector initiatives.

1.2.4 Design a proposal to strengthen and update the technical capacities of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with the aim to generate better climate data and relevant studies of climate change. The proposal will include a focus on training, equipment, and improvements in the processes of gathering and processing information.

1.3 .Design strategies for communication, awareness-raising and training for key actors linked to the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

The success of the NAP depends on having informed and committed stakeholders, partners and direct / indirect beneficiaries of the project that are conscious of the importance of integrating adaptation into the development planning process and its expected results (reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience at sectoral, territorial and local levels). This activity will focus on designing and implementing strategies for communication, awareness raising and capacity building for public and private planners and decision makers and other key actors related to the NAP process, including private sector. These strategies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 1.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

1.3.1 Develop and implement a communication and awareness-raising Strategy for relevant partners (i.e. technical and political focal points of ministries of the six prioritized sectors) and other key stakeholders (civil society delegates, local professional associations, private-sector staff, NGO personnel, academics and researchers, local governments, indigenous communities, private producer associations, women groups, etc.) linked to the NAP. This strategy will be constructed through a participative and gender sensitive process oriented to emphasize the importance of integrating CCA into development planning as an effective instrument to increase resilience; as well as to institutionalize the NAP process in the country.

1.3.2 Design and implement a training programme to strengthen the skills of technical staff (at least 100 public and private Technical staff) related to the integration of adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. This programme will be developed building upon the results of input 1.2.3 and in sets of workshops with national coverage, ensuring gender balance and participation of indigenous populations, and will also be part of the NAP institutionalization process.

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

This output will address the five steps of the element B of a NAP. Its main objective is to establish a solid base of information and knowledge that will adequately inform decision-making and facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in Ecuador. The optimization of climate forecasts will enable undertaking thorough climate vulnerability and risk assessment (including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses). Also, this output will address the identification, prioritization and valuation of adaptation actions and the development of guidelines for the integration of adaptation into development planning processes that will complement and improve existing sectoral and territorial guidelines (emitted by SENPLADES) and established technical procedures to work in CCA at local level (emitted by MAE). Finally, the NAP formulation and the design of the respective dissemination tools are also planned as part of this output.

2.1. Generate technical documents and additional climate studies for Ecuador.

Currently, in Ecuador there are multiple climate studies and future climate projections, but these fail to satisfy end-user requirements, because of their limited resolution and scale. There are climate projections useful for the medium and long term (the next 15 years, and until the end of the century) as well as statistical climate analyses that allow climate projections for the short and medium term (between 5 and 10 years into the future). The cell size has a low resolution (more than 100x100 km). In a cell of this size there are multiple topographic and land use conditions, and such a resolution is not granular enough to facilitate more accurate analysis and inform decision making at local level. For these reasons, it is essential to improve the available studies through downscaling techniques (dynamical or statistical downscaling) and use of observed weather data from additional meteorological stations.

These additional climate studies and technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the available climate projections and other available climate studies will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.1.1 Analyze available climate indices (related to extreme meteorological events) and climate trends (related to climate variability and change) to make short- and medium-term climate forecasts, useful for a precise identification of short- and medium-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels, which would in turn allow the definition of climate change adaptation actions to be included in the NAP.

2.1.2 Develop and apply a technical methodology for prioritization of specific zones (one specific geographical zone for each prioritized sector) based on sectoral needs, socio-economic scenarios and the information generated through the activities of output 1, activity 1.2. These prioritized zones will be useful for preparing studies of regionalization of climate projections (ref. 2.1.3) that provide key information to make long-term climate “forecasts” for the subsequent identification and prioritization of long-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

2.1.3 Generate six downscaled climate projections (one foreach prioritized sector) based on input 2.1.2, that allow the identification and categorization of climate hazards for each sector and the subsequent identification and prioritization of the respective CCA actions.

2.2 Perform vulnerability and climate risk studies at territorial and sectoral scales, including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses.

The vulnerability analyses available for Ecuador have been developed using different methodologies and approaches, which in many cases are not comparable. In addition, these analyses are not officially recognized because they do not have national coverage (in most cases they have local coverage: at the level of a watershed or canton or parish, or exceptionally at the provincial level).

On the other hand, the approach given by the IPCC in its Fifth Report in 2014 is still little known or used, which is why climate risk assessments are still at an early stage in the country. Undoubtedly, information about vulnerability and climate risk is a key input for decision-making in the development planning processes of ministries and GADs. These vulnerability and climate risk studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected the information generated in activity 2.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.2.1 Produce six sectoral Vulnerability and Climate Risk studies (one for each prioritized sector) including assessments of climate change impacts in the medium and long terms, using software models. These will be based on the information generated by inputs 2.1.2 and 2.1.3. Additionally, these studies will include the formulation of sets of CCA options (at the sectoral level) that will be integrated in the NAP document. In all cases, these studies will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into formulated actions. The studies will include assessing climate risks and impacts on vulnerable groups (e.g. women and indigenous peoples’) as well as some of their major livelihoods and economic activities.

2.2.2 Generate one territorial Vulnerability and Climate Risk study with local level granularity and with national coverage that includes an assessment of short- and medium-term impacts of climate threats. This study will use the information generated by input 2.1.1 and will establish adaptation actions typologies and CCA action profiles at territorial and local levels (at least 10 actions) to be included in the NAP. These typologies and adaptation action profiles will be developed with inputs from and consultation with relevant local stakeholders (key informants, private sector delegates and other relevant actors) and Sectoral Working Groups, making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into the formulated actions.

2.3 Develop valuation studies of climate change adaptation options.

Ecuador has not fully developed yet experience of determining the costs of CCA, and no standardized methodologies. It is essential to have accurate and reliable information about the costs of implementing prioritized adaptation actions as part of the activities of the NAP process, so that strategies and funding mechanisms can be designed appropriately. Such evaluation studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.2 and 3.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.3.1 Prioritize, appraise and evaluate CCA options emanating from inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 (to be selected and prioritized applying the criteria developed in input 3.1.1), considering the following aspects: i) cost analysis of non-adaptive options; ii) cost analysis of the social, economic and environmental benefits of adaptation; iii) cost analysis of adaptation actions to be implemented (selected in consideration of CCA actions identified in inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 and applying the prioritization criteria indicated in point 3.1.1); and iv) gender. In all cases, these analyses will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

2.4 Formulate and communicate an overarching NAP document that takes into account Sectoral and Sub-National considerations

Since the publication of the NSCC in 2012, there has been no other official instrument to guide public policy related to CCA management in Ecuador. In addition, the guidelines issued by MAE in 2014 (Ministerial Agreement N° 137) only address the integration of adaptation into local development planning. Therefore, the formulation of the NAP and the subsequent dissemination of its results and progress constitute a unique opportunity to have specific public policy instruments that facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. The availability of the NAP constitutes a fundamental contribution to its institutionalization process.

A draft NAP will be developed building on the results of activities 2.1,2.2, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.4 and 5.2. In addition, the NAP will be finalised after a process of consultation involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector. The consultation process will be defined in detail during activity 1.1.1 that sets out the methodology for the NAP. Following the consultation, the comments received will be compiled and integrated into the final NAP. This activity will be implemented as follows:

2.4.1 Formulate a draft National Adaptation Plan, structured as follows: i) diagnostics drawn from the studies/analysis of output 1; ii) climatic and vulnerability baseline Scenario drawn from activities 2.1 and 2.2; iii) prioritized adaptation options based on activities2.2 and 2.3; iv)NAP building process that includes the identification of key stakeholders, beneficiaries, responsible, deadlines, budgets, funding, etc.; v) implementation arrangements drawn from activity 3.2; vi) enabling instruments for the NAP process based on activities 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; vii) implementation strategy drawn from activity 3.4; viii) NAP MRV system and dissemination strategy drawn from activities 4.1 and 4.2; and, ix) funding strategy drawn from activity 5.1.

2.4.2 Undertake a participatory process involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector to validate the draft NAP. This process will include very extensive consultations to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensure the participation of private sector and indigenous populations, and prevent the build-up of adverse social and environmental implications.

2.4.3 Compile and finalise the NAP integrating review comments. The final NAP document will be included as the main input for the adaptation chapter in the Fourth National Communication expected to start in 2018.

2.5. Prepare guidelines for the vertical integration of CCA into development planning at the territorial and local scales.

