Adaptation Fund

Taxonomy Term List

Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future

The Governments of Mauritius and Seychelles, two small island developing states off the coast of Africa, have accessed a new US$10 million grant from the Adaptation Fund to restore their reef ecosystems. The new six-year project, supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), will protect the island nation’s growing tourism industries – which account for over 30 percent of national GDP and employ approximately half the population in both countries – at the same time ensuring food security for fishers who depend on the reefs to feed their families, and reducing risks from high-intensity storms.

The "Restoring marine ecosystem services by restoring coral reefs to meet a changing climate future" project will develop sustainable partnerships and community-based, business-driven approaches for reef restoration, establish coral farming and nursery facilities, and actively restore degraded reefs. On a regional and global level, the project will improve understanding on how to use coral reef restoration as a tool for climate change adaptation, provide models for sustainable management of reef ecosystems, and build capacity for long-term restoration and management of these precious habitants.

As with the rest of the world – as the result of human-induced climate change, pollution and other environmental impacts – Mauritius has lost its live coral at a highly accelerated rate over the past few decades with as much as 70 percent reduction in live coral cover from 1997 to 2007. In Seychelles, coral cover declined 50 to 90 percent over the last two decades.

Mauritius

Mauritius has taken on international acclaim as a diving and beach destination in recent years. Coastal zone activities, especially tourism, account for 36 percent of GDP in Mauritius, generating US$4.3 billion here each year. According to UNDP, beaches in Mauritius have shrunk by as much as 20 meters over the last few decades due to higher seas and weakened coral ecosystems. The government indicates the connected loss of tourism to the beaches here could cost over US$100 million per year by 2060 if nothing is done. The new project will restore reef habitats in Blue Bay Marine Park, which features a new park center, and research and education facilities, and the South East Marine Protected Area, located off the coast of Rodrigues.

Seychelles

Over 300,000 visitors come to Seychelles every year to explore the beaches and pristine waters. The tourism industry now accounts for 46 percent of the nation’s GDP, about US$600 million per year, with over half the nation employed in tourism. Chronic coastal erosion from increased demand for construction along the coasts, poorly planned coastal flooding that results in regular flooding, destruction of marine and coastal impacts, overfishing and other impacts have taken their toll on the nation’s marine ecosystems. Through the project, coral reef restoration works will be launched at Curieuse Marine National Park, Cousin Special Reserve, Saint Anne Marine National Park and Anse Forbans in the waters off Seychelles.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (57.518920845025 -20.175168965217), POINT (55.458984343507 -4.5267773873685))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
81,326 Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$10 million
Project Details: 

Climate change has intensified coral bleaching events and mortality in Mauritius and Seychelles over recent decades. Climate change projections predict that global coral bleaching events will increase in frequency and intensity. Therefore, to reduce the adverse impact of climate change on local communities and coral reef-dependent economic sectors in Mauritius and Seychelles, the proposed project will increase climate resilience at both regional and local levels by implementing coral reef restoration with thermal tolerant corals as adaptation to climate change. The proposed project objective will be achieved through the following outcomes: in Mauritius i) development of a sustainable partnership and community based approach to reef restoration, ii) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, iii) active restoration of degraded reefs; in Seychelles, iv) development of a sustainable partnership and business approach to reef restoration, v) establishment of coral farming and nursery facilities, vi) active restoration of degraded reefs; in both countries vii) improved understanding and knowledge management of using coral reef restoration as an adaptation to climate change viii) sharing regionally and globally the experienced learned in sustainable coral reef restoration, and ix) training to build capacity for long-term sustainable coral reef restoration.

According to the United Nations, at least 500 million people worldwide rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection and livelihoods. UN estimates put the value of reef ecosystems at US$36 billion per year for tourism alone. They are also an essential ecosystem, protecting 25 percent of known marine species and protecting coastal communities from storm surges, rising seas and high-intensity weather events like cyclones.

According to the new UN climate report, hotter and more acidic waters resulting from carbon pollution are killing off the world’s reefs at an alarming rate. With a temperature rise of just 1.5°C, the world will lose about 80 percent of coral reefs, while rises above 2°C will kill off virtually all of the world’s coral reefs.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Outcome 1.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership and community-based approach to reef restoration.

Output 1.1.1:  Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 1.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips).

Outcome 1.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 1.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries.

Output 1.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites.

Output 1.2.3: A land-based nursery and 2 or more ocean nurseries established and maintained on a regular basis.

Output 1.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation.

Outcome 1.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 1.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion.

Output 1.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Mauritius and Rodrigues.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Outcome 2.1: Improved livelihood for a sustainable partnership to coral reef restoration

Output 2.1.1: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through employment establishing and maintaining coral nurseries and transplantation sites.

