Georgia

 

As a result of activities, conducted within the first National Communication, the systems most vulnerable to climate change in Georgia have been identified. It has been established that the most vulnerable system is the Black Sea coastline, which has a strategic importance for the rehabilitation of the country’s economy and development of foreign trade. The second important vulnerable system in Georgia is agriculture, where special attention is paid to wheat in Eastern Georgia. Also, in spite of a sufficient supply of water resources, appropriate attention is being paid increase the efficiency of water utilization.

Georgia occupies the southeastern part of Europe, to the South of the watershed of Great Caucasian Range, in Transcaucasia, lying between the Black and Caspian Seas. Total area of the country is 69,700 km 2, 46% of which is located at the altitude of 0-1000 m a.s.l. The Likhi Range, crossing the country almost meridionally in the middle of territory, divides the country into 2 different regions that is reflected mainly in the climate.

Western Georgia is rich in rivers, the biggest of which are Rioni and Enguri. The biggest river in Eastern Georgia is Mtkvari with its several confluents flowing down from the Great Caucasus. There are tens of lakes in Georgia. The biggest of them is Paravani with the area of its water plane of 37.5 km 2. Over 20 regulating water reservoirs are constructed on a number of rivers. Swamps occupy approximately 600 km 2 of the country’s territory, and glaciers occupy the area of 511 km 2.

Almost all types of climate are presented over Georgian territory except savanna and tropical forests. The Black Sea coastal zone has humid subtropical climate. Mean annual temperature here is 14-15 0C and annual precipitation sums range from 1500 to 2500 mm. On the Plains of Eastern Georgia the climate is dry-subtropical with average annual temperatures in the range of 11-13 0 C and annual precipitation sums between 400-600 mm. In mountainous areas this value reaches 800-1200 mm.

In the cold period of the year stable snow cover does not form in both regions of Georgia up to the altitude of 400 m a.s.l. Duration of bright sunshine over the most part of the country’s territory ranges from 1900 to 2200 hours. Warming period with 10 0C threshold value on the plains comprises 120-160 days, while in a mountainous zone it reaches 220-320 days.

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Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia

The “Scaling-up multi-hazard early warning system and the use of climate information in Georgia” project will reduce exposure of Georgia’s communities, livelihoods and infrastructure to climate-induced natural hazards through a well-functioning nation-wide multi-hazard early warning system and risk-informed local action. The multi-hazard early warning system is an essential element of the country’s climate risk management framework and will serve 1.7 million Georgians currently at risk from climate-induced hazards.

The project will achieve this by nation-wide scaling-up of several projects and initiatives such as of the Rioni Basin flood forecasting and early warning system (FFEWS). The scaling up will be attained by developing and implementing a nation-wide Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS), developing and delivering climate information services, and implementing community-based risk reduction measures.

Georgia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) estimates economic losses from climate-induced hazards without adaptation measures for the period 2021-2030 to be US$10-12 billion, while the cost of adaptation measures is estimated to be US$1.5-2 billion.  To date, hydrometeorological hazard risk management in Georgia has relied on the limited and expensive hard structural protection measures; emergency response with limited reliance on forecasts and early warning of the population; and post event compensation and relocation of victims. This reactive approach to risk reduction has resulted in eco-migrants; and high costs for post-event recovery and risk reduction. In order to adapt to climate change, Georgia is working to adopt a proactive integrated climate risk management (CRM) approach centered around risk reduction, prevention, and preparedness through the establishment of a multi-hazard early warning system and an enhanced use of climate information in planning and decision-making across all sectors.

The project will achieve transformative change in climate risk reduction and management in Georgia by development of a fully-integrated impact-based MHEWS system.  In doing so it will introduce a standardized hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment and mapping methods and technologies, and provide critical climate risk information to enable the implementation of nation-wide risk reduction policies. Importantly, it will develop long-term institutional and community capacities in climate risk reduction (CRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and MHEWS. The project will thus catalyze a paradigm shift towards climate risk-informed and resilient development and will directly benefit up to 1.7 million people (40% of the population) currently at risk from hydrometeorological hazards.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.390869007513 42.108818810813)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
1.7 million people
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$27,053,597.52 GCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$38,239,024 Government of Georgia, US$5,000,000 Swiss Government
Project Details: 

The GCF-financed project will scale-up pilot activities and achievements of the UNDP project Developing Climate Resilient Flood and Flash Flood Management Practices to Protect Vulnerable Communities of Georgia (Rioni project) financed by the Adaptation Fund (2012-2017) as well as another UNDP project Strengthening National Disaster Risk Reduction System in Georgia. In addition, the GCF project will implement recommendations arising from the 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Needs Assessment Report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP and USAID experts, and 2015 Tbilisi Disaster Recovery Vulnerability Reduction Plan.