The Explanatory Guide (MAE, 2014) provides guidelines for the preparation of local plans for climate change and for the effective incorporation of the climate change dimension into updating the development and land use plans of the GADS (additional to those published on this topic by SENPLADES in 2011 and 2014). These tools have produced satisfactory, if limited results, but it is clear that much more targeted instruments are needed. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, with new and improved technical guidelines and/or regulations. Undoubtedly, these guidelines will constitute a key element in the integration of adaptation in development planning processes under the responsibility of sectoral ministries and the GADs.

These guidelines to integrate CCA into development planning will be developed under this activity. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.5.1 Develop three technical guidelines and/or regulations to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning (one guideline for each level: sectoral, territorial and local). These instruments will be developed in inter-institutional articulation procedures between MAE, SENPLADES and the respective Sectoral Working Groups of the six prioritized sectors, with the final purpose of facilitating the integration of CCA in subnational development planning processes. This activity will complement other CCA current initiatives such as that undertaken by SENPLADES to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans, and the one initiated by MAE to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local scale.

Output 3.NAP implementation is facilitated.

This output will address the four steps of element C of the NAP. Its main objective is to contribute to the building of conditions necessary for the implementation of the NAP process in the country, and to promote, complement and improve the availability of tools and key instruments for the facilitation of the integration of CCA into development planning gat the sectoral, territorial and local levels (e.g., CONGOPE’s planned initiative financed by European Union to generate useful technical documents for the design and implementation of provincial climate change strategies). For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy for the implementation of adaptation actions, generating technical standards that will be useful for the planning and implementation of programs and projects related to the six sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and preparing a proposal for joint actions with similar initiatives at regional or supranational levels.

3.1 Define criteria for the prioritization of CCA actions.

Despite the many experiences in the design and implementation of projects and initiatives for CCA that exist in Ecuador, no standardized criteria have been developed to prioritize adaptation actions. Through various past and ongoing initiatives, various types of prioritization criteria have been tested (using different methodologies), but all of them only on an experimental basis. For this reason, it is essential to develop, in a standardized way, criteria that allow the prioritization of adaptation actions across the country.

The criteria will be developed by experts using the results of input2.3.1 with the sets of CCA options identifiedfrominputs2.2.1 and 2.2.2. It is expected that the criteria will be useful in other adaptation initiatives at sectoral, territorial and local levels; and it will be used as an official instrument of the MAE (through ministerial agreement or another other regulation) for future processes as well. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.1.1 Develop a list of prioritization criteria for CCA options (including multi criteria tools with a strong emphasis on gender). The prioritization criteria will be carried out with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring that it includes gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations, as well the private sector engagement to participate in the implementation of CCA actions.

3.2 Elaborate an implementation strategy of adaptation actions, joint actions with others ongoing adaptive initiatives (at national and international scale) and sustainability of the adaptation processes being promoted.

Many actors in Ecuador, must assume responsibility for the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, per their institutional functions. Similarly, other relevant actors, especially in the private sector, have participated in implementing adaptation initiatives that sometimes have been managed in isolation. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy that will enable a coordinated and synergistic action between different institutions in the public and private sector. It is expected that the information generated in activities 1.1 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.2.1 Develop an implementation strategy to carry out the prioritized adaptation options (prioritized through input 2.3.1) and for identifying synergies (at national and sub-national levels) that complement and provide sustainability to the NAP process. The strategy will be developed in coordination with sectoral ministries and other relevant stakeholders (through specific inter-ministerial/institutional arrangements defined through activity 1.1) by planned participation and discussion spaces (such as those that will be constituted for the Sectoral Working Groups, as mentioned in input 1.1.1 and section 6 of this proposal). This strategy also aims to incorporate the adaptation dimension into other planned sectoral actions which will increase the expected impact of the NAP because sectoral budgets will be added for the design and implementation phases of CCA selected options.

3.3. Generate technical documents for the horizontal integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at the sectoral levels.

Currently there are still very few usable technical standards in Ecuador that specifically relate climate change adaptation with the different phases of the project cycle. There are neither sufficient complementary normative instruments, nor technical documents that allow, for example, sufficient climate change adaptation-related information for adequate planning, design and execution of programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors. The availability of these technical documents (standards and instruments) would constitute a fundamental contribution to the integration of adaptation into the development planning process. These technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.3.1 Generate six technical standards relevant to the six prioritized sectors to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral level. These technical standards will provide technical data, recommendations and other inputs useful for the design and implementation of sectoral programmes and projects, and they will be developed in a participative manner with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

3.3.2 Develop two technical guidance documents on: i) adaptation options’ typologies; and ii) relevant aspects of CCA options design. These instruments will provide theoretical definitions, practical recommendations and examples for the main adaptation actions typologies (different kinds of CCA actions in each prioritized sector) and key aspects of their design (i.e. engineering adaptive solutions against the potential impacts of seasonal flow variations on the infrastructure or the operations of projects in the water sector). These documents will be used by technical staff, academics, consultants and other people connected to the phases of design and implementation of CCA options at sectoral, territorial and local levels, and they will be developed with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations. This activity will complement other planned CCA initiatives, such as the one that will be undertaken by CONGOPE to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies, and will provide specific inputs for other relevant initiatives at sectoral level like the NDC formulation and implementation process.

3.4. Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level.

In recent years, several actions or joint projects for climate change adaptation have been undertaken in the Andean region.

Most of these have been isolated cases and mostly with of a pilot or demonstration nature (e.g. the PRAA project). Undoubtedly, the development of the NAP process opens the way for synergistic / coordinated action with parallel initiatives in neighbouring countries (countries of the Andean region and/or South America), as well as other adaptive initiatives that are already in development. For this reason, it is essential to generate a proposal of synergies that permits the optimization of the use of the funds and better results in adaptation processes. This proposal will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in most of activities of outputs 2 and 3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.4.1 Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level (e.g., the Andean region and / or South America), including the drafting of Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) for interaction, exchange and transfer of information/knowledge and technology, etc. The agreements would be signed between the ministries of Ecuador and their counterparts in neighboring countries or with other competent authorities, as appropriate. Regional agreements will facilitate the development of binational/regional proposals that seek funding for joint CCA actions at the sectoral level.

Output 4. Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place. This output will address two of the four steps of the element D of an NAP. Its main objective is to build a mechanism that systematically allows the monitoring of the NAP process as well as the evaluation and dissemination of its progress and results. Undoubtedly, the use of indicators will allow a strong and appropriate evaluation mechanism of the progress and results of NAP process.

4.1 Design an MRV system for the NAP process effectiveness, based on indicators.

In Ecuador, the use of indicators to assess CCA actions and initiatives is still a pending task, because only experimental experiences or pilot projects are available. The measurement of the effectiveness of adaptation actions goes beyond the verification of their degree of compliance. A planned action must not only be executed according to the agreed timeframe and outputs, but also achieve the expected results. An MRV system will contribute significantly to the success of the NAP, and the integration of adaptation measures into the development planning processes.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

4.1.1 Develop indicators and a system of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of the national adaptation plan effectiveness, to measure: i) the level of integration of adaptation into the development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels; ii) the increased resilience and / or the reduced vulnerability at the sectoral, territorial and local levels; and iii) gender& indigenous peoples’ mainstreaming. This system will include a strategy for collecting data that will feed into the indicators.

4.2Generate periodic reports on progress and results of the NAP process.

The dissemination of the results generated by an MRV system ensures improvements in the public and private management of CCA, and in particular will significantly support the integration of adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Also, it is important that this kind of information be available because it constitutes a relevant input to the next National Communication on Climate Change.

These reports will be developed by the NAP team. All information related to the NAP process, as well as information from the MRV system (according to point 4.1.1), will be key inputs for the Fourth National Communication on Climate Change expected to start in 2018 (and subsequent National Communications). It is expected that the system implemented in activity 4.1 will be used as a relevant instrument for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

4.2.1Prepare and disseminate annual reports (technical documents) on the progress and results of the NAP process.

Output 5. Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

The main objective of this output is to support the generation of specialized information and a detailed strategy that provides concrete possibilities to ensure the financing and sustainability of the NAP process. Key instruments must be developed to help stakeholders mobilize the funding necessary for the integration of CCA into development planning, as well as for the implementation of prioritized CCA actions, including effective options for the private sector investments. For these reasons, it is very important to generate this specialized strategy as an instrument that allows the NAP process.