Output 2.1.2: Coastal communities benefit from improved livelihoods through increased revenue from alternative work including tourism (glass bottom boat tours, snorkelling and diving trips)

Outcome 2.2: Coral farming and nursery facilities established at a sufficient scale for more climate change resilient corals.

Output 2.2.1: Donor coral colonies of appropriate species (resilience, maintaining genetic diversity) available at sufficient scale (quantity, time, intervals etc.) for propagation in nurseries

Output 2.2.2: Reports on coral reef status, water quality, and other key environmental and social parameters for potential nursery sites

Output 2.2.3: A land-based nursery established, and 2 or more ocean nurseries are established and maintained on a regular basis

Output 2.2.4: Stock of farmed corals available for transplantation

Outcome 2.3: The health of degraded reefs restored, through active restoration work, maintenance and monitoring efforts, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from flooding and storm damage

Output 2.3.1: Rugosity and structure of reefs restored, leading ultimately to greater protection of shore from erosion

Output 2.3.2: Recovery of fish population and other reef associated fauna and flora, leading ultimately to improved food security in Seychelles

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Outcome 3.1:Improved understanding and knowledge management of use of reef restoration as an adaptation measure

Output 3.1.1: Comparative review and analysis of coral restoration initiatives in the region and globally, with gaps in knowledge identified

Output 3.1.2: Based on past and ongoing coral restorations efforts undertaken by the project and others, science-based best practice and methodologies (e.g. factors determining success in coral restoration are known; cost-effective approaches, etc.) developed, constraints and challenges identified, and lessons learned documented.

Output 3.1.3: Research undertaken to provide information to guide restoration and enhance reef resilience where required (e.g. genetic connectivity of coral species, spawning seasons and coral recruitment patterns, resistant/ resilient species and clades)

Outcome 3.2: Improved understanding within the WIO and globally of successful approaches to reef restoration, the constraints and challenges, with lessons learned incorporated into new initiatives

Output 3.2.1: Lessons learned in reef restoration documented and shared

Output 3.2.2: Reef Restoration tool kit and manual for use in the WIO published and disseminated

Outcome 3.3: Regional capacity developed for sustainable and climate resilient coral restoration

Output 3.3.1: Regional training workshops undertaken on monitoring, DNA-based approach for the identification of resilient corals, and other topics as appropriate.

Output 3.3.2: Sustainable long-term monitoring programme developed and underway for restored reefs, based on international/regional protocols and best practice.

Outcome 3.4: Monitoring and Evaluation

 

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Mauritius.

Component 2 - Enhancement of food security and reduction of risks from natural disasters through the restoration of degraded reefs in Seychelles.

Component 3 - Knowledge management and sharing, training and sensitization to build regional capacity for sustainable reef restoration.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
October 2018
Description: 
Project Approval

Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean

The main objective of the proposed “Risk Reduction Management Centers: Local Adaptation Response to National Climate and Early Warning Information in the Caribbean” project is to upscale the function of local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of the population. The project works in three target countries: Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms. The project will address climate change and disaster risks related to water resources management: in Cuba and Jamaica. The project will also focus on sustainable water management to address drought-related water shortages and coastal erosion related to sea-level rise in Jamaica and Dominican Republic. Finally, the project will address the risks related to river flooding and its effects on environment and livelihoods. The project builds on the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative (CRMI), a platform launched in 2004 by UNDP, which supported the Cuban model of Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMC) and its transfer.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-76.871337919963 21.085781465014)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$4.9 million (proposed financing)
Project Details: 

Latin America and the Caribbean is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods and landslides, many of which are regularly exacerbated by climate variability. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation regimes, including shifts in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate-related events, will affect population health, livelihoods, economies, the environment and natural resource availability across national borders. Sea level rise, already observed in recent decades, will likely lead to greater inundation, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion and greater susceptibility to storm surges.

Exposure to climate change and extreme climate-related events in the LAC region varies considerably with more than half of  Caribbean nations facing ‘extreme’ exposure risks. The Caribbean nations of Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba as facing extreme and high-risk vulnerability to climate change.

The Caribbean possesses inherent geographical, economic and social characteristics which intensify vulnerability and limit ability to respond to catastrophic events. These include geographic isolation, small populations located in hazard prone areas, coastal positioning of critical and economic infrastructures, prevalence of poverty, limited capacity and resources, fragile ecosystems and undiversified economies vulnerable to shocks; weather-dependent economic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, create greater risk of negative impact of climate related events and conditions.