There is no nation-wide hazard forecasting early warning system in the country. The most complete and integrated almost real-time EWS for flood/flashfloods was recently developed and operationalized for the Rioni River Basin, developed under the UNDP project financed by the Adaptation Fund (Rioni project). For other basins, as well as for other climate-induced natural hazards, there are no such completed and integrated system.

The GCF project will scale up the prototypes piloted by the Rioni project (including the hazard mapping, floodplain modelling, floodplain zoning and EWS) to include the other river basins and regions of Georgia and to encompass a broader range of key climate-induced hazards. 

Several commercial sectors have been approached to gauge their willingness to pay for climate services including Hydropower sector, infrastructure investment and development sector and insurance sector. While these sectors will benefit from the climate information services and will continue to pay for such services, together they will not provide the weight of financing needed to match the present value benefits.

The project will significantly improve NEA’s capacities to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. At present, NEA does not meet WMO standards in a number of categories.

Climate change challenges in Georgia

Due to the complex mountainous terrain and climate, Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. According to Georgia’s 2nd and 3rd National Communications and other studies, under climate change the frequency, intensity and geographical spread of extreme hydrometeorological hazards will increase.

Georgia is subject to both geological and hydro-meteorological natural hazards including landslides, mudflows, erosion, avalanches, floods and flash floods, drought, and strong winds. There is evidence that frequency of these climate-induced disasters and associated damages have been increasing over the past decades. Climate change studies have indicated that these hazards will further increase in frequency, intensity and geographical spread over time and will have significant negative impacts on various sectors, including agriculture, health, critical infrastructure, tourism and protection of culture heritage, environment, natural resources and ecosystems.

Georgia’s Second and Third National Communications to UNFCCC as well as other studies provide evidence that further escalation of geological and hydrological processes is expected until 2050. The climate change scenarios indicate more extremes as prolonged rainfall events, concentrated in a short period of time with the potential to generate more runoff during these short periods, thereby increasing the potential for flash flooding (due to high peak river flows), mudflows and landslides. The trend of increasing average temperature for all seasons, decreasing precipitation and longer duration of dry periods, which will persist until 2050 in already dry areas will further increase the risk of droughts.

Over the last 21-year period total damages from hydrometeorological hazards were GEL 2.8 billion (US$1.2 billion) at a cost of 152 lives (22 of which occurred in the Tbilisi flash flood of 2015). Floods, landslides and mudflows make up 60% of these damages/losses and 67% of loss of life.  National disaster statistics indicates that there is growing trend in cumulative damages and losses of lives from floods, droughts, avalanches, wind storms and hails over the last 20 years. The damages from single extreme events range from over 300 million GEL (US$121 million), which was attributed to 2000 extreme drought, to 700 Million GEL (US$283 million), attributed to the 1987 flood. In addition, natural hazards have resulted in internally displaced eco-migrants from economically disadvantaged areas.

Economic assessment of the impact of hydrometeorological hazards under climate change conditions shows that 1.7 million people (40% of the population) including the most vulnerable communities in remote rural and densely populated urban areas are at risk from the main hazards. Annual average damages (AAD) to properties from floods are estimated at 116.3 Million GEL (US$51.2 million) without climate change and at 282.7 Million GEL (US$124.4 Million) with climate change. The risk to agricultural land from all hazards is between 251,225 ha and 325,020 ha under baseline and climate change conditions respectively. Annual damages to agriculture from flooding alone would be 126.3 Million GEL (US$55.6 million) and 154.2 Million GEL (US$67.8 million) under baseline and climate change conditions respectively.

 

 

Suggested expanded hydrometeorological network

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Activity 1.1: Expansion of the hydrometeorological network

Activity 1.2: Risk zoning based on hazard and risk maps for all (11) major basins in Georgia and hazard and risk maps for key climate-induced hazards (floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches, hailstorms and droughts).

Activity 1.3: Introduction and implementation of methods and tools for the systematic gender-sensitive socio-economic vulnerability assessment for decision making and prioritisation of resilience investments.

Activity 1.4: A centralized multi-hazard risk information and knowledge system  

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Activity 2.1: Institutional and legal frameworks and institutional capacity building for the MHEWS and for the enhanced use of climate information. Improved coordination and communication protocols for early warning

Activity 2.2: Development and implementation of the MHEWS covering all Georgia, building on the Rioni basin prototype and on the expanded hydrometric network to be achieved through activity 1.2

Activity 2.3: Enhancing access and the use of weather and climate information and agrometeorological information services by farmers and agricultural enterprises

Activity 2.4: MHRM planning platforms: development of basin-level multi-hazard risk management plans; municipal-level climate-informed multi-hazard response and preparedness plans

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Activity 3.1: Implementation of community-based early warning schemes and community-based climate risk management

Activity 3.2: Public awareness and capacity building programme at all levels to effectively deliver climate risk information and training to communities and local first-responders