5.1 Define and design a funding and sustainability strategy of the NAP process (Including scaling and replication options).

In Ecuador, there have been only a few experiences of formulation of strategies for financing CCA at sectoral, territorial or local level. Equally, the theme of sustainability of adaptive actions and processes has usually come up against the absence of long-term resources. To overcome this limitation, it is planned to design a sustainability strategy to ensure ongoing and future adaptation initiatives. This activity will be implemented as follows:

5.1.1 Develop a financing and sustainability strategy for the NAP process (including options for scaling and replication) which quantifies the cost of adaptation options included in the NAP, and the identification of elements from the public and private sector, international cooperation, multilateral agencies, etc., who could co-finance adaptation activities in Ecuador. This strategy will include a detailed analysis of the alternatives and mechanisms to promote investments from the financial stakeholders, Also, this strategy will include a specific section of economic resources mobilisation options for private sector investments and the identification of coordinated and integrated measures and incentives to create a supportive and enabling environment for adaptation-related private investment, all of it with the final purpose to ensure the engagement of this sector. In addition, the Ecuadorian legal framework of Public & Private Alliances is expected to be applicate.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation is facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

National Adaptation Plans in Armenia

With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia" project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to address existing barriers, support the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement, and increase the identification of finance options.

With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.

The main beneficiaries of the project are the Inter-Agency Coordination Council, the State Hydro-Meteorological and Monitoring Service (Hydromet) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Nature Protection, and stakeholders from key priority sectors – including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements – identified in the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution.

In parallel to this project, Armenia has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for an 18-month project. With the Readiness and Preparatory Support project, the Government of Armenia seeks to strengthen the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF and establish a foundation for the development of a strategic framework for engagement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.


 

Coordinates: 
POINT (44.857177711967 40.195099775873)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,593
Project Details: 

The Government of Armenia launched its national stakeholder’s consultations for the national adaptation plan (NAP) process in June 2016. A preliminary action plan for NAP implementation was formulated during the stocktaking exercise and approved by the representatives of key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection. The government sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

Currently, there is no comprehensive framework for adaptation in Armenia, though the NDC and the National Communications provide a preliminary assessment of adaptation priorities. To address this gap, the project aims to support Armenia with developing a national plan for climate change adaptation (CCA).

The NAP will address the main challenges to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in the 2016 stakeholders’ consultations and the NAP Stocktaking report. The focus is on strengthening foundational capacities for adaptation and on ensuring that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability (beyond the life of the project). It is expected that at least two NAP iterations will be required for a complete and comprehensive mainstreaming of CCA into the national development framework and into the development plans of all sectors.

By targeting priority sectors identified in the 2015 NDC (natural resources, water, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement) and ensuring multi-level capacity across administrative levels, the project enables the mainstreaming of adaptation planning into central and local planning. By improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments, the project strengthens both the evidence base for decision-making and the ability to effectively use the available information to identify, assess and prioritize adaptation options. The introduction of technical methodological tools ensures that the use of pro-active adaptation measures will increase within sectors, propelling demand for additional CCA investments, and enabling the formulation of climate responsive and actionable financing strategies for furthering implementation of the Paris Agreement and the effective scaling up of our climate change adaptation actions.

Context

Armenia, a small, landlocked country in the Caucasus region, is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the Europe and Central Asia region. The country was ranked 85 out of 188 in the UNDP 2015 Human Development Index. It is heavily reliant on agriculture. A third of the population is rural (36.7%), and it is estimated that 35% of Armenia’s total population (3.27 million) lives under the national poverty line. Poverty is exacerbated by an unemployment rate of 28.6%. When combined with Armenia’s history of droughts, soil erosion and natural disasters, rural low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to heightened water insecurity, increased health risks, reduced agricultural productivity and increased incidences of extreme events.

Climate change impacts are already evident in Armenia. Between 1935 and 2012, annual mean temperature increased by more than 1°C, while annual precipitation decreased by close to 10%. The decrease in precipitation has not been spatially uniform, with the northeastern and central regions becoming more arid, and the southern and northwestern areas, including the Lake Sevan basin, experiencing increased precipitation. These climate trends place Armenia’s water resources under severe threat. The spatial and seasonal distribution of water resources in Armenia is extremely uneven. River flows are expected to decrease by 6.7% (by 2030), 14.5% (by 2070), and 24.4% (by 2100) compared to the 1961–1990 baseline period. In addition, expected ecosystem changes include a 21% decrease in the alpine zone area and a vertical shift of 100–150 m; a 30% expansion of semi-desert and desert areas; a 4% expansion of the steppe belt and a concurrent vertical shift by 150–200 m. By 2030, vertical movement of the forest belt by 100–200 m is also expected with significant negative impact on tree and plant species, reducing the environmental services provision of natural ecosystems. The 1935–2012 period experienced a significant increase in the frequency and intensity of hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena, such as extreme frost, extreme heat, heavy rainfall and hailstorms. Analysis of recent landslides shows an increase in climate driven events, such as mudflows. More than 4% of the country – in 2,500 discrete areas – has been identified as highly-vulnerable to climate driven events. In 2010, floods caused 45 rock falls. Although more limited in the territory, avalanches also endanger a significant number of settlements and communication routes. The damage caused by these extreme events (i.e., hail, frost, strong winds, heavy rainfalls, floods, droughts, heat waves) is also contributing to the generation, and escalation, of hazardous incidences, such as landslides, avalanches, forest wildfires, rock falls and infectious disease outbreaks. Agriculture is greatly at risk and these events have already increased crop losses by 10–15%.

NDCs and NAPs

Recognizing that reducing Armenia’s vulnerability to climate change requires greater investments and greater integration of CCA and disaster risk reduction (DRR). In 2016, the government began discussing the NAP process by conducting national consultations and undertaking a rapid stocktaking exercise. The stocktaking provides a qualitative assessment of the institutional framework and capacities relevant to the NAP process. The NAP is fully aligned with the adaptation component of the NDC, and is seen as one key in establishing a constructive feedback loop between Armenia’s national and international decision-making on climate change.

The project aims to address the current barriers to prioritized national investment in CCA, and to increase the availability of finance for the implementation of the priority actions identified in the national strategic framework. With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, CCA priorities and specific activities that promote climate adaptive and resilient growth in its key sectors. In the pivot away from ad-hoc, project-based approaches to a more coherent and strategic CCA approach that is integrated with implementation of the Paris Agreement, the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Armenia can realize a long-term paradigm shift towards reducing the climate risks it faces.

If the establishment of a national strategic framework (i.e., NAP process) is achieved and the technical capacity in the national institutions is built up, then demand for climate adaptive “products” will increase within sectors, driving the broadening of CCA activities across the country. This highlights CCAs unique position as both an ongoing process and an intermediate, normative, target that can help counter institutional tendencies towards inaction due to the high levels of uncertainty that accompany the expected needs from climate change impacts. By building the evidence base for (demonstration of) effective action, this project will ensure that transformative, longer-term outcomes can be achieved through mobilization of prioritized project-based financing.

Baseline Situation 

Knowledge on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and initial assessment of adaptation priorities in Armenia results from work conducted as part of the First (1998), Second (2010) and Third National Communications (2015) to the UNFCCC. While sector specific and regional studies and projects provide important information on climate modelling, impact analysis, vulnerabilities and potential adaptation measures; studies and associated data collection processes remain fragmentary, limited and uncoordinated. The Inter-Agency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, lacks clear mandates and responsibilities; and its representatives have limited knowledge of climate change and its impacts. This limits its efficacy and effectiveness as a coordinating body. To date, where adaptation has occurred, it has occurred ad-hoc on a project base, without cross-sectorial coordination. It has been limited in scale and scope without linkages to national priorities. Moreover, dedicated actions for reducing vulnerabilities are still sporadic. 

The sectorial agencies and local governments have limited dedicated capacity and lack tools and frameworks to integrate adaptation into policies and strategies. At the same time, climate related monitoring and evaluation (M&E), for both adaptation and mitigation, is embryonic. 