Changes in the rainfall regime and sea level rise are the key risk drivers in the Caribbean. Decreasing rainfall over the Caribbean is likely to be accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of heavy rainfall events, affecting the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts. A high proportion of land area of many Caribbean islands is near sea level, resulting in susceptibility to future sea level rise. Though highly uncertain, climate change may act to decrease the overall number of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) but increase the frequency of the most intense storms in the Caribbean region.

These driving forces affect important ecosystems and ecological processes in the region. Human-induced soil erosion is affecting up to 2.23 million square kilometers of land in LAC, and river networks transport these sediments and other land-based sources of pollution to the oceans, impacting coastal ecosystems. The World’s Water Quality Assessment (2016) states that about one-quarter of all river stretches in LAC fall in the severe pollution class; and the number of rural people coming into contact with polluted surface waters is estimated to be as high as 25 million.

The main objective of the project is to upscale the function of local RRMC in Caribbean municipalities to deliver climate risk information services, preparedness and response measures to the most vulnerable segments of population. The RRMC acts as a local clearing house for risk information and coordination centre for the effective use of early warning information and risk planning. This mechanism aims at strengthening local governments and communities to better prepare and respond to climate-induced disasters through multi-hazard, multi-sector and integrated approaches to address climate and disaster risk. In doing so, the project will strengthen the decision making and planning capacities of national, provincial and municipal authorities and agencies, improve the quality of climate and disaster information, and strengthen coordination and analysis mechanisms.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Local Risk Reduction Management Centers (RRMCs)

Outcome 1.1.: Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

Output 1.1.1.: RRMCs established, equipped, functional linked with national EWS. 43

Output  1.1.2.: Vulnerability and hazard studies and risk mapping available at the municipal/community level.

Output 1.1.3.: Local government and population trained on preparedness measures using EWS

Component 2: National climate information and early warning services for disaster risk reduction

Outcome 2.1.: Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

Ouput 2.1.1: Observation network strengthened with automated weather and flow stations and related data transmission equipment refurbished and installed in disaster-prone areas44

Ouput 2.1.2.:Hydro-met and sectorial databases and information systems and platforms streamlined, software, methodologies and procedures developed for information analysis and prognosis.

Ouput 2.1.3.: Climate information and EWS products complemented and developed with ICT protocols and tailored to sectorial and local entities.

Component 3: Disaster Risk Reduction/Adaptatio n plans and measures

Outcome 3.1: Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

Output 3.1.1: climate resilient territorial development plans (municipal, parish, provincial) developed with DRR/CCA measures integrated

Output 3.1.2. Selected adaptation measures prioritized in the development plans are implemented

Component 4: Knowledge management and South-South cooperation

Outcome 4.1: Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

Output 4.1.1.: Technical guides, toolkits, standardized methodologies, experience notes and multimedia experience materials are developed and disseminated

Output 4.1.2.: Exchange site visits organized between participating government and community reps

Output 4.1.3.: Regional training and lessons learnt events held

Funding Source Short Code: 
Adaptation Fund
Country-level Initiatives: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Local government’s capacity strengthened to coordinate disaster preparedness and response through community-managed RRMCs connected to national early warning and climate information services.

Outcome 2 - Enhanced capacities of national agencies to generate and disseminate climate information and early warning on hydrometeorological hazards to sectorial and local entities.

Outcome 3 - Local governments are able to integrate DRR/CCA into territorial development planning.

Outcome 4 - Good practices and lessons learnt are documented and disseminated among the participating countries and in the Caribbean region.

Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods

The main objective of the "Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana Through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods" programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

The programme targets the three regions in the northern part of Ghana: the Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions. Compared to other regions of the country, these three northern regions have high degree of exposure to climate variability and change characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing and erratic rainfall. These factors make the northern regions highly vulnerable to climate change and high priority regions for climate change adaptation.

Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Primary Beneficiaries: 
A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprises the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.2 million (according to Adaptation Fund Website)
Project Details: 

Water is recognized as a cross-cutting resource underlying the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy of the Republic of Ghana and the National Water Policy with direct linkages to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The lack of potable water caused by extreme climate events such as droughts and floods, increases the exposure of people, especially women and children, to water-borne and other hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera. Besides household wellbeing, water plays a central role in many industrial activities. For example, hydropower generation, transportation services, tourism and the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors all depend on water resources. Rainwater harvesting serves as the major source of surface water for many rural communities during the rainy season. There is high agreement between national and regional analyses that vulnerability, especially to droughts, has geographical patterns and socioeconomic associations.