Contacts: 
UNDP
Natalia Olofinskaya
Regional Technical Specialist
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Expanded hydro-meteorological observation network and modelling capacities secure reliable information on climate-induced hazards, vulnerability and risks

Output 2: Multi-hazard early warning system and new climate information products supported with effective national regulations, coordination mechanism and institutional capacities

Output 3: Improved community resilience through the implementation of the MHEWS and priority risk reduction measures

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Mar 2018
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
Oct 2018
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness

A happy place once more

English

Supporting Georgia to advance their NAP process

 The Government of Georgia launched the NAP process in 2016, and on 11 February 2016 the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection (MoENRP) of Georgia officially requested UNDP and UNDP-UNEP NAP-GSP to provide technical advice and support.The programme team supported the initiation of the country’s overall NAP process steered by MoENRP.

A country mission by UNDP took place in October 2016 and included NAP Orientation Workshop for a group of 35 representatives of national stakeholders, followed by direct one-on-one meetings and consultations. The NAP-GSP team prepared a Stocktaking Report on the NAP process in Georgia - pincluding the formulation of a medium-term NAP roadmap and a mapping of stakeholders.

> The Stocktaking Report on the NAP process in Georgia is available on request. Please contact nap.gsp@undp.org

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Project Status: 
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Georgia- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions

Key Vulnerabilities identified in Georgia's Second National Communication (2009):
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems: Eustasy – the rise of ocean (sea) level relative to land as a result of water thermal expansion and a change of fresh water balance in favour of the ocean;
  • Storms – increase in frequency of storm surges and their power;
  • Sedimentation – activation of solid sediment accumulation processes in glacier-fed river deltas;
  • Change in sea surface water temperature – essential changes in thermal characteristics of the aquatic environment (sea currents resulting from changes in vertical circulation and other dynamics and thermal features).
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (44.7363342335 41.6780952079)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 
Potential Adaptation Measures identified in Georgia's Second National Communication (2009):

Measures to be implemented in the short term:

  • Creation of permanent monitoring and early warning systems for Black Sea level rise and storm intensity;
  • Establishment of a permanent Committee to plan and implement the adaptation measures to climate change,;
  • Implementation of coastal zone protection measures in the Rioni Delta;
  • Carrying out of sea shore protection measures at the Batumi-Adlia section aimed at the protection of the Batumi coastal zone;
  • Preparation and implementation of adaptation measures for Lake Paliastomi. Long-term measures
  • Assessment of climate change impacts on the development of tourism (heat waves, water temperature, beach degradation) and preparation of adaptation measures;
  • Rehabilitation of eroded and salinised soils;
  • Consideration of anticipated climate changes in the local infrastructure developmental process.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Georgia
Marina Shvangiradze
Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Climate Resilient Flood Management Practices in Georgia

This project aims to make highly vulnerable communities and regions resilient to climate related hazards such as floods and flash floods. It takes an integrated and comprehensive approach by addressing critical gaps in land use policy and regulatory frameworks, which are fundamental to climate resilient flood management.

The Georgian Government's priorities for long term flood prevention and management will be implemented by directly involving local municipalities and populations. The project will enhance the capacity of all appropriate national agencies to deliver early warnings in a timely and effective manner. A balanced combination of policy, early warning, and concrete adaptation actions will allow Georgia to take steps toward ensuring long-term resilience for the most vulnerable communities in the Rioni River basin region.

Project snapshot: Georgia after the flood

For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.418 42.6332)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Vulnerable Populations in the Rioni River basin.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$5,316,500 (amount requested and approved as of 2011-12-14)

Georgia - The Story of Floods

UNDP and Adaptation Fund help Georgia introduce new approaches in flood management. 200 thousand residents of the Rioni basin, one of the most dangerous rivers in Georgia, are the main focus of this assistance.

Co-Financing Total: 
N/A
Project Details: 

Georgia is vulnerable to a variety of natural hazards, including floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, landslides, avalanches, and mud flows. Catastrophic events with a 50% annual probability of occurrence threaten economic losses that exceed 20% of the country’s GDP. Floods, including flash floods, are the highest probability catastrophic events.
The Rioni River basin houses approximately 986,800 people and covers one-fifth of Georgia's total land area. Between 1842 and 2008, 111 incidents of flooding were recorded in the basin, incurring losses from $200,000 to $60 Million USD and the inundated area ranging from 4 to 200 square kilometres. The number of events per year has increased in the last decade, with 7 events occurring in 2005, 6 of which were categorised as "strong". The largest number of flood events has been recorded in 6 municipalities in the last 10 years: they are Oni, Tsageri, Lentekhi, Ambrolauri, Tskaltubo, and Samtredia. The project targets these 6 vulnerable municipalities for climate adaptation measures.
The underlying causes of vulnerability to climate change in the Rioni basin can be categorised into:

  • Physical Factors –direct manifestations of climate change;
  • Anthropogenic Factors – those related to the harmful ways in which humans have and continue to interact with the environment which has exacerbated vulnerability; and
  • Institutional Factors – related to the legislative/regulatory barriers placed by government and other institutions, as well as limited capacity (human and resources) to manage climate change vulnerability.