 CCA has gained importance within the NDC, which established the national climate priorities and priority sectors for adaptation; and with the National Communication that provided an initial assessment of adaptation needs. However, further integration of adaptation planning is needed. As such, the NAP is part of the systemic integration of adaptation into development planning to address climate risks more cohesively in the NDC, SDGs and Sendai Action Plan. The NAP process will provide added value and assist in addressing these limitations.

Stakeholder Consultations

The Government of Armenia sees the NAP process as key to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 NDC. The NAP is also seen as one of the mechanisms for achieving the commitments of the NDC, and establishing a constructive feedback loop between national and international decision-making on climate change. The Ministry of Nature Protection launched national stakeholder consultations for the NAP process in June 2016. As part of this process, a preliminary framework was envisioned based on the identified objectives of the NDC. During the UNDP-led NAP support mission and the country-based stocktaking exercise, key stakeholders, including the Ministry of Nature Protection, Hydromet, the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of the Emergency Situations, were consulted and interviewed, and a preliminary roadmap for NAP implementation was formulated and approved by representative of the key sectors and the Ministry of Nature Protection.

As an integral part of the NAP process a stakeholder communication and engagement plan, including a gender action plan, will be formulated to ensure that a wide range of stakeholders will be consulted and engaged at all stages of the NAP. Outreach and engagement activities will include sensitization, consultations and training workshops, and they will be tailored to reflect the needs of stakeholders to ensure that they can successfully implement the activities being undertaken. In general, engagement activities will focus on increasing stakeholder ownership and on increasing awareness and knowledge of climate adaptation’s role in addressing climate change impacts to sustain long-term engagement. Stakeholders will represent government institutions, financial and technical partners, international and national non-governmental organizations and local civil society. NGOs and CBOs, such as Green Lane, Khazer, Ecolur, ICare and OxYGen, will be integral to the participatory process. The role and involvement of the private sector will also be enhanced with targeted activities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

This output will address weaknesses in CCA coordination mechanisms, cross-sectorial engagement, and limited and compartmentalized technical skills in regard to adaptation planning and climate change in general. It will also aim to develop a long-term approach to capacity development that addresses both institutional capacity needs and individual skill development. 

Sub-outcome 1.1: Define the institutional arrangements for the NAP process

It is envisioned that Armenia’s NAP will be spearheaded by a multi-sectorial coordinating mechanism – the InterAgency Coordination Council, whose membership includes 14 ministries and two key agencies, and the Ministry of Nature Protection, building on Armenia’s 2015 NDC commitments to integrate planning for CCA into national and sectorial development objectives. This includes development of a NAP Conceptual Note (per Government Decision 49-8 of 2016). This will activate the necessary lower administrative level climate change adaptation and coordination mechanisms to initiate medium and long-term adaptation

Sub-outcome 1.2: Identity and systemize available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and assess gaps

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium- and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information, to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process.

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on compiling and synthesizing available climate risks and vulnerability assessments at sectorial, subnational and national levels, assessing and filling gaps, analyzing past and on-going adaptation initiatives and identifying future adaptation options. This will include a review of available climate data, which serves as the basis for all climate-related initiatives, to improve understanding of the baseline situation, strengthen justification for CCA interventions and improve decision-making capacity. A thorough review of the available information within relevant ministries and the priority sectors (water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements) is necessary as the existing data and analysis are fragmented and incomplete. 

Output 2: Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

As Armenia moves towards adopting a more holistic approach to adaptation and towards its integration into medium and long-term planning, it is crucial that it rely on a strong evidence base, including the best available climate and socio-economic information to strengthen appraisal of adaptation options, and ensure that the lessons learnt and the impacts of past initiatives are integrated into the NAP process. This will include improved understanding of the baseline situation, strengthening justification for CCA interventions and improved decision-making capacity. 

Sub-outcome 2.1: Improve access to and use of climate data

This Sub-outcome will establish a coordinated knowledge base for CCA and for developing the NAP, and will focus on synthesizing and updating available climate risks and vulnerability assessments, on filling gaps, and on improved access to and use of the available climate data and its related analysis

Sub-outcome 2.2: Identify and address capacity gaps and weaknesses to ensure local ownership of the NAP process

This Sub-outcome focuses establishing the foundation for integration of CCA into national and sectorial process through the increased CCA technical capacity, training, and the development of tools, methodologies and guidelines. These will sensitize and assist sectorial technical planners in improving understanding of CCA and its implications to sectorial action. Ensuring availability of capacity and technical skills to address the challenge of climate related analysis and interventions is a key component of ensuring that the NAP becomes an established and iterative process. Activities under this sub-outcome will focus on implementation of trainings that are focused on climate vulnerability assessment methodologies and socio-economic valuation tools (cost-benefit analysis, damage-loss, etc.). These will be developed and tested for technical planners from different sectors at national and sub-national organizations. It will also focus on identifying and implementing opportunities to mainstream gender sensitive CCA tools, methodologies, and trainings into relevant ministerial and local policies and practices to ensure cumulative improvements in national CCA activities.

Output 3: NAP implementation facilitated

Despite the recognized threat climate change poses to the country’s development, and its identification in the NDC, CCA is an emerging issue in Armenia. CCA is considered a sectorial issue that needs to be further integrated into sectorial development planning and budgeting, and further aligned with national priorities. The NAP process deals with the full integration of climate change concerns and climate risks into planning, budgeting and decision-making processes in all relevant sectors and at all administrative levels. NAP implementation will be relatively limited in this first NAP cycle as it is expected that at least two NAP cycles will be required for complete and comprehensive mainstreaming. This Output reinforces the foundations for CCA planning through the NAP framework.

Sub-outcome 3.1: Enhance the national capacity for adaptation planning

This Sub-outcome will focus on training and building awareness to improve integration of best practices and adaptation interventions into sectorial activities based on country-driven experiences, to ensure the usefulness of climate related information in the planning process. In the medium and long-term, improved methodological rigor in sectorial and local plans will support an improved evidence-base for climate-sensitive budgeting and will further synergies for future NAP cycles and national development plans:

Sub-outcome 3.2: Develop a national adaptation implementation strategy

The main goal of this Sub-outcome is to identify an evidence-based prioritized pipeline of strategic CCA interventions and appraise their feasibility for medium- and long-term implementation. Activities under this Sub-outcome will focus on identifying and prioritizing medium and long-term adaptation options, and on the development of a strong link between CCA and national development goals through the identified adaptation projects. This will complement capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems.

Sub-outcome 3.3: Compile and communicate the National Adaptation Plan

This activity focuses on support for NAP mainstreaming with a communication and outreach strategy to sensitize policy makers and all stakeholders, including the general public, on the importance of adaptation and to ensure that advocacy climate adaptation becomes a national priority. It will also ensure that awareness, once raised, is sustained. The communication and outreach strategy will be supported with an actionable engagement plan and a gender action plan. In addition, this Sub-outcome will help organize regular (e.g., annual) stakeholder (local, sectorial, national, private, public) thematic consultations and workshops to raise awareness on threats and opportunities related to climate change and the NAP process in particular. Knowledge management and outreach products will also be created as part of this effort.

Output 4: Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

This Output will contribute to essential functions 9 and 10 of the NAP process: “Facilitating and monitoring, review and updating of adaptation plans over time, to ensure progress and effectiveness of adaptation efforts and to demonstrate how gaps are being addressed” and “Coordinating reports and outreach on the NAP process to stakeholders nationally and internationally on progress to the Convention.” It would also go beyond the NAP, to include monitoring of adaptation interventions in the wider national development context.

Activity 4.1: Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP process and adaptation progress

The availability of up-to-date information has a significant impact on the ability to make informed and effective CCA decisions. At present, there is no harmonized data collection and distribution platform for CCA, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are limited. Specific, climate-focused M&E, for both adaptation and mitigation, is needed. This Sub-outcome will complement on-going capacity building and M&E activities under existing projects and initiatives, with a focus on the development of a gender-sensitive CCA M&E system. It will also set up a system that, based on progress made under the first NAP cycle (2018 – 2021), will allow Armenia to iteratively update the NAP over time, thus contributing to essential adaptation planning functions and help develop the activities for the second NAP cycle.

Output 5: Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

The NAP will serve as an investment framework and as a means of attracting domestic and international funding for adaptation activities, from public and private sources. To ensure the sustainability of the NAP process and Armenia’s on-going CCA efforts, it is critical to set up systems that will allow the NAP, and CCA in general, to be updated and funded over time, while continuing to support capacity building and inter-sectorial collaboration. Under this Output, the Sub-outcomes focus on determining the long-term financial needs to support gender sensitive adaptation while concurrently building climate-responsive budget planning capacity, and on identifying financing sources and opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. 