The country experienced severe drought in 1983. Since the late 1990s, floods have been increasingly frequent in the northern regions. Floods affected more than 300,000 people in 1999, 630,000 in 2007/08 and 140,000 in 2010, causing deaths, damaging farmlands, and destroying livelihoods. This resulted in severe hunger, which affected the poor and reduced gross domestic product for that year.

The most severe flood occurred in 2007, during which 630,000 people were affected, through losses of life and displacement, and extensive infrastructural damage and loss of crops. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential impact of climate change on Ghana’s development.

Under a changing climate, poor farmers are finding it difficult to predict the timing of rainy seasons. Consequently, it is becoming difficult manage climate risks to crop production. Failure in crop production is one of the key factors undermining food security . The World Food Programme’s (WFP) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (2009) found that 5% of the population or 1.2 million people are food insecure.

The bulk of the food insecure population is located in the northern regions: 34% in Upper West, 15% in Upper East, and 10% in Northern region. This is the equivalent of approximately 453,000 people. The three northern regions covered by this programme are the most vulnerable. Similarly, the adaptive capacity of these three regions is the lowest nationwide due to low socioeconomic development and the heavy dependence of local economies and livelihoods on rain-fed systems such as agriculture and forestry.

Decreasing annual rainfall and its increasingly erratic pattern, on the background of climate change, are adversely affecting rural livelihoods in northern Ghana and in particular agricultural and pastoral practices. Agriculture is a major driver of Ghana’s economy and employs close to 55 percent of the total labour force.

The proposed Programme will promote four types of adaptation intervention: 1. livelihood enhancement; 2. livelihood diversification; 3. ecosystem protection and enhancement; and 4. community-level water infrastructure planning. These approaches will build up financial, natural, physical and social capital of the communities. A conservative estimate gives a total of 60,000 people as direct beneficiaries of the project. The indirect number of beneficiaries comprise the entire population in the Volta River Basin, estimated to be 8.5 million as of 2010. The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities. Income generation will increase by 30 % in at least 50% of households in the communities.

The main adaptation benefits of the Programme are that it will be able to provide concrete inputs into water resource management planning in the northern region by ensuring that climate change concerns are taken into account. The Programme will be able to build and enhance the adaptive capacity of the ecological systems of water catchments to climate change, once the proposed measures are adopted and implemented.

This is expected to be the first showcase in the Ghana where climate concerns are taken into account and lessons learned will be replicated to other river basins of the country. The activities that will be implemented will include producing knowledge products that capture lessons learnt on management of water resources and diversification of livelihoods under climate change. The capacity to document traditional knowledge systems as well as methods for managing knowledge will be developed, as well as the engagement of community service organizations for knowledge transfer.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The main objective of the programme is to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate impacts and risks on water resources in the northern region of Ghana. The objective will be achieved through key results centered on the improvement of water access and also increase institutional capacity and coordination for integrated water management to support other uses of water resources especially for the diversification of livelihoods by rural communities.

There are three components, each with the following outcomes that will be delivered by the programme:

COMPONENT 1: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING

Outcome 1: Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

COMPONENT 2: COMMUNITY LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

Outcome 2: Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

COMPONENT 3: DIVERSIFICATION OF LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

Outcome 3: Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Northern Regions urged to embrace climate Adaptation Fund Project
Vibe Ghana

Friday 17 February 2017

The Chiefs and people of the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions have been urged to embrace the Adaptation Fund Project to help increase climate resilience and enhance sustainable land and water management in the areas. The Adaptation Fund was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MEST) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is implementing the project in some selected communities in the north. Mr Asher Nkegbe, the Upper East Regional Director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), made the call when the technical team of the Project undertook separates community visits to the beneficiary communities in the Upper East Region to engage them on the project implementation and to solicit for their support in the process.

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 -  Improved planning and management of water resources taking into account climate change impacts on surface and groundwater sources

Outcome 2 - Climate resilient management of water resources by communities in Northern Ghana

Outcome 3 - Enhanced diversification of livelihoods of communities in northern Ghana

Project Dates: 
2015 to 2019

Making the Case for Ecosystem-based Adaptation: The Global Mountain EbA Programme in Nepal, Peru and Uganda.

This publication is a legacy document of the Mountain EbA Programme, delivered through a partnership between the German Government, UNEP,  UNDP and IUCN, together with the Governments of Nepal, Peru and Uganda.

Learning Brief 1 - Introduction to Ecosystem-based Adaptation: A nature-based response to climate change

This brief is part of a series of learning briefs produced by UNDP. These briefs draw together experiences and lessons learned from working on ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) within the global Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountain Ecosystems Programme from 2011 to 2015. The content also draws on lessons generated by the broader global EbA community of practice. The briefs are designed for practitioners, including local government representatives, civil society organizations and other actors working on climate change issues.

Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu

The "Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu" project in Mali will work to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities and their adaptive capacity to climate change in the regions of Mopti and Timbuktu, including the Faguibine system zone.

Located in the Sahel of West Africa, Mali has a dry climate with 65% of its territory under semi-desert and desert conditions. Climate change is expected to increase the variability and the incidence of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, intense rainfall events. Without improved planning and management and particularly improved water management, climate change will destroy crops and property, and lead to greater degradation of already fragile soils. Regardless of whether there is an increase or decrease in precipitation, increased temperatures will cause greater evapo-transpiration, which will lead to drier soils in many areas and a corresponding decrease in water availability.

The programme will generate clear adaptation benefits that will assist Mali to make the transition towards climate resilient food security through:

(i) enhanced ability of small farmers and pastoralists to cope with increasing climate variability;

(ii) systematic integration of the risks associated with climate change, including variability into key natural resources, water and agriculture development policies, plans and legislation; and

(iii) strengthened institutional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change threats on water and food production systems.

Adaptation benefits will also result from the catalytic and innovative nature of the programme and the valuable lessons learnt and information generated. By its simultaneous focus on enhancing food security, promoting resilient rural household livelihoods, rehabilitation of water systems, and facilitating access to adaptation technologies, the programme brings together the crucial elements needed for demonstrating climate-proofing and fostering a paradigm shift in providing holistic adaptation beyond a merely sectoral approach in Mali.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-3.57056 15.5997)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The programme will directly benefit about 28,000 households in the selected regions. Given average household sizes of around five people, this will translate to about 140,000 direct beneficiaries. Beneficiaries include vulnerable households, communities, communes and local elected governments, and the national government and decentralized structures.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.5 million (Adaptation Fund)
Project Details: 

Mali experiences severe recurrent shocks particularly droughts, locust infestation and irregular rainfalls causing reduction in agricultural yields and water resources severely affecting the livelihoods of the people and national development. There are also extreme climate events such as flooding.

The NAPA assessment, for example, concluded that climate change is likely to cause significant losses in crop production (like millet, sorghum, maize and rice) by 2025 and 2050. This demonstrate that farming systems in Mali are extremely vulnerable to climate change and climate variability.

The root causes of vulnerability include significant reliance on rain-fed production systems, ongoing practices of crop and livestock selections, water resource management, rangeland management, drought ill-preparedness, and household income generation that are not compatible with increasing impacts of climate change.

Other drivers of vulnerability include: (i) increasing demographic trends e.g. climate-induced refugee movements into regions least affected by drought, which cause intense pressure on productive arable lands; (ii) shortage of basic investment in market instruments in rural areas (such as access to credit, limited market outlets, etc.); and (iii) lack of land tenure regulation that hinders development of the the sector.

In the context of the above root causes , the performance of production systems (agriculture, fisheries, livestock, forestry, etc.) and the capacity to adapt are limited.

The National Policy, Strategy and Action Plan on Climate Change for Mali (AEDD 2011) clearly states government recognition of the problem of climate change by this problem statement:

"In Mali, climate change threatens key sectors of the economy: Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry, Energy, Health, and Infrastructure. Without an organized response and anticipated level of governance of these sectors to address these challenges, climate change could be very threatening on the development of Mali."

There is a high level of uncertainty associated in climate projections for Mali, and West Africa in general, particularly for changes in precipitation.In the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the IPCC, general circulation model simulations suggest a future warming of 0.2 degrees C per decade (low warming scenario) to more than 0.5 degrees C ( high warming scenario) by 2030. While some models predict a decrease in precipitation, others suggest increased rainfall under the most rapid global change scenario. No clear outcome regarding future climatology has emerged for the Sahel region.

Models do agree, however, on the increased unpredictability of rainfall, and this is consistent with local observations. 

This climate variability threatens to undermine Mali's ability to acheive development goals, reduce poverty, improve food security and build a resilient nation.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Increased climate change resilience of local water systems in Mopti and Timbuktu regions

Outcome 2 - The production of local livelihood systems such as agriculture, fisheries, livestock, and forest enhanced under climate change

Outcome 3 - Enhanced capacity of local institutions and of communities to better adapt to climate change

Project Management Training for GEF LDCF, SCCF and AF Project Teams

Asia and Pacific adaptation portfolio includes 31 ongoing projects with a total value of $139 million. Supporting Integrated Climate Change Strategies; advancing Cross-sectoral Climate Resilient Livelihoods and strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems are the main areas of intervention. The cumulative effect of the portfolio in the region can be substantial providing that the implementation pace and delivery can be maintained at expected UNDP standards.