This project aims to develop resilience of highly vulnerable communities and regions to climate related hazards. Activities have been prioritised through consultation with local communities including heads of municipalities, NEA (National Environment Agency at the Ministry of Environment Protection) local staff responsible for management of the hydrometric network and national NEA and Ministry of Regional Development and Infrastructure (MRDI) staff responsible for the assessment of need (NEA) and implementation of flood protection measures in the catchment (MRDI). The project takes an integrated and comprehensive approach by addressing critical gaps in land use policy and regulatory framework, fundamental to climate resilient flood management. It will implement the Georgian Government’s priorities for effective and long term measures for flood prevention and management by direct involvement of local municipalities and populations residing in the highly exposed locations. Furthermore, it will enhance the capacity of all appropriate national agencies to deliver timely and effective early warnings. A balanced combination of policy, early warning and concrete adaptation actions will support Georgia in taking steps towards long-term resilience of its most vulnerable communities.

This project was approved and funded by the Adaptation Fund Board in December 2011, and is currently Under Implementation (as of June 2012).

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Floodplain development policy introduced to improve long-term resilience to climate change induced flood/flash flood risks
Produce hazard and inundation maps (Output 1.1), use them to enhance land use regulations (Output 1.2) and building codes (Output 1.3), then train relevant authorities to utilize advanced climate risk management planning and flood prevention measures (Output 1.4). Design and implement community-based flood insurance scheme for highly-exposed villages in 6 municipalities (Output 1.5).

Component 2: Climate resilient flood management practices developed and implemented to reduce vulnerability of highly exposed communities
In Lnetekhi, Oni, Ambrolauri, Tskaltubo, Samtredia, and Tsageri municipalities, collaborate with local governments and populations to implement direct flood prevention and risk mitigation measures (Output 2.1), including community-based adaptation measures (Output 2.2) and floodplain seasonal production systems such as short season cropping and agroforestry (Output 2.3). Disseminate lessons learned and best practices (Output 2.4).

Component 3: Early warning system in place to improve preparedness and adaptive capacity of population
Improve access to historical observation data for use in policy formulation and planning (Output 3.1), conduct a multi-hazard risk assessment for Rioni river basin (Output 3.2), and train targeted staff in advanced methods of risk assessment and forecasting (Output 3.3). Procure and install equipment for increased monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the target basin (Output 3.4) and integrate information into a flood early warning system for government and public access (Output 3.5).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be in accordance with established UNDP procedures and will be carried out by the Project team, verified by the Ministry of Environment, NEA and MRDI and the UNDP Country Office in Georgia. Dedicated support by the technical adaptation teams in the UNDP Regional Center for ECIS and UNDP New York will be provided on a regular basis. A comprehensive Results Framework of the project will defines execution indicators for project implementation as well as the respective means of verification. A Monitoring and Evaluation system for the project will be established based on these indicators and means of verification. Targeted M&E activities for the proposed project include the following:


A Project Inception Workshop will be conducted within two months of project start up with the full project team, relevant government counterparts and UNDP. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. A fundamental objective of the Inception Workshop will be to present the modalities of project implementation and execution, document mutual agreement for the proposed executive arrangements amongst stakeholders, and assist the project team to understand and take ownership of the project’s goals and objectives. Another key objective of the Inception Workshop is to introduce the project team which will support the project during its implementation. An Inception Workshop Report will be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements decided during the meeting.

A UNDP risk log will be regularly updated in intervals of no less than every six months in which critical risks to the project have been identified. Quarterly Progress Reports will be prepared by the Project team and verified by the Project Board. Annual Project Reports will be prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period. These annual reports include, but are not limited to, reporting on the following:
Progress made toward project objective and project outcomes - each with indicators, baseline data and end-of-project targets (cumulative);

  • Project outputs delivered per project Outcome (annual);
  • Lessons learned/good practices;
  • Annual expenditure reports;
  • Reporting on project risk management.

Government authorities, members of Project Board and UNDP staff will conduct regular field visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.


In terms of financial monitoring, the project team will provide UNDP with certified periodic financial statements, and with an annual audit of the financial statements relating to the status of funds according to the established procedures set out in the Programming and Finance manuals. The Audit will be conducted in accordance with UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on UNDP projects by a legally recognized auditor of the Government, or by a commercial auditor engaged by the Government.
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) at the mid-point of project implementation, which will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term. Final External Evaluation will be conducted 3 months before project closure.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Adriana Dinu
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
AF
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

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