Sub-outcome 5.1: Establish a financing strategy for an iterative NAP process

This Sub-outcome will focus on improving financing options for short-and medium-term implementation of priority CCA measures, on the promotion of sustainable adaptation outcomes in the medium- and long-term and on opportunities to enhance access to climate finance by national actors and local authorities. Sound investment proposals, that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

Sub-outcome 5.2: Identify and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

Activities under this Sub-outcome will support increased private sector engagement in local CCA funding and complement ongoing capacity building to strengthen risk management and broaden the efficacy of decision support systems. Sound investment proposals that include a requisite base of feasibility studies, social and environment impact assessments and inclusive consultations, in particular of women and other vulnerable groups, will also be necessary to achieve the prioritized adaptation outcomes and to promote quality investments.

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

Output 2 - Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

National Adaptation Plans in Armenia

With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the "National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia" project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability. The project aims to address existing barriers, support the prioritization of climate change adaptation investments in priority sectors including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlement, and increase the identification of finance options.

With the development of a NAP process, Armenia will lay the groundwork for the systemic and iterative identification of medium- and long-term risks, establish adaptation priorities and build out specific activities that ensure no one is left behind in the country’s work to reach its goals outlined through the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the localization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the NAP process will contribute to the formulation of corresponding national climate-responsive indicators and targets.

The main beneficiaries of the project are the Inter-Agency Coordination Council, the State Hydro-Meteorological and Monitoring Service (Hydromet) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Nature Protection, and stakeholders from key priority sectors – including water resources, agriculture, energy, health, tourism and human settlements – identified in the 2015 Nationally Determined Contribution.

In parallel to this project, Armenia has submitted a request for Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for an 18-month project. With the Readiness and Preparatory Support project, the Government of Armenia seeks to strengthen the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the GCF and establish a foundation for the development of a strategic framework for engagement with GCF, including the preparation of concept notes within the country programme.


 

Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,999,593
Location: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - Gaps assessed and national mandate, strategy and steering mechanism established

Output 2 - Climate evidence and knowledge-base for the compilation of a NAP strengthened

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA formulated

Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities

Implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India with support UNDP, the 6-year project ‘Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities’ (2019-2024) will enhance the climate resilience of the most vulnerable populations, particularly women, in the coastal areas of India. The project will shift the paradigm towards a new approach integrating ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation into coastal management and planning by the public sector, the private sector and civil society.
 
The project will invest in ecological infrastructure to buffer against climate-induced hazards, especially storm surges, supporting climate-resilient coastal livelihoods, and enhancing climate-risk informed cross-sectoral planning and governance of the coastal zone. 
 
The project will contribute towards the achievement of climate priorities outlined in India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (2008), the State Action Plans, as well as commitments outlined in India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2015). 
 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (77.200927698987 28.644799623323)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1,744,970 direct beneficiaries (50% women) 10 million indirect beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$43.42 million via Green Climate Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$86.85 million via the Government of India
Project Details: 

This large-scale project will advance climate change adaptation across India’s coastal zone, with a focus on building the resilience of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha, whose coastal populations are particularly vulnerable to extreme events and slow onset climate impacts. 

Historically, the focus in India, as in most countries, has been on engineering-based solutions to climate challenges, such as building concrete structures to directly increase protection from waves and flooding. However, ecosystem-based solutions are increasingly being recognized worldwide  as cost-effective approaches with additional co-benefits for enhancing climate-adaptive livelihoods.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
Output 1: Enhanced resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems and their services 
Activity 1.1: Conducting vulnerability assessment of the coast to inform planning of ecosystem- and community-based adaptation interventions
Activity 1.2: Community-based conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems for increasing ecosystem resilience
 
Output 2: Climate-adaptive livelihoods for enhanced resilience of vulnerable coastal communities 
Activity 2.1: Building climate resilient livelihoods and enterprises through value chains and strengthened access to markets
Activity 2.2: Improving capacities of local communities on ecosystem-based adaptation and climate-resilient livelihoods
 
Output 3: Strengthened coastal and marine governance and institutional framework
Activity 3.1: Network of institutions for enhanced climate resilience and integrated planning and governance in all coastal states
Activity 3.2: Integrating ecosystem-centric approaches to climate change adaptation into public and private sector policies, plans and budgets, and scaling up finance for EbA
Activity 3.3: Knowledge management for coastal resilience
 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 
Project-level monitoring and evaluation for this project will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. Primary responsibility for day-to-day project monitoring and implementation rests with the National Project Coordinator and the State Project Managers.
 
A project implementation report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. Semi-annual reporting will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP guidelines for quarterly reports that are produced by the National Project Coordinator.
 
An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration. The terms of reference, the review process and the final MTR report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. The terms of reference, the review process and the final TE report will follow the standard templates and guidance available on the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre.
 
The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.
 
For detailed information on arrangements for Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation, refer to section H2 of the Project Funding Proposal (pp 104-106).
 
*The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to six years after project financial closure.*
 
Contacts: 
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Green Climate Fund funding approval: October 2018

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About (Summary): 
Implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India with support UNDP, the project ‘Enhancing Climate Resilience of India’s Coastal Communities’ (2019-2024) will enhance the climate resilience of the most vulnerable populations, particularly women, in the coastal areas of India, using an ecosystem-centred and community-based approach. The project will shift the paradigm towards a new approach integrating ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation into coastal management and planning by the public sector, the private sector and civil society.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Enhanced resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems and their services 
Activity 1.1: Conducting vulnerability assessment of the coast to inform planning of ecosystem- and community-based adaptation interventions
Activity 1.2: Community-based conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems for increasing ecosystem resilience
 
Output 2: Climate-adaptive livelihoods for enhanced resilience of vulnerable coastal communities 
Activity 2.1: Building climate resilient livelihoods and enterprises through value chains and strengthened access to markets
Activity 2.2: Improving capacities of local communities on ecosystem-based adaptation and climate-resilient livelihoods
 
Output 3: Strengthened coastal and marine governance and institutional framework
Activity 3.1: Network of institutions for enhanced climate resilience and integrated planning and governance in all coastal states
Activity 3.2: Integrating ecosystem-centric approaches to climate change adaptation into public and private sector policies, plans and budgets, and scaling up finance for EbA
Activity 3.3: Knowledge management for coastal resilience
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2024
Civil Society Engagement: 
A major factor for the success of both conservation and restoration projects is invariably strong community involvement in planning and carrying out activities on the ground.
 
This project will invest in community mobilization as well as capacity building for communities and officials to promote engagement and refinement of project interventions during implementation. 
 
Project activities will be undertaken in close collaboration with local communities through co-management structures that include clear roles and responsibilities for government, communities and other partners.
 
All planning will be fully participatory, involving members of various vulnerable segments of the target communities, including women, youth and socially marginalized groups. 
 

Regional project for the conservation and sustainable development of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is home to a growing population that has urgent needs to address the impacts of climate change on the water resources and the ecosystem of the basin. It provides for millions of people living in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a diverse range of environmental services. It is also an important center for the provisioning of food and water, supporting land and nutrient cycling, regulatory ground water replenishment, carbon sequestration, air purification, as well as a wonderful spot for simple recreation.

Over the last 45 years, Lake chad has lost 90 percent of its volume and surface area, creating serious environmental, economic and social challenges for people whose lives and livelihoods depend on the lake. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and economic growth. The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of a better life. In 2008 a previous UNDP-supported GEF-financed project assisted the countries and the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in preparing a regional transboundary diagnostic analysis leading to a regionally endorsed Strategic Action Programme (SAP).

The “Improving Lake Chad management through building climate change resilience and reducing ecosystem stress through implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the Lake Chad basin” project has a focus to initiate the implementation of the SAP with the overall objective to achieve climate resilient, integrated ecosystem-based management of the Lake Chad Basin through implementation of agreed policy, legal and institutional reforms, and investments that improve water quality and quantity, protect biodiversity, and sustain livelihoods. Meeting this objective will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and its member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies and to address unsustainable land/water practices responding to the SAP and the regionally agreed Water Charter.

The project will focus on developing and implementing policies, investments and improved integrated ecosystem-based lake management through enhanced basin-wide monitoring, and developing and managing regional projects in accordance with the basin’s priorities expressed in the Lake Chad SAP and other relevant strategic documents for the Lake Chad Basin.

Project outputs include: Strengthened and harmonised approaches to implementing sustainable legal and policy instruments across the Lake Chad Basin countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria) leading to greater water availability through effective conjunctive use management of surface and groundwater; technical capacity and awareness of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to contribute to the sustainable management practices of the natural resources in the Lake Chad basin at both national and basin levels; LCBC and member states operating and utilising data and information from management information system for effective and sustainable land, water, and biodiversity resources management; LCBC, national governments and local communities gain practical experience and upscaling validation on sustainable ecosystem management and alternative livelihoods; assessment of stress reduction and livelihood strengthening activities identified in the SAP leads to a broad investment programme to further assist SAP implementation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (14.527588299127 13.044161588787)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$236 million (US$1.9 million UNDP, US$5.8 million LCBC, US$216 million partner governments, US$9.4 million GIZ, US$2.5 million IUCN)
Project Details: 

The relationship between environmental (natural) resources, livelihood and conflicts has long been established in literature. Environmental resources are critical to the survival of the Lake Chad population, both for subsistence and for economic growth. The basin’s population live mostly in rural areas and are strongly dependent on their natural resources. Desertification and the effects of climate change exacerbate the overexploitation of these natural resources.

The escalating degradation of water resources and ecosystems is further exacerbated by the current security challenge and the subsequent migration of livestock and people in search of more secure lives and livelihoods.

In the long term, it is crucial to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, through long-term and co-ordinated management responses to the scale of the environmental challenges. In its vision 2015, the LCBC has expressed the responsibility of the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) Member States on the “common heritage-and other wetlands maintained at sustainable levels to ensure the economic security of the freshwater ecosystem resources, sustainable biodiversity and aquatic resources of the basin, the use of which should be equitable to serve the needs of the population of the basin, thereby reducing the poverty level”). Achieving this vision is still facing many difficulties in the Lake Chad Basin.

There is a crucial need to harmonise policies, legislation, enforcements, incentives, etc., between member states and on a regional basis to address environmental and socio-economic issues and mitigate disaster risks. A further challenge remains the absence of suitable mechanisms and instruments for mobilising internal and external financial resources, aimed at progressively achieving self-sufficiency for the sustainable management of resources in the Lake Chad Basin. Lastly, failing to integrate the risks of climate change and to build the resilience of the population will undermine all efforts to sustain the water resources, ecosystems and socio-economic development of the Lake Chad Basin and its inhabitants.

The project will address concerns linked to the management capacity of the LCBC and member countries to develop and implement sustainable management policies to rectify unsustainable land/water practices and respond to climate change threats in accordance with the agreed SAP (and any updates).

The project will take advantage of key achievements of the previous (and ongoing) projects and regional policy agreements that have been strengthening LCBC capability for effective transboundary lake management. LCBC has acquired knowledge of Lake Chad’s potential resources and produced an inventory regarding the hydrology, geology, pedology and climatology with the support of international institutions. However, at the national level, the harmonization of sectoral policies for integrated management of land and water resources and ecosystems, and the capacity of the countries to address these issues remains a major challenge.

Addressing challenges

At the UNFCCC CoP 21 in Paris (December 2015), the high-profile problem of the significant loss of volume (90%) and surface area (90%) of Lake Chad over the last 45 years has been highlighted. The basin has suffered multiple years of declining rainfall. In addition to the climate change threats, the Lake Chad Basin Strategic Action Programme (SAP) (based on a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis - TDA) developed and endorsed by the riparian countries in 2008, identified the following interlinked transboundary issues that need to be addressed within the Lake Chad Basin:

  • Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability: the drastic decrease in fresh water availability in the LCB is a major concern. This is a result of variability in the hydrological regimes of the rivers and rainfall regimes in the region. Some of the root causes contributing to the overall degradation of the lake and its ecosystems include the absence of sustainable development in the political programs of the member states to handle the population pressure, and the insufficient awareness of stakeholders. The ecosystems degradation has led to continuing decline in local access to water, crop failures, livestock deaths, collapsed fisheries and wetlands services, etc. As identified in the SAP, the socioeconomic consequences of these impacts include food insecurity and declining health status of the population. Variability of the hydrological regime and fresh water availability is considered to be the most significant problem, not only due to the above impacts, but also because it drives or contributes to the other six transboundary problems.
  • Water pollution: it is one of the immediate causes of biodiversity loss in the wetlands. The use of agrochemicals for commercial cotton and rice production, and the increasing oil exploitation in Chad with a lack of working regulations and environmental standards will increase inorganic chemical pollution and eutrophication of the Lake in the near future.  Moreover, the increasing urbanization resulting from the oil exploitation in Chad risks giving rise to domestic waste and increases pollution from oil spills. If these trends are maintained, the likelihood for drastic fisheries depletion and wider ecological damage is high.
  • Decreased viability of biological resources: the stress created by the overexploitation of the natural resources of Lake Chad are undermining the ability of the plant and animal populations to maintain their normal regenerative rate. There is an absence of appropriate and harmonized policies and plans between the Member States to regulate basin activities coupled by the insufficient awareness of the local population in the member states on environmental issues. It also contributes to biodiversity loss and increasing variability of hydrological regime and fresh water availability.
  • Loss of biodiversity: concerns the loss of plant and animal species, as well as damages to ecosystem health. It is rooted in population growth, absence of sustainable development in political programs, and low environmental awareness. This reduces ecosystem productivity and thus resources availability, resulting in deepening poverty. It also contributes to the decreasing viability of biological resources.
  • Loss and modification of ecosystems:  The TDA has identified extensive habitat and community modification that has been experienced in the lake and the river environment. The lake, for example, has changed from open water to a marshy environment, and about 50% of wetlands have been destroyed. This has been due predominantly to reduced flows resulting from the lack of sustainable development in the member states, as well as a low level of environmental awareness. The impact of the loss/modification of ecosystems has most impact on the decline of some fisheries and rice cultivation, as well as on biodiversity loss and the decreased viability of biological resources.
  • Sedimentation in rivers and water bodies: this has led to changes in channel flow patterns, a reduction in the inflows to the lake through channel diversion, and the colonisation of the silted sites by invasive species. It is driven mainly by unsustainable farming practices on marginal lands and is rooted in low environmental awareness, population pressure, and absence of sustainable development on the political agenda of the member states.
  • Invasive species: The Lake is being invaded by typha grass and water hyacinth. Typha is also a major problem in the Komadugu Yobe Basin, and quelea birds are the major pest prevalent all over the basin. Invasive species, to a large extent, are a function of poor water resources management, poor enforcement of environmental regulations and standards, etc. The typha grass blocks river channels and diverts flows, while the quelea destroys crops, both contributing to poverty through the loss of livelihoods.

 

Recognising that the development of the TDA was over a decade ago and there have been significant additions to the knowledge-base in the region, including on climate variability and change, and groundwater resources, the TDA is currently being updated (by GIZ) and this UNDP-GEF project will update the SAP. It is not expected that there will be significant changes to the above identified transboundary problems however the new and emerging regional issues (e.g. climate impacts and conjunctive use aspects of groundwater) will be incorporated to enhance the overall planning and decision making.

Alignment with ongoing strategies

The project is supportive of elements of the National Adaption Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) under the UNFCCC for CAR, Chad and Niger and the recent (2015) Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Plan (the project assistance will provided strengthen data and information management to aid the DRR plans for floods and droughts). The project is also consistent with, and supportive of, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) for all the Lake Chad Basin Countries.

All member states have developed NAPA as a response to climate change. The LCBC under this project will review each country’s NAPA and coordinate the implementation of aspects that falls within the transboundary mandate of the LCBC and the objectives of the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria have each developed and adopted a national biodiversity strategy and action plans aligned with Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In each of the biodiversity strategy, attention is paid to the role of biodiversity in poverty reduction and sustainable development. This project shall work within the goals of each country’s NBSAP and identify opportunities to coordinate transboundary implementation within Lake Chad Basin.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Output 1.1: The 2008 SAP updated on the basis of the revised TDA

Output 1.2: LCBC Biodiversity Protocol developed and adopted by all parties

Output 1.3: Disaster risk reduction response plans developed to ensure the protection of people, the environment and water resources

Output 1.4: LCBC’s coordination and monitoring capacity strengthened with effective reporting of performance to the Council of Ministers

Output 1.5: Strengthening LCBC’s capacity to develop and manage programmes and projects

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Output 2.1: Harmonising the national legal and policy frameworks for effective conjunctive management of surface and groundwaters to reflect the relevant provisions of the Water Charter

Output 2.2: Operationalize national inter-ministerial committees to improve coordination and support the policy mainstreaming process at the national level

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Output 3.1: Training national authorities on technical and environmental management

Output 3.2: Increase capacity in national research and academic institutions in the basin to conduct assessments on emerging issues in the Lake Chad basin and produce policy and management recommendations.

Output 3.3: Develop participation capacities and provide environmental awareness training of basin users

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Output 4.1 Transboundary lake basin monitoring system designed and agreed by all member states.

Output 4.2: Contribution to GEF IW:LEARN related activities for information sharing and knowledge management

Component 5. Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Output 5.1:  Regional/National pilot projects to control invasive plant species

Output 5.2: Promote ecosystem-based income-generating activities through sustainable financing schemes established at the national/local levels

Output 5.3: Development of National Replication sustainability strategies for community-based actions

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Output 6.1: Assessment of potential investments based on the SAP recommendations

Output 6.2: Pre-feasibility studies on potential bankable investments with outline budgets, scope of work and timescales

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Why Lake Chad Basin governors’ forum was established — UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday said its decision to facilitate the establishment of the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum was to ensure regional stabilisation, peace-building and sustainable development in the region. The Forum consists of governors from the seven States and provinces in the Lake Chad Basin region, including those in Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The officials were in Maiduguri, Borno State to discuss and agree on a framework for stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the Basin considered the epicentre of the Boko Haram crisis. Diminishing water levels of the Lake Chad, shared by eight countries in the region has pushed an estimated 12 per cent of the more than 370 million people who depend on it for crop and livestock farming, fishing, commerce and trade to abject poverty. The situation has triggered mass migration, conflicts and crises in the region, including the nine-year long Boko Haram insurgency, which resulted in mass displacement of millions across the region. The UNDP said the Boko Haram crisis traced to development-related challenges including multi-dimensional poverty has caused billions of dollars in damages to property and disruption of livelihoods in North-east Nigeria. At the inaugural meeting, the governors highlighted the need for all countries affected by the crisis to come together to tackle the challenges in the Basin. In a statement at the end of the meeting sent to PREMIUM TIMES on Wednesday the governors agreed to establish the Lake Chad Basin Governors’ Forum. UNDP spokesperson, Lucky Musonda, said the Forum was a platform to enhance joint efforts towards “stabilising, building peace and fostering sustainable development across the region”.

Premium Times
Thursday 10 May 2018

 

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1: Effective transboundary lake catchment management through a strengthened Lake Chad Basin Commission

Component 2: Establishment of effective, sustainable national governance structures to support the SAP and Water Charter

Component 3: Capacity of national ministries, institutions and other stakeholders (e.g. academia, civil society) strengthened to support the harmonisation of policies and improved monitoring and management of the Lake Chad basin ecosystem

Component 4: Monitoring, Modelling and Data/Information for Integrated Management of Basin Water, Land and Biodiversity Resources

Component 5: Implementing targeted community-based pilot projects to demonstrate local / national / regional stress reduction benefits in support of SAP implementation

Component 6: Pre-feasibility studies to identify Lake Chad SAP investment opportunities

Chad National Adaptation Plan

The “Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project” is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors to support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement as well as global goals for low-carbon climate-resilient development. 

The Government of Chad is aware of the urgency and importance of tackling adaptation issues. It is engaged in a new strategic direction towards becoming an emerging sustainable economy through the Chadian Vision 2030. The NAP will be anchored to this vision and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, adaptation to climate change and improved governance.

As a contribution to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to strengthen resilience to climate change, Chad developed its nationally determined contribution in 2015. Its NDC combines the vision of an emerging Chad by 2030 with a climate resilient low-carbon development pathway, focusing on the water, agriculture/agroforestry, livestock and fisheries sectors. The NAP project is a contribution to the priority needs identified in the NDC, in terms of human and institutional capacity-building and, more specifically, "assisting institutions in defining adaptation priorities per socioeconomic sector and based on the needs of the population, and in promoting intersectoral coherence, especially through the National Adaptation Plan formulation process."

The Republic of Chad's land-locked climate is dominated by increasing aridification. As one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change, Chad is particularly affected by low yields and a decline in harvests, which are exacerbated by weak forecasting, preparedness, response and adaptation. The project will develop an integrated information system and a climate and socioeconomic database, and support planning and decision-making processes based on scientific evidence. Through the project activities, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.

The project will also promote the institutional capacities required for the effective integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting. These training programmes will support the identification and prioritisation of adaptation options, which will be subsequently integrated into sector and local planning and budgeting frameworks and processes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (19.035645414723 15.291251024415)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.7 million
Co-Financing Total: 
US$27.9 million total (Ministry of Environment and Fishieres US$16.5 million, UNDP US$1.4 million, GCCA Project US$6 million, HydroMet Project US$4 million)
Project Details: 

Climate change will have particularly strong impacts on the living conditions of people, ecosystems, and economic and social development as it adversely effects agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors, which employ about 80 percent of the total population of Chad, as well as on the water resources sector.

Agriculture, which mainly consists of rain-fed crops, accounted for 16.6 percent of GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016). Subsistence crops dominate agriculture, accounting for 80 to 85 percent of the subsector. However, agricultural performance has remained poor for 15 years. Climate hazards and inappropriate technologies are the main factors that influence production, especially  food production that represents approximately 90 percent of agricultural activities, of which cereal crops are the principal component. Cultivated using low-performing traditional techniques and dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall, cereals yields remain very low throughout the territory, while sown areas are increasing, employing 83 percent of the active population of Chad, including 47.9 percent of women (SCN, June 2012). Climate change will cause i) significant declines in yield and production (-10 to -25%) of food crops (millet, sorghum, maize) due to water shortage caused by successive droughts, high temperatures, late start and / or shorter rainy seasons; ii) a decrease of productive areas for ​​cash crops, such as cotton, whose development has progressively shifted from the Sudanese-Sahelian zone to the Sudanese zone, due to the southward shift of isohyets, iii) a loss of land cover charge, and an expansion of cultivated land at the expense of forest land that may lead to irreversible deforestation in the long-term, and iv) the extending geographical distribution of crop predators that could lead to a decrease in agricultural production.

The livestock sector contributed to 6.4 percent of the national GDP in 2015 (ECA, 2016) and provided direct or indirect income to 40 percent of the population. For this sector, the effects of climate variability and change are likely to: (i) reduce cattle and milk production, due to significant decreases in feed and thermal stress caused by temperature peaks; and (ii) increase the emergence of diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis). Such impacts were already seen in 2009, when a late start to the rainy season and the development of vector diseases due to increased temperature created a shortage of grazing and an animal health crisis, which led to the death of almost 30 percent (780,000 head) of the herds in the regions of Kanem, Lake Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis and Bahr El Gazal.

Additionally, the fisheries subsector contribution to GDP, estimated at 10 percent in 2002, fell to 3.2 percent in 2012. Dependent on river flooding, fish production is also strongly influenced by climate variability and change, resulting in: i) a reduction in water bodies due to droughts; and ii) large increases in the amount of water, creating floods with devastating economic consequences. Ecologically, these floods result in severe erosion of the cultivated river banks and in unprecedented silting of water courses that are essential for the economic, social and cultural development of surrounding communities. These climate impacts are also exacerbated by an increase in the number of fishermen and the widespread use of small mesh nets and active gear, which undermines the fishing potential of the affected areas.

Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa with a very pronounced continental climate and no oceanic buffer. It has a surface area of 1,284,000 km² and borders six countries. The nearest seaport is Douala in Cameroon, 1,700 km from the capital N'Djamena.

Chad has three bioclimatic zones: the Saharan zone, the Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone. To the north, the Saharan zone covers 63 percent of the territory and is home to two percent of the population. It receives an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm (CN2, 2012). The Sahelian zone, in the centre of the country, falls within the 200 mm and 800 mm isohyets. It covers about 28 percent of the total land area and represents 51 percent of the total population. The Sudanian zone, to the south, is the wettest area (800 to 1200 mm) and occupies 25 percent of the total land area of Chad (FAO, 2005).

Chad has experienced persistent drought for several decades. Deserts are advancing at a rate of 3 km per year in the northern part of the country (GFDRR, 2017). Precipitation varies from one year to another and from one decade to another. Meteorological observations in the Sudanian zone indicate a decrease in precipitation patterns during the rainy season (May-October) over the period from 1951 to 2000. In the Sahelian zone, rainfall has increased since the 1990s, with precipitation above the average over several years. Minimum average temperatures in Chad have increased by 0.5 to 1.7°C, depending on the observation stations, since 1950, while maximum annual temperatures have increased by 1.34°C over the same period.

The geographical location of Chad makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse impacts of climate change. Chad’s Second National Communication (June 2012) projects an average temperature increase of 1.2° by 2030, 2.2°C by 2050 and 4.1°C by 2100 in the Saharan zone of the country.

These results mirror IPCC projections (IPCC, 2014) of expected climate warning in Africa during the 21st century, exceeding the world’s average’s projected increase. According to these projections, the increase in average temperatures between 1980/99 and 2080/99 will reach 4°C over the entire African continent.

Availability of water resources is heavily impacted by a reduction in the surface area of open waters of Lake Chad (25,000 km2 in 1962 down to 2,000 km2 in 1992). Water availability will be further affected by a decrease in groundwater, the variability of hydrological regimes in the Logone and Chari River Basins, the reduced stream flows of the main rivers, and the early draining of temporary streams.

The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) places Chad in 186th place out of 188 countries. According to the results of the Survey of Household Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad (ECOSIT3), the national incidence of poverty is 46.7 percent, and is much higher in rural areas. The poverty threshold in Chad, based on the 2011 threshold, is around 237,942 FCFA per person per year, that is, 657 FCFA (US$ 1.16) per day. Approximately 47 percent of people in Chad live below this threshold. Health hazards are eminent, access to decent housing and drinking water challenging, and the education level is low.

Economic and social development planning needs to acknowledge the high uncertainty of the future climate, particularly the variability of rainfall, in a context where rain-fed cultivation remains the foundation of the country's economic and social development. Weak adaptation of the development planning system to the adverse effects of climate change means that most efforts are slow to improve living conditions of the population including the most vulnerable.

NAPs

Baseline scenarios indicate that climate change adaptation is marginally integrated into Chad’s development agenda. Climate change has been given a low consideration in the 2013-2018 Five-Year Agriculture Development Plan, the 2009-2016 National Livestock Development Plan and existing Regional Development Plans. Climate change risks are not being integrated into development activities or investment decisions (including the Government's budget allocations) in different sectors of economic development. This situation is principally due to the weak institutional capacity of policymakers to extract or use climate, socioeconomic and environmental data and the information necessary to adjust the planning of policy and investment to manage risk. Policymakers lack capacity to steer policies that could respond to the projected impacts of climate change.  This includes the prioritisation and implementation of adaptation activities. Chad does not currently have the institutional resources to implement adaptation projects and measures.

Consultations with the populations of the different areas of the country as part of the NAPA preparation process in 2010 helped rank the priority areas for intervention and the most vulnerable groups to the adverse impacts of climate change. The sectors targeted are water resources, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. In the Sudanian zone, women and children form the most vulnerable group, followed by the elderly (group 2) and displaced persons and refugees (group 3). In the Sahelian zone, the first three groups are women and children, the elderly and invalids. In the Saharan zone, invalids, the elderly, women and children form the most vulnerable groups.

Building on the NAPA, which was a response to immediate adaptation needs, the process to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) was established as part of the UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework (2010). It seeks to identify the medium- and long-term adaptation needs of countries and develop and implement strategies and programmes to meet those needs. In Chad, this process is still nascent. A basic needs’ analysis and the preparation of a road map for conducting the NAP process have been carried out.

In line with the UNFCCC guidelines, in 2010 Chad developed its NAPA following a consultation process conducted between 2005 and 2008. The Chad NAP project incorporates five of the 10 priority areas identified in the NAPA, and extends implementation over the medium- and long-terms. These are: i) Priority Action 4 on information, education and communication on climate change adaptation, ii) Priority Action 6 on improving intercommunity grazing areas, iii) Priority Action 7, on improving the forecasting of seasonal rains and surface water flows, iv) Priority Action 8 on the creation of an observatory of climate change adaptation policies, and v) Priority Action 10 on the management of climate risks.

Chad has developed a National Gender Policy 2011-2020, from which the vision below is taken: "By 2020, Chad will be a country free from all forms of gender inequalities and inequities and all forms of violence, where men and women have the same chances of access to and control of resources and participate in a fair manner in decision-making bodies with a view to sustainable development". The project is aligned with this vision, especially through Strategic Focus 1: "Systematic integration of the gender dimension into systems of planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of strategies, policies and/or national development programmes", and Strategic Focus 3: "Equal and equitable access to basic social services, resources and benefits by men and women."

The NAP project is in line with national priorities as defined in national-level planning instruments (Vision 2030, 2017-2021 NDP, NDC, NAPA and the NAP road map) and builds on this enabling framework. It was the subject of broad consultation during the PPG phase, followed by a workshop held on 20 June 2017 in N'Djamena, which defined the strategic direction of the project.

Coherence with the Sustainable Development Goals

The adverse effects of climate change in a business-as-usual scenario will result in the increased precariousness of living conditions in rural areas where they are already critical. These effects are likely to compromise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Chad. The project will support the achievement of several SDGs in Chad, including SDG7 (Gender equality), SDG12 (Sustainable production and consumption), SDG13 (Measures relating to the fight against climate change), and SDG15 (Life on land). This contribution concerns the following objectives of Vision 2030 and the 2017-2021 NDP: (i) by 2030, to improve the living conditions of the population and reduce social inequalities while ensuring the preservation of natural resources by adapting to climate change. This result will be achieved through implementation of a participatory and inclusive policy to fight climate change, control and manage natural resources and safeguard the Lake Chad Basin; implementation of a system to prevent and manage risks and natural disasters and other humanitarian crises; (ii) by 2030, to develop and implement a gender policy (45 percent women in decision-making bodies); (iii) by 2021, cross-cutting issues are integrated into public sector policies. This will be done through capacity-building in mainstreaming gender, employment and the environment and the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of their implementation.

Addressing barriers

Chad currently has limited capacities to address the adverse effects of climate variability and change on key sectors of the economy.

The long-term solution would be to promote the integration of adaptation to climate change into national, sector and regional planning and budgeting, and develop adaptation options based on reliable climate information grounded on the best available science. This long-term solution calls for an enhanced understanding of climate information and the development of integrating tools.

Barriers need to be removed to deliver on the expected project outputs to fully integrate adaptation into national, regional and local planning, budgeting and decision-making processes, and therefore enhancing production systems and protecting the most vulnerable communities.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Output 1.1: Based on the gap analysis of existing hydro-meteorological network supplementary equipment (i.e. 32 new stations, 15 hydrological water level-gauging stations, 165 rain gauges, four automatic stations, a server, computers with hydrological software and additional equipment for the installation of the four radar sets already purchased by the Government) procured and installed

Output 1.2: Operational tools to assess climate change impacts on key sectors are introduced

Output 1.3: Long-term analysis of climate change trends is undertaken to improve the understanding and management of changing climate risks

Output 1.4: The technical training programme for ANAM and DRE staff on the use and maintenance of the hydro-meteorological network and the processing and analysis of data developed and delivered (eight training workshops)

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting

Output 2.1: Training modules and programmes on the integration of adaptation into climate-sensitive sectors are developed and implemented

Output 2.2: Adaptation options are identified and prioritised on the basis of medium- and long-term trends, climate risks and vulnerability analyses and assessments

Output 2.3: A practical guide for the integration of climate change into the development planning and budgeting processes of Chad at national, sector and provincial level delivered to support the overall coordination at national and sector levels

Output 2.5: The Ministry of Environment has an operational and accessible outreach, information and communication programme on adaptation

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: An integrated information system, including a reliable database of climate and socioeconomic data, supports the integration of adaptation into policy and decision-making processes

Outcome 2: Institutional capacities are strengthened in key sectors and regions to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting