Taxonomy Term List
This large-scale project will advance climate change adaptation across India’s coastal zone, with a focus on building the resilience of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha, whose coastal populations are particularly vulnerable to extreme events and slow onset climate impacts.
Historically, the focus in India, as in most countries, has been on engineering-based solutions to climate challenges, such as building concrete structures to directly increase protection from waves and flooding. However, ecosystem-based solutions are increasingly being recognized worldwide as cost-effective approaches with additional co-benefits for enhancing climate-adaptive livelihoods.
Green Climate Fund funding approval: October 2018
Promoting Innovative Finance, Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community in Senegal
The "Promoting Innovative Finance and Community Based Adaptation in Communes Surrounding Community Natural Reserves (Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, Delta du Saloum) in Senegal" project will work to create financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation and support capacity building for vulnerable households and community groups to build holistic responses to climate change.
With US$5.4 million in funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. In the long term it will empower local institutions to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.
The LDCF-funded initiative will assist Senegal to pursue a "transformational" pathway towards resilience. Under this approach, in the long term, local institutions will be able to provide adaptation services to vulnerable communities.
To achieve the project goals, changes in practices are needed, specifically to establish attractive funding mechanisms , linked to existing local financing systems, to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation, and to provide investments and capacities to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes.
The project will complement the existing baseline by promoting long-term planning on climate changes and facilitating budgeting and establishment of innovative financing mechanisms to support climate change governance at communes’ levels. More specifically, the project will review local development plans (including RNC plans) to (i) integrate climate adaptation priorities and resilience, (ii) set up innovative & sustainable financial mechanisms, (iii) improve the capacity of local credit and saving mutuals to finance adaptation projects and also the performance of local leaders in managing adaptations finances.
The response to climate vulnerability and changes will be oriented toward investing on the restoration of key livelihood resources (natural reserves, pastures, water points, etc.), establishing minimum community based early warning systems and sustaining climate-resilient agro pastoral and diversification activities. Target communities, local government leaders and other supporting institutions, will receive support to build capacity on climate change to inform improved decision making. This is critical for informing the design of feasible, credible and useful adaptation options and support.
This innovative approach allows local government to make changes to planning instruments that affect existing local developments by incorporating climate change considerations. Through the project, communities will have access to funding from a number of competitive grants (public & private) to address adaptation issues.
The coordination arrangement, involving policy makers, extension services, private sector and community based organisations, is a major innovation and will help to articulate institutional communication - both educational and social - at different levels.
The overall project will also generate socio-economic benefits at the local level by involving communities in the 203 villages (at least 50,000 households) in a much more transitional approach in the use of natural resources through the dissemination of practices, technologies and techniques, which are expected to improve the productivity and the resilience of agro-sylvo -pastoral activities.
Long-term benefits are also expected with investment aiming at restoring communities' "Natural Capital," and providing relevant climate information. In term of sustainability , the decentralized entities (councils and villages) will be empowered in implementing adaptation investments, strengthening community organizations in order to ensure that physical infrastructure and other investments are well managed and maintained after the project closure.
Capacity-building initiatives and awareness-raising will achieved through the social and environmental sustainability, and stakeholder involvement will be strengthened through adequate social mobilization and sensitization initiatives (workshops, forums, publications, community radios’ programmes, etc.). In addition, the knowledge base will be improved, and the project will define and implement an adequate system for knowledge management and information sharing.
The natural regions of Ferlo, Niokolo Koba, Bas Delta Senegal, and Delta du Saloum play a key role for livelihoods, as the communities are directly dependent on their natural assets, such as water, pasture, forests and fertile soil for a living.
Recognizing this richness, the communities of 203 villages established about 26 Community Natural Reserves (RNC) as well as nine credit and saving mutuals to improve the living conditions of households, specifically women groups.
However, with the effects climate change, both the natural capital maintained under these RNC and people’s economic assets will reach a tipping point. Indeed, in Senegal, droughts are the result of climate variability that more recently has manifested by a late onset of the rainy season, irregular spatial distribution of rains, and an early end to the rainy season.
Projections of mean annual rainfall averaged over the country show a trend towards decreases, particularly in the wet season. The drastic reductions in water availability at critical times (e.g. in the dry season or in drought years) and at critical locations (e.g. in the more populous areas or where livestock congregates) have direct and catastrophic impact on livelihoods of communities.
Natural grazing grounds in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo will be significantly diminished and livestock watering made difficult under climate change scenarios. This situation leads to localized conflicts between transhumant and sedentary communities, especially during the drought periods, when grazing grounds and water resources are particularly scarce.
Among other predictable impacts, climate change is also expected to result in a marked increase in the incidence and intensity of bushfires in Niokolo Koba & Ferlo. Fire can have catastrophic impacts on livelihoods, notably because of the importance of pastoral resources in target regions .
In Bas Delta Senegal , most of villages are facing a serious coastal erosion problem; the outer row of fisher folk houses has already been destroyed by the sea and thus abandoned by the population
Finally, in Saloum Delta, the reduction of water table leads to the salinization of agricultural lands. Many valleys in Saloum are now affected by salted water intrusion resulting from reduced rainfall and lack of appropriate storage under changed conditions. Under these conditions, the capacity of communities will remain weak to sustain current efforts in preserving natural capital and increasing economical capital.
Outcome 1 - C reate financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation
Output 1.1. Identify and integrate climate resilience related performance measures into local development plans, including community plans
Output 1.2. Set up sustainable financial mechanisms at sub-national level (e.g. Local Resilience budget lines/funds, Eco taxes, etc.) to attract climate finance
Output 1.3. Sustainability & performance of the nine community based credit and saving mutuals improved to attract, manage and finance priority adaptation measures identified by vulnerable communities
Output 1.4. Capacity of communes and villages leaders developed to (i) access incremental funding from non-governmental sour ces, (ii) manage and (iii) monitor adaptation investments
Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes
Output 2.1. Investments for structural adaptation measures channelled trough local budget (e.g. restoration of natural reserves/pastoral areas/water points, research development, Early Warning Systems, management of supply chains, etc.
Output 2.2. Create revolving investment funds, through credit & saving mutuals, for profitable community based climate resilient agro-pastoral investments and other diversification activities
Output 2.3. Community based organisation groups (women, youth and other producers) provided with capacity to (i) understand climate impacts; (ii) identify resilient growth production areas, (ii) manage adaptation initiatives (iii) access to rural finance, and (iv) improve entrepreneurship and organizational skills
Output 2.4. Mechanisms for capturing and dissemination of key experiences and good practices established for replication.
Outcome 1 - Create financial incentives linked with local government and communities financing systems to cover the incremental costs of climate change adaptation
Outcome 2 - Investments and capacities provided to vulnerable households and community groups for holistic responses to climate vulnerability and future changes
Enhancing Adaptive Capacities of Coastal Communities, especially Women, to Cope with Climate Change-Induced Salinity in Bangladesh
Lead by the Bangladesh Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, this project focuses on strengthening the adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women and adolescent girls, to cope with impacts of climate change-induced salinity on their livelihoods and water security.
The 6-year project (2018-2024) focuses on the Southwestern coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira, both of which frequently experience cyclones and tidal flooding and experience severe drinking water scarcity due to salinity.
Under the project, communities will be empowered as ‘change-agents’ to plan, implement, and manage resilient livelihoods and drinking water solutions.
The project will promote a paradigm shift away from a focus on short-term responses and technology-led interventions towards community-centric solutions that build ownership and capacities across multiple stakeholders, to sustain and scale-up adaptive responses to safeguard livelihoods and water security.
An estimated 719,229 people (about 245,516 directly and 473,713 indirectly) are set to benefit.
Under three inter-related outputs, the project will implement the following:
Output 1. Climate-resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities (responsible party for execution of the activities is DWA, department of Ministry of Women and Children Affairs)
Activity 1.1 Enterprise- and community-based implementation of climate-resilient livelihoods for women
Activity 1.2 Strengthened climate-resilient value-chains and market linkages for alternative, resilient livelihoods
Activity 1.3 Community-based monitoring and last-mile dissemination of early warnings for climate-risk informed, adaptive management of resilient livelihoods
Output 2. Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions (responsible party for execution of the activities is the Department of Public Health Engineering)
Activity 2.1 Participatory, site-specific mapping, beneficiary selection, and mobilization of community-based management structures for climate-resilient drinking water solutions
Activity 2.2 Implementation of climate-resilient drinking water solutions (at HH, community, and institutional scales)
Activity 2.3 Community-based, climate-risk informed Operation & Maintenance (O&M) and management of the resilient drinking water solutions
Output 3. Strengthened institutional capacities, knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security (responsible parties for execution of the activities are DWA and Department of Public Health Engineering)
Activity 3.1 Strengthen the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs’ technical and coordination capacities for design and implementation of gender-responsive, climate-resilient coastal livelihoods
Activity 3.2 Strengthen DPHE capacities for climate-risk informed innovation and management of drinking water solutions across the Southwest coast
Activity 3.3. Establish knowledge management, evidence-based learning, and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) mechanisms to promote long-term, adaptive capacities of coastal communities
Overall, the project will benefit 719,229 direct and indirect beneficiaries in vulnerable coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira (about 16.25 per cent of the total population of the two districts) with 245,516 people directly benefiting from the project interventions in building resilience across water and livelihoods through household, community, government, and partner capacities.
The interventions will provide indirect benefits to 473,713 people to the nearby communities in the targeted Wards and other unions in the 5 Upazilas through integration of climate change concerns into planning and implementation of the mandated agencies as well as the pathways established for replication to other communities through knowledge and learning mechanisms.
The primary measurable benefits that will be realized include:
- 25, 425 women will directly benefit from the interventions to switch to (or phase in) climate-resilient livelihoods with associated 500 people benefiting from capacity building and support to value-chain and market actors.
- 245, 516 people will benefit from timely, gender-responsive early warning information and climate risk reduction strategies, facilitated through the women and girl volunteer groups established by the project at each of the targeted wards.
- 68, 327 females and 67, 783 males will benefit through year-round access to safe and reliable drinking water improving their health and safety, and significantly decreasing the unpaid time burden of women in regards of water collection and thereby creating opportunities for education and/or enhanced income generation.
- 525 government staff will benefit from improved capacities for climate-risk informed planning and implementation of resilient solutions for water and livelihood security.
- The project support to women groups for climate resilient livelihoods options in aquaculture and agriculture yields increased income benefits and enables participation in the formal economy, for a total expected increase in income of USD15 million (over the full life of the project). By providing an alternate higher quality source of water, salt intake by the population in the target communities will substantially decrease deaths and averting quality adjusted life years (the rainwater harvesting technologies have sufficient capacity to provide for basic drinking water needs even in times of low precipitation), for net benefits measuring US$4 million.
A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The annual report will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.
An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.
An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project.
The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation arrangements will comply with the relevant GCF policies and Accreditation Master Agreement signed between GCF and UNDP.
'Bangladesh to empower women and girls in the face of increasing climate impacts' - UNDP Bangladesh, February 28 2018. The world's largest multilateral fund for climate change action, the Green Climate Fund, has approved almost US$25 million in grant funding in support of Bangladesh’s efforts to build the adaptive capacities of vulnerable coastal communities. With a focus on women and adolescent girls, a new 6-year project is set to benefit 700,000 people living in disaster-prone southwestern districts.
Output 1: Climate resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities
Output 2: Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions
Output 3: Strengthened institutional capacities knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security
The project was designed through extensive stakeholder consultations, including with civil society, bi-lateral donors, and communities and contributes towards the Government of Bangladesh's priorities outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change strategies.
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) were consulted with the objective of gathering feedback, particularly on gender considerations and gender empowerment strategies in Bangladesh, as well as on the full design of the project and the proposed activities, including the exit strategy.
Mainstreaming climate risks considerations in food security in Tsilima Plains and Upper Catchment Area
The Tsilima Region – part of the densely populated Central Highlands agro-ecological zone – is known for its agricultural products, such as sorghum and barley, it is considered the breadbasket of Eritrea, and is the focus of the government’s current and future investments in food security. Being densely populated, the region’s ecosystems and natural resources face increasing pressure. In addition to this, climate change poses an additional threat to ecosystem goods and services – and therefore agricultural productivity and community livelihoods – in this area. Like many parts of the Africa, Eritrea, being located in the Horn of Africa, is currently facing climate change-induced threats to ecosystem services and agricultural productivity, and these are compounded by the impacts of signicant land degradation occurring in the country. In the Tsilima Region, these problems manifest through reduced groundwater recharge, which affects agricultural productivity. This is partly a result of decreased precipitation, shorter and more intense rainy seasons, which reduce the potential for infiltration, promotes run-off, and increased temperatures that promote evapotranspiration. It is also a result of over-abstration of groundwater within short periods, reducing the opportunities for natural recharge of groundwater aquifers and deforestation, leading to reduced capacity of soils to retain moisture and nutrients.
The project’s objective is therefore to integrate adaptation measures into ecosystem management and restoration and agricultural production systems to secure the benefits of the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Action Plan. By doing so, the LDCF-financed project will support the implementation of Priorities 3, 4 and 5 of Eritrea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) – which focus on livestock, forestry and water resources respectively. Furthermore, the project will mitigate the effects of floods and droughts, contribute to reduced soil erosion and increase soil fertility. Communities in the Tsilima Region will therefore be less vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The project will achieve this by enhancing the scientific and technical capacity of government staff – at national, Zoba and sub-Zoba levels – as well as academic and research institutions to identify, plan and implement climate change adaptation (CCA) interventions. This will facilitate the implementation of an ecosystem-based approach to CCA in sub-Zoba Dbarwa, in the Tsilima plains and upper catchments. The theory of change adopted for this LDCF-financed project comprises addressing the barriers discussed below and in Section II (Development Challenge) of the Project Document while contributing to the preferred solution discussed below through the delivery of three interrelated components.
Sowing the seeds of sustainability in Eritrea
In Eritrea, a small country in the Horn of Africa, land rehabilitation combats erosion and desertification, and helps restore agricultural productivity. The central highlands region of Eritrea, a densely populated agro-ecological zone, is largely considered as the ‘breadbasket’ of the country, and is the focus of the government’s current and future investments in food security. But the breadbasket has, over the years, been growing ever-emptier. Despite the relatively fertile soils, agricultural productivity had progressively declined as a result of increasing population pressure, unsustainable land and water use, and the effects of climate change (less rain, falling in shorter and more intense rainy seasons and resulting in increased run-off).
Outcome 1.1: Capacity of research institutions to undertake climate-related research increased.
Outcome 1.2: Capacity of extension service institutions to provide knowledge-based climate-smart extension services to agriculture, livestock production and water management increased.
Outcome 2.1: Climate-resilient land use planning implemented over 9,000 hectares of the Tsilima Region.
Outcome 2.2: Integrated water management operationalised across the Tsilima Region, increasing water availability and land under irrigation.
Outcome 2.3: Increased food production through the implementation of climate-smart agricultural practices across the Tsilima Region.
Outcome 3.1: Increased monitoring, knowledge-sharing and awareness at Zoba, sub-Zoba, Kebabi and community levels on: i) climate change risks; ii) climate- and ecosystem-smart watershed restoration; iii) climate-smart agricultural technologies and measures; and iv) the sustainable use and management of natural resources.
- Existing CBOs strengthened, including inter alia Village Agricultural Committees, Water User Associations and Farmer Associations to coordinate local level participation in climate change adaptation, land use and development planning.
- Local communities and households trained to undertake sustainable water use and management, including inter alia water harvesting, construction and maintenance of hard and soft engineering interventions.
- Public awareness-raising and education campaigns conducted in the Tsilima Region using all forms of media (including inter alia print, radio, art and drama)
The impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and pronounced droughts have severe consequences on water and sanitation in the country.
The areas which are most vulnerable to sea-level rise are low-lying islands, atolls and flat deltaic regions at the mouth of larger rivers. Intrusion of salt water from rise in sea level has affected groundwater resources, especially freshwater aquifers (lens) in small atolls and low-lying islands that rely on rainfall or groundwater for their freshwater supply. Droughts have severely affected water supplies and have also damaged crops and livelihoods.
Likewise, climate-related impacts on the quality and quantity of water has a gender dimension; in the context of the ethnic tensions, the safety and security of women and girls are compromised as they need to travel further to collect water, also leading to less time for other activities.
The project focuses on improving the resilience of water resources to the impacts of climate change, in order to improve health, sanitation and quality of life, and sustain livelihoods in target vulnerable areas.
For updates on UNDP Early Warning Systems and Climate Resilient Development projects, click here.
Based on the LDCF resources requested and the scope of the climate change adaptation measures, the project will cover work in 6 pilot sites. On a national scale there are a number of benefits that this project will contribute to.
- More than 70% of the national population i.e. more than 360,000 people benefit from communal water systems and natural water sources and do not rely on government managed water supply systems. Many of these supply systems are dependent on water catchments and underground aquifers aquifers that are very sensitive to the hydrological cycle and its disturbances, most of which are related to climate change. Lessons from the project could be multiplied for the benefit of this population.
- Improvements to water supply will also result in more people having access to proper sanitation facilities, potentially reduce prevalence of disease and reduced costs to the people and to government’s social services
- UNDP estimates that water supply investment has an economic return of $4.4 to $1 while investment in sanitation has a return of $9.1 to $1. Some of the multiplier effects of investing in water and sanitation include; healthy workers, savings on medicines, bottled water not required, boost to agriculture and healthy tourists
- Increasing preparedness and enhancing resilience of the water sector to extreme events can potentially reduce the cost to government for disaster relief. Over the past few years flooding, king tides, excessive rainfall and storm surges have rendered rural locations and communities as disaster areas with the frequency of calls for disaster relief assistance from the national government reaching levels never before experienced in the country since it attained political independence in 1978
Outcome 1: Integrate water conservation and sustainable water resources management in all sectors and communities.
The outputs include: construction of village/community water tanks; construction of water reservoirs for institutional and residential areas; upgrading of existing reservoirs, protective structures/access roads; promote/build household rainwater harvesting; construction of strategic storage water reserve tank; engineered or “climate proofed” water reservoirs; develop and implement Water Use efficiency Plan; raise awareness for water conservation.
Outcome 2: Incorporate climate change adaptation strategies into the guidelines and criteria for design and construction of appropriate water infrastructure in vulnerable areas.
The outputs include: guidelines for development of water supply in rural areas developed; inventory of POPs and adequate storage and leakage prevention conducted; good practice guidance for pesticide storage and use, and application developed and used; drought and its effect on water distribution in rural areas assessed; rainwater harvesting technologies developed and used.
Outcome 3: Increased reliability and quality of water supply to all sectors and communities
The outputs include: capacity of water supply increased; water reticulation and distribution systems improved and where necessary constructed; arable land improved and rehabilitated; sustainable use of water on commercial agriculture land; build appropriate low-technology irrigation system for farmers; diversification food crops with a focus on high-yielding crop varieties promoted; promote water conservation and water use efficiency; prevent land-based pollution.
Outcome 4: Enhanced institutional and legal framework for water resources management
The outputs include: individual and institutional capacity for sustainable water management built and/or enhanced; water resources sector policy developed and implemented; water resources sector legislation developed and adopted; water sector plans and programmes developed and implemented.
Championed by the Government of the Solomon Islands through the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Rural Electrification (MMERE) Water Resources Division (WRD) in partnership with Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology (MECDM), and other line ministries, SIWSAP activities are designed to ensure access to safe and affordable drinking water and increase reliability and quality of water supplies in targeted areas. Longer-term project measures are working to integrate climate-resilient water management in policy and development frameworks; encourage investments in cost-effective and adaptive water management technologies; and improve governance and knowledge management for climate change adaptation in the water sector at the local and national levels.
The five-year project Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam (2017-2022) will increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change, scaling-up interventions that have already been tested.
Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods.
To support and sustain the impacts of this project - as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities - climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application will be systematized in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
News story: UNDP-GCF project to benefit coastal communities vulnerable to climate-related impacts in Viet Nam
The UNDP-GCF project seeks to create transformative impact by replicating and scaling-up proven successful approaches to increase access to flood and storm resilient housing, reinforce mangrove storm surge buffer zones and improve access to quality climate change risk information.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios. The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund project "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" aims to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change.
Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios.
Resultant economic impacts make it increasingly difficult for vulnerable families to escape the cycle of poverty. With funding from the Green Climate Fund, this project will scale-up already tested interventions to increase the resilience of target communities. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people.
As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, the project will systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.
Output 1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
- In the flood and typhoon prone areas of coastal of Viet Nam. This project will provide for the additional cost of safety features and improved monitoring (approximately US$2,000/house), to 4,000 houses constructed under the broader government housing programming benefitting the poor. Specifically these include (a) a concrete roof with strengthened bracings and fittings (US$900), (b) reinforced windows, doors and sealing (US$400) (c) improvements to drainage, siting and raising plinths (US$400) and (d) improved monitoring to ensure that the finished product is one that reflects all of the resilience features of the house design (US$300). This will be fully coordinated with the government housing programme, and grant support to beneficiaries will follow the government’s monitoring and disbursement schedule.
- Risk assessments will be conducted through the established CBDRM mechanism, to ensure that house siting is on a safe location. Links will be made to existing information such as the storm surge maps generated by the Disaster Management Center.
- The 100 target communes selected for this work will serve as learning hubs for broader dissemination in adjacent communes and provinces. Selection of communes and households to receive support will follow existing government criteria. Criteria and prioritization criteria are further detailed in Annex II: Feasibility Study.
- Training on engineering innovations for flood and storm resistant housing technologies, and to deliver hands-on advice and guidance to local authorities and affected households on safe and affordable house designs and construction.
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of coastal mangrove storm surge buffer zones using successful evidence-based approaches
- This project will support regeneration of approximately 4,000 hectares of mangroves, in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change impacts. This project will enable scale up of good practices from various pilots and integrate field proven best practices. Supplementary funds will allow for the application of improved planting and maintenance technologies outlined above, and implement the measures to ensure that livelihoods are maintained (such as relocating communal shrimp ponds to where the pressures on the mangrove stands will be minimized and the shrimp production can be well maintained).
- Specific sites within the province for project intervention will be identified/assessed through various criteria, namely (a) exposure to climate change induced events (i.e. typhoons, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal flooding), (b) potential for mangrove restoration, and (c) complementarity with ongoing government or partner support to maximize the impact of combined resources. Regeneration and rehabilitation efforts will be implemented in phases. While the techniques to be used are based on best practices of previous mangrove rehabilitation efforts, a phased approach will allow time for further monitoring and assessment of techniques, as well as review of risk mitigation measures. Adjustments will be made as needed to maximize the survival rate.
- Target communes will set up a community committee incorporating both local government and a cross-section of residents to complete a CBDRM risk assessment and planning process. Additional sessions on coastal mapping, mangrove regeneration and livelihoods maintenance will be added. The community CBDRM plans will therefore include location specific actions to support implementation and maintenance of the mangroves. The project will then roll out mangrove regeneration actions to enable application of improved techniques to increase survival rates. This will be community driven process as part of the commune planning and implementation using the CBDRM process for community mobilization and engagement.
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam
- MARD with assistance of UNDP has worked to establish the first natural disaster loss and damage database, strengthening early warning system design and meteorological service capacity. MONRE with assistance of UNDP has strengthened climate change data and analysis and has completed the Special Report on Extreme Events (SREX) submitted to the IPCC in 2014. The government has recently developed Viet Nam’s first coastal storm surge maps to improve coastal inundation mapping.
- MARD and MONRE will make improved information more accessible to government decision makers especially at the sub-national level, on-going national programs and the private sector. This will be done by developing integrated risk maps at the sub-national level using the established methodology that Viet Nam has already been applied to produce maps in 20 out of 63 provinces. Viet Nam will be able to produce risk mapping of the entire coastal area, combing local level knowledge with the best scientific data. Data quality will also be improved by including super-storm and storm surge data based on 2014-2015 models and more accurate sea level rise projections included in the fifth IPCC assessment report. Additional analysis of salt water intrusion zones using new satellite based technology will also be included. Although this data has been developed, or is near finalization, it is not currently being systematically applied by the government at any level. This would be a transformative change in Viet Nam’s ability to analyze and compare climate change risks in coastal areas.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 September 2017
First disbursement received: 19 September 2017
Project Inception Workshop with key stakeholders: 24 November 2017
“Finally, we have a resilient house to protect our lives and assets” - UNP Viet Nam, September 20 2018. “My area is often flooded and we usually have to move to one of my neighbours’ houses for two or three days because they are located at a higher altitude." Ms. Nguyen Thi Mua's new resilient house is one of 85 being built under the UN Development Programme and the Green Climate Fund-supported project, ‘Improving the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Communities to Climate Change Related Impacts in Viet Nam’ in 2018.
'Forty storm-resilient houses presented to vulnerable families in Quang Ngai' - UNDP Viet Nam, May 5 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) together with UNDP and Quang Ngai People's Committee have handed over a further 40 storm-resilient houses to poor and vulnerable households.
'Resilient houses help people change their lives' - UNDP Viet Nam, April, 2018. Ms. Nguyen Thi Mun, 77, is one of seventy-seven poor households in Quang Ngai province to receive storm-resilient housing under the GCF-supported project, “Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Viet Nam.”
'Coastal province of Quang Nam to accelerate implementation of the nation's first Green Climate Fund-financed project' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 16, 2018. Project to build 243 storm-resilient homes and restore 135 hectares of mangrove forests over next five years, boosting the resilience of thousands.
'Go inside when storm comes and go upstairs when it floods' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 1, 2018. UNDP is supporting the construction of 4,000 safe houses in five coastal provinces of Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue and Thanh Hoa over the next 4 years. One of the early recipients, Tiem, now lives in what she calls a new, ‘resilient’ home. She stores most of her furniture on the upstairs floor where she can stay safer during the flooding, and there is a big window that serves as an exit for evacuation.
'Storm-proof housing increases the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, February 13, 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and UNDP hand over storm-resilient houses to households in the province of Quang Ngai. Thirty-seven houses have been built so far, with more than 300 houses to be built in 2018.
'Shelter from the Storm: Why flood and storm resilient housing is key to sustainable development in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, November 12, 2017. By Jenty Kirsch-Wood, UNDP Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Specialist
Speech by Mr. Kamal Malhotra, UNDP Resident Representative in Viet Nam at the Viet Nam - Green Climate Fund Cooperation Dialogue - UNDP Viet Nam, June 26, 2017.
'Green Climate Fund announces $29.5mn project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Tuoi Tre News, June 26, 2017. The $29.5 million project was announced during a dialogue between GCF executive director Howard Bamsey and Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment in Hanoi. Bamsey, who was on his first-ever Vietnam visit, joined local officials in discussing how the Southeast Asian country could take action to achieve climate-resilient development and green growth.
'Green Climate Fund announces project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Nhan Dan Online, June 26, 2017. Viet Nam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment, UNDP and the Green Climate Fund announce GCF-funded project to increase the climate resilience of coastal residents.
Call for public consultation and review of the Environmental and Social Management Plan, UNDP, April 29, 2016.
Output1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes
Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of costal mangrove storm surge buffer zones
Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam
Under the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project (TCAP) the Government of Tuvalu is implementing measures to reduce the impacts of climate-induced sea level rise and intensifying storm events on key infrastructure.
Building on existing initiatives, and using a range of measures for coastal protection - including eco-system initiatives, beach nourishment, concrete and rock revetments, and sea walls - the project focuses on building coastal resilience in three of Tuvalu’s nine inhabited islands. A total of 2,780m of high-value vulnerable coastline, with houses, schools and hospitals, will be protected from increasingly intensive wave action and coastal inundation. Building national capacity for resilient coastal management is also a key focus of the seven-year project, set to be completed in May 2024.
It is expected that the project will help to catalyse additional coastal adaptation finance from other donors.
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Tuvalu is the fourth smallest nation in the world, comprising nine inhabited islands with a population of 10,640. With an average elevation of only 1.83 meters, it is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the impacts of climate change. The combination of two manifestations of climate change – continually intensifying cyclone events and sea level rise – threaten to have dire impacts on Tuvalu. In 2015 Cyclone Pam displaced 45% of the population. The purpose of this project is to reduce the impact of increasingly intensive wave activity, through the compounding effects of sea-level rise and intensifying storm events, that is amplifying coastal inundation and erosion. It is evident and well accepted that the effects of climate change will only worsen coastal inundation and erosion in Tuvalu. This project will increase the coverage of coastal protection from the baseline 570m to 2,780m benefiting nearly 29% of the entire population. Investments on coastal protection are directed at coastlines in three islands (Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga) along areas that have a high concentration of houses, schools, hospitals and other social and economic assets (henceforth referred to as “high-value” coastline).
Despite the extreme level of vulnerability, Tuvalu currently does not have a single engineered coastal protection infrastructure project that is designed to withstand current and future impacts of sea-level rise and intensifying tropical storms. The only exceptions are two interventions that are currently being designed for a length of 570 m in Funafuti and Nukufetau. The combined factors of high upfront investments required for coastal protection, the public good and non-revenue nature of the required solutions, and the inability of the Government to service loans, have permitted the Government and the community to implement the recognized solutions only at a slow pace and in a highly fragmented manner in the past. Because available resources are generally far smaller than what is required for implementing appropriate response measures, the past initiatives have often resorted to community-scale interventions that hardly withstand the current wave energy, let alone integrating climate change risks into the design. Without support, this sub-optimal practice is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. This project is proposed so that Tuvalu can, finally, take comprehensive and systemic steps to manage coastal inundation risks.
Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.
- Technical capacity, knowledge and awareness strengthened for monitoring, protection and maintenance of coastal protection infrastructure.
The jurisdiction of coastal protection is shared across the Department of Lands and Survey (DoLS), Public Works Department (PWD) and Department of Environment (DoE). However, none of these departments currently have the technical capacity to monitor the dynamic processes of coastal change over time nor the capacity to design potential coastal interventions. Nor is there sufficient capacity within the Climate Change Policy Unit (CCPU) to coordinate the work of these departments for effective coastal protection. Due to this limitation, the Government is not able to carry out vulnerability assessments, site assessments and coastal design, make informed decisions about pragmatic solutions for coastal protection, and identify potential funding sources for implementation. Instead, they generally have to wait for a donor, often with particular areas of financing priority, to approach them. This lack of ability to carry out a preliminary technical assessment contributes to an increasing sense that the issue is out of their control and eventually to limited ownership. Further, although the CCPU was newly established in 2015 to coordinate government’s actions for climate change adaptation and mitigation, medium- to long-term capacity building efforts are needed in the technical areas of climate change, coordination, project design and management, financial management, knowledge management and reporting.
- Long-term national human resource capacity and awareness enhanced for sustainable coastal protection
In the specific context of Tuvalu, the capacity building support conventionally delivered in donor-supported projects has been insufficient to establish a foundation for sustainability. This is because typically the capacity building support in these projects is exclusively targeting the existing government staff, which is small in number, and the progress is immediately undone if the staff members leave the government system. This approach to capacity building represents numerous missed opportunities for transforming the country. Climate change adaptation is defined by UNFCCC as a series of “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts” and by nature, it is an iterative, long-term process. Adaptation efforts in SIDS like Tuvalu must embrace, in their core principle, a strategy to build capacity of the entire country that goes well beyond that of the government system.
Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.
- Coastal protection design, site-specific assessments and ESIA undertaken in all islands in a participatory manner
A detailed, participatory design and site-specific assessment will be carried out in all the islands in Tuvalu. This process is needed not only to make final adjustments in the design of the coastal protection measures (such as the angle of the structure and protection of the toe of the structure) to maximize the effectiveness and longevity of the structure for the three targeted islands, but also to equip the other, non-targeted islands, with the necessary information for attracting donor resources in the future, including from GCF. The multi-stakeholder, gender-responsive planning and design process will take place to ensure that beneficiaries are fully informed and are able to contribute to the detail design and functionality of the coastal protection measures in each of the islands. The process will, for example, look into how the target community (men, women, youth, and elderly) interacts with the ocean and coastline, which is an important design element of coastal protection infrastructure. The assessment will result in a set of adaptation options, detailed technical drawings, bill of quantity, tender documents and detailed costing of the interventions. As described earlier, this process will be used as an opportunity to provide hands-on trainings for government staff from the DLS, PWD and DoE.
Resources will be used to put in place a robust coastal protection infrastructure along 2,210m of vulnerable coastlines of Funafuti, Nanumea and Nanumaga to defend high value assets of the targeted islands. This translates to targeting nearly 28% of the high value zone of the country, which currently has no protective measures. Also this represents 10% of all vulnerable coastlines in the country. The design criteria are set such that the design will reflect the projected sea level rise and notional 200-year return period storm surge events. Geo-textile container revetments in Nanumea and Nanumaga will have minimum design life of 25 years; but, with the appropriate selection of vandal resistant bags for the top layer walls and, training of PWD and community members for monitoring and simple repair, the life expectancy is expected to be longer.
Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.
- All Island Strategic Plans and annual budgets integrate island-specific climate risks through gender sensitive, participatory processes
Successful climate risk mainstreaming into ISPs and effective use of available domestic financing will facilitate island-led actions, enhance planned and autonomous adaptation, and ultimately, increase resilience at the island level. In the context of coastal interventions envisaged in the GCF project, a strengthened ISP process will improve longer-term impact and replication potential of the GCF investments as domestic resources, allocated through ISPs, are expected to be used to maintain the GCF investments and to expand the coastal protection coverage. For the expansion of coastal protection measures beyond donor-assisted projects, lower-cost ecosystem-based approaches are a more realistic option given the limited available finance domestically. This activity will strengthen the critical foundation to facilitate this process.
- Capacity of Kaupules, Falekaupules and community members strengthened for monitoring coastal adaptation investments
This project will also be used to strengthen the capacity of both outer island administrations and community members for monitoring, reporting and verifying the progress of adaptation investments as an integral element of ISP support. Due to the special geographical condition of Tuvalu where islands are several days away from the central government, upward accountability to the central government and downward accountability to citizens can easily be diluted among kaupules. Thus, nurturing the sense of oversight among community members becomes critical for ensuring transparent, sustainable, demand-driven service delivery. Support to ISP formulation, budgeting and execution, the focus of Activity 3.1, and support for community members for an independent oversight of the ISP process, the focus of Activity 3.2, must go hand-in-hand. At the same time, outer island administrations also need to develop their capacity to report the use of resources and progress of investments to their constituents.
Project Update, October 2018
- With the concept designs already generated for the Nanumea, Nanumaga and Fogafale shorelines, the next step is to develop a detailed design with the help of an engineer. This will then be followed by a full assessment of hazards, environmental and social impact assessment, and coastal risk assessment before the implementation of innovative shoreline intervention measures appropriate to the location’s topographical and bathymetrical conditions.
- Under the TCAP’s scholarship programme, two Tuvaluan students, Palakua Sakaio and Tanu Sumeo have, in July of this year, commenced their studies at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand and the University of South Australia in Adelaide.
- The project is in the process of identifying the specific training and capacity needs of different Government agencies in Tuvalu with regards to their ability to address coastal adaptation and to ensure that the project meets the government’s requirements and there is maximum opportunity for capacity development during its implementation. This exercise will feed into a Strategy and Action Plan for Government Capacity Development which will be carried forward during the lifetime of the project. The technical capacities assessed are basically knowledge-based with direct links to the project. These include areas such as coastal hazards, coastal processes, coastal institutional arrangements, coastal interventions, project planning, coastal geospatial data, vulnerability assessment, concept designs, environmental & social impact assessments, risk assessment, coastal intervention construction, monitoring & maintenance, and adaptive management.
- To improve the ability of the Kaupules’ to address climate change and sea level rise risks and coastal adaptation, an operational manual has been developed to channel funds under the performance-based grants system to the Island’s Kaupules.
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 15 February 2017
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 7 June 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 14 June 2017
First disbursement received: 11 July 2017
Launch and inception workshop with key stakeholders: 30 August 2017
'Youths are the future of climate resilience', Fiji Times, February 11, 2018. As well as addressing the impacts and causes of climate change, we need to look to the solutions. How are communities going to, not just adapt, but build their resilience? What does resilience even mean? And how do we do it? One of the keys to building it, and addressing the impacts of climate change, is ensuring countries themselves are leading in both developing and implementing the solutions.
'Tuvalu scholarships awarded (under Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project)', Radio New Zealand, February 8, 2018. Two students from Tuvalu have been granted university scholarships under the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project. Investing in young people is among the country's environmental adaptation plans. Moeo Finauga said the students would be offered jobs on the project once they had completed their studies.
'Shoring up Tuvalu's Climate Resilience', UNDP Asia Pacific blog, August 30 2017. As the Tuvalu Coastal Adapation Project launches, celebration in Funafuti. Regional Technical Advisor, Yusuke Taishi, shares his thoughts on the occasion.
'Tuvalu’s climate resilience shored up with launch of US$38.9 million adaptation project', UNDP Pacific, August 30, 2017. The Prime Minister of Tuvalu along with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) officially launch the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project (TCAP) marking the start of an ambitious, large-scale push to protect the Pacific island nation from climate change.
'Tuvalu signs financing agreement to access Climate Fund' - Tuvalu Government, July 5 2017. Tuvalu has become the first Pacific Island country to sign the Financing Framework Agreement to access funds for coastal protection activities from the Green Climate Fund. The elated Prime Minister said the financing agreement, worth almost US$39 million will fund the Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project on the three islands of Nanumea, Nanumaga and Funafuti. The process will begin in August with a workshop where Tuvalu Government and UNDP will coordinate logistics.
'Government of Tuvalu launches new coastal protection project to bolster resilience to climate change' - UNDP, July 6, 2017. A signing ceremony took place in Suva on 14 June between the Tuvalu Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga and UNDP Resident Representative Osnat Lubrani. “The protection of our country’s vulnerable coastlines is an urgent priority of the Government of Tuvalu,” said the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Hon. Enele Sosene Sopoaga.
'Green Climate Fund finance allocation builds Tuvalu’s resilience' - Green Climate Fund, July 3, 2017. The Green Climate Fund is transferring funds to help strengthen the island nation of Tuvalu against the double climate threats of rising sea levels and destructive cyclones. GCF is sending the first USD 2 million tranche of its USD 36 million contribution.
Output 1: Strengthening of institutions, human resources, awareness and knowledge for resilient coastal management.
Output 2: Vulnerability of key coastal infrastructure including homes, schools, hospitals and other assets is reduced against wave induced damage.
Output 3: A sustainable financing mechanism established for long-term adaptation efforts.
Madagascar: Enhancing the Adaptation Capacities and Resilience to Climate Change in Rural Communities in Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo Andrefana
The Improving Adaptation and Resilience to Address Climate Change in the Rural Communities of Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana project is designed to reduce the vulnerability of populations in Madagascar facing the adverse effects of climate change and severe weather events.
Spread over five years with approximately US$5 million in funding from the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Country Fund, the US$61 million project aims to lift the barriers identified in the target areas, such as human pressure on natural resources, lack of financial and technical resources, limited access to credit, limited water and sanitation infrastructure, lack of agro-meteorological and climatic information, lack of awareness among decision-makers as well as lack of coordination between the most affected sectors.
In Madagascar, the economic sectors most affected by the harmful effects of climate change are agriculture, livestock, forestry, water resources, fishing and health. To enjoy sustainable livelihoods in a context of climate change, the local populations of the Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana regions must find a way to strengthen their adaptation and resilience capacities, which is the goal set by the proposed project. To this end, several barriers must be overcome, such as anthropic pressure on natural resources, the lack of financial and technical capacities, the difficult access to credit and inputs, the lack of water and sanitation infrastructures, the lack of agro-meteorological and climate information to inform climate change adaptation decision processes, the lack of awareness regarding climate change impacts and potential adaptation options on the part of decision-makers and the lack of coordination for adaptation interventions among sectors.
This project serves to address these various obstacles by achieving three main outcomes. The first outcome aims to increase the awareness and strengthen the capacities of decision-makers, technicians and vulnerable communities in terms of Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). This awareness-raising support will contributed to build a solid political framework. This first outcome will enable setting up the institutional, structural and technical foundations needed to disseminate and appropriate adaptation measures and technologies. The second outcome aims to ensure the collection and production of reliable climate and meteorological information. Disseminating this information in a manner that meets the needs of end users will foster informed decision-making in regards to climate and meteorological conditions. Finally, the third outcome aims to transfer adaptation measures, options and technologies to vulnerable communities in the selected regions using a participatory approach, building on the strengthened capacities achieved through the first component, and the agro-meteorological information and forecasts produced through the second component.
1. The institutional and technical adaptation capacities of ministries in charge of agriculture, livestock, water and sanitation of local governments of the regions of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana, Analamanga, and Atsinanana are strenghtened
2. Meteorological, climate and socio economic information are packaged into decision support information and disseminated to relevant stakeholders of the line ministries and communities
3. Adaptation measures including technologies are implemented by communities in Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana, Analamanga, and Atsinanana
1.1: A training program for management of climate risk for vulnerable communities livelihoods and living conditions is designed and implemented for policy decision makers, senior executives and technicians of ministries in charge of agriculture, livestock, water, and sanitation and of local governments, NGOs and community based organizations (CBOs) supporting the rural development of the regions of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana
1.2: The local development plans for the regions of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana, Atsinanana, and Anamalanga and related budgeting frameworks are revised to integrate climate risks and incentives to advance adaptation
1.3: The water and sanitation development plans for the Watersheds of the South, Center and East, as well as the municipal plans for developing access to sanitation and water (PCDEA) of the communes of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana, Atsinanana, and Anamalanga and their budgets as well as the National Program for Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation (PNAEPA), are revised so as to integrate climate risks and relevant adaptation options
1.4: Key public policy frameworks including the National Seed Strategy (DSNS) and the National Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Training (SNFAR) and the National Reforestation Strategy are revised to integrate climate change
2.1: Installation of 2 agrometeorological stations in Ampanihy and Amboasary-Sud, 2 synoptic stations in Betroka and Faux-Cap and 3 climatological stations in Betroka, Beroroha, and Sakaraha. and creation of a network of 5 hydrometric stations in the watershed of Menarandra, and of 12 in the watershed of Mandrare, \of two synoptic stations in Betroka and Faux Cap and of three auxiliary climate stations in Betroka, Beroroha, and Sakaraha
2.2: A training program is designed and implemented for the technicians of the Meteorology Directorate, the Ministry of Agriculture, Agencies for watersheds for the South, Center, and East and the Directorate of Disaster Management to enable them to analyze climate and weather data in an integrated manner with key socio-economic and biophysical data and generate policy relevant for key sector based planning and management
2.3: A system for producing and disseminating decision making support information to manage disasters and climate risks, combining data on weather condition (including satellite surveillance data), climate projections, natural resources development, social and economic conditions (livelihood, living conditions, vulnerability, etc… climate change impact and adaptation) is designed, institutionalized, and is put into operation
3.1: Climate resilient Agrosylvopastoral technologies, including, but not limited to, the use of crop calendar and other climate and weather condition information, drought tolerant/ shorter cycle seeds, zebus species and other input and methods for managing soil fertility and humidity are demonstrated with 3,000 farmers from the 30 most vulnerable communities
3.2: Dredging sewage and rainwater canals, high intensity of labor force works, and other low-cost measures to fight against the silting of canals, the raising of contours and/or the strengthening of vulnerable points of the water and sanitation infrastructures to strengthen the vulnerable community based water supply and sanitation systems in the regions of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo, Andrefana, Analamanga, and Atsinanana is strengthened in response to climate change and variability
3.3: Climate resilient agricultural advisory support groups made up of extension workers from agriculture support centers (CSAs) and members of communities are established and operationalized to provide climate resilient agriculture advisory support to the vulnerable communities of the regions of Androy, Anosy, Atsimo, Andrefana, Analamanga, and Atsinanana
3.4: A sustainable climate resilient agricultural input supply chain, laying on seed growers groups, NGOs and CBOs is established.
3.5: A public private partnership aiming at fostering and enabling the combination of public and private sector contribution in the provision of institutional, financial and technical support for the integration of climate risks and adaptation options in the agricultural, water and sanitation sectors in Madagascar
3.6: Adapted financial credits products , to finance communities to make climate change adaptation and resilient alternatives incomes generating activities (IGAs) are developed by Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) networks
Maintenir les efforts déployés contre la vulnérabilité des institutions et des populations
Une équipe mixte composée de représentants du Ministère de l’Économie et du Plan (MEP), le Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Ecologie et des Forêts (MEEF), et du Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement (PNUD) s’est rendue dans la Région Androy du 16 au 20 juillet 2018. Objectif : réaliser le suivi et la mise à niveau des activités de relèvement et de développement mis en œuvre dans le cadre du Plan de Relèvement et de Résilience pour les districts de la Région les plus touchés par la sècheresse.
Maintenir les efforts déployés contre la vulnérabilité des institutions et des populations, face à la sécheresse dans l’Androy. Une délégation conjointe du PNUD et de ses partenaires ministériels a pu l’apprécier lors d’une mission dans les districts les plus touchés. Des résultats encourageants. Du 16 au 20 juillet derniers, une équipe mixte, composée de représentants des ministères de l’Économie et du plan (MEP), de l’Environnement, de l’écologie et des forêts (MEEF), et du Programme des Nations unies pour le développement (PNUD), a effectué dans l’Androy une mission de suivi et de mise à niveau des activités de relèvement et de développement. Elles entrent dans le cadre du Plan de relèvement et de résilience pour les districts d’Ambovombe, de Bekily, et de Beloha, les plus touchés par la sècheresse.
La mission a évalué les initiatives finalisées, l’état d’avancement des programmes de lutte contre la pauvreté, d’appui à la gouvernance locale et d’adaptation des communautés au changement climatique, ainsi que les redressements nécessaires.
In the News
Face au changement climatique, renforcer les capacités d’adaptation et de résilience des communautés rurales à Madagascar
Lancement du projet « Amélioration des capacités d’adaptation et de résilience face au changement climatique dans les communautés rurales à Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy et Atsimo Andrefana »
Antsirabe, le 27 janvier 2017 : Afin de réduire la vulnérabilité des populations face aux effets néfastes et pervers du changement climatique et des phénomènes météorologiques, le PNUD a procédé au lancement à Antsirabe du projet « Amélioration des capacités d’adaptation et de résilience face au changement climatique dans les communautés rurales à Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy et Atsimo Andrefana ».
Etalé sur cinq (5) ans, le projet d’une hauteur de 61 millions de dollars américains bénéficie d'un financement d'environ 5 millions de dollars provenant du Fonds pour les pays les moins avancés du Fonds pour l'environnement mondial (FEM). Les contributions nationales proviennent des ministères de l'agriculture, de l'élevage, des transports et de la météorologie, de l'environnement, de l'écologie, de la mer et des forêts. Les contributions du PNUD et de L'UNICEF sont respectivement de 5 millions et de 2,3 millions de dollars.
Ce projet, mis en œuvre par le PNUD et en partenariat avec l’UNICEF, a pour objectif de lever les barrières identifiées dans les zones ciblées à savoir la pression anthropique sur les ressources naturelles, le manque de ressources financières et techniques, la difficulté d’accès aux crédits, intrants, et infrastructures d’eau et assainissement, manque d’informations agro-météorologiques et climatiques, le manque de sensibilisation des décideurs et de coordination entre secteurs les plus affectés.
Afin de relever ces défis, les activités du projet seront centrées autour de la réalisation des trois (3) produits suivants :
- La mise en place des bases institutionnelles, structurelles et techniques nécessaires à la diffusion et à l’appropriation de mesures et technologies d’adaptation ;
- La collecte et la production d’informations climatiques et météorologiques fiables afin de permettre une prise de décision éclairée vis-à-vis des conditions climatiques et météorologiques ;
- Le transfert des mesures, options et technologies d’adaptation nécessaires aux communautés vulnérables des communes sélectionnées.
« Surmonter les catastrophes climatiques comme les cyclones, les inondations ou encore la sècheresse ne doit pas être une option mais une nécessité si on veut faire face à l’extrême pauvreté et permettre au peuple malagasy de vivre dignement. La réponse proposée par le PNUD sur requête expresse du Gouvernement et ce, en partenariat avec les communautés et les autorités régionales et locales a été la formulation de ce projet que nous lançons ce jour.» a précisé Marie DIMOND, Représentante résidente adjointe du PNUD, lors de la cérémonie de lancement regroupant l’Unicef, les représentants du Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Ecologie et des Forets (MEEF) ainsi que des partenaires gouvernementaux, techniques et financiers.
Il convient de souligner que le projet « Amélioration des capacités d’adaptation et de résilience face au changement climatique dans les communautés rurales à Analamanga, Atsinanana, Androy, Anosy et Atsimo Andrefana » est une des illustrations du positionnement du PNUD pour 2017 qui est la focalisation des efforts financiers et techniques dans le relèvement et la résilience des populations afin de rompre le cycle de vulnérabilité à Madagascar.
Point focal information : Ramatoulaye MOUSSA MAZOU – Chargée de communication PNUD Madagascar - email@example.com. Tel : +261 32 23 467 93
Output 1. The establishment of the institutional, structural and technical bases necessary for the dissemination and appropriation of adaptation measures and technologies.
Output 2. The collection and production of reliable climate and weather information to enable informed decision-making with respect to climatic and meteorological conditions.
Output 3. The transfer of adaptation measures, options and technologies required by vulnerable communities in the selected areas.
Implemented by the Maldivian Ministry of Environment and Energy, the project Supporting vulnerable communities in Maldives to manage climate change-induced water shortages targets 49 islands across of 13 atolls of the country that continue to experience water shortages due to low rainfall and extended dry periods, brought on by a changing climate. The project aims to provide safe and reliable freshwater to 105,000 people, roughly 30 percent of the island nation's residents.
Under the project, a 90-day reserve of clean water will be secured, reducing the exposure to health risks from untreated water. Water desalination facilities on four islands across the most vulnerable regions in the North will also be established. These islands will then serve as water production and distribution hubs for all seven Northern atolls during the dry season, lifting their dependency on the capital Male’ for emergency drinking water. The remaining 45 islands in both the north and south of Maldives will benefit from improved rainwater collection infrastructure, combined with groundwater protection and improvements.
Clean water. Fresh air. This beautiful planet--our home. Aren't these three reasons enough for taking climate action? On the eve of the Climate Conference, UNDP Goodwill Ambassador Nikolaj Coster-Waldau met communities on the frontline of climate change in the Maldives.
The Maldives is one of the wonders of the world. Located in the Indian Ocean and made of 1192 coral islands, it is also the world’s lowest lying country. The highest natural point is just 2.4 meters above sea level. Today, one of the main problems for Maldivians is water. And it is likely to get worse with Climate Change.
The Maldives consists of 1,190 small, low-lying coral islands spread across 90,000 square kilometers. Its estimated population of 399,000 is scattered over 194 main islands. With high-end tourism as the main driver of economic growth, the country has made significant development progress since its independence in 1965.
However, national aggregate indicators of progress conceal underlying inequalities. A significant disparity between people living in the capital, Malé, and those living in other atolls is reflected in conspicuous differences in their human development indices. The outer island communities are especially vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather events, rainfall distribution anomalies, and sea level rise.
Observed experiences during the last decade bear out the risks of climate change. In 2004, an estimated 30 percent of the outer islands’ population experienced water shortages, and since 2005 an average of 81 islands had requested emergency shipments of water to be delivered from Malé during the annual dry season. The calls for emergency shipments have intensified as the rainfalls become more erratic and dryer seasons dryer, and as a result, islands’ stored rainwater reserves become depleted. This has resulted on an average of 3,500 liters shipped out from Malé annually during the last ten years. During 2005-2012, the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) spent US$2.4 million (annual average of US$300,000) to provide desalinated water to over 90 islands.
Difference in geography (land availability), hydro-climatic characteristics (rainfall amounts and distribution patterns) and socio-economic conditions (population size, density, growth trends, and socio-economic status) suggest the need for decentralised and fully customised approaches to water production and distribution to achieve island and atoll level self-sufficiency.
The Maldivian government faces severe constraints in responding to the country’s present and future water security challenges. Firstly, the precarious fiscal status limits the response options to largely reactive emergency measures. Longer-term solutions, without additional financial support, are out of reach. Secondly, a dispersed and small population prevents the possibility of economies of scale in providing water and sanitation services, as well as capital infrastructure.
In response to climate change risks and challenges, the proposed project will provide sufficient water to supply the potable water needs of island residents year round for a 35 year design period (to 2050). Project finance will be used to establish an integrated water resources management system that integrates the three main sources of water (rainwater, groundwater, and desalinated water) into a least cost delivery system. The project will: (i) increase rainfall collection capacity in target 49 islands at least threefold; (ii) improve groundwater management, including monitoring, effective replenishment and controlled extraction; and (iii) increase water production capacity through solar-based desalinization to secure sufficient back up resources for timely distribution to island households during extended dry periods. This system will be able to maintain service levels against a context of rainfall variability and sea level rise.
Ultimately, the project will achieve an uninterrupted water supply on islands that currently experience chronic 90-day water shortages during the dry season. As a result of the project, 49 priority islands will have increased rainwater collection capacities. Out of these, 4 of the larger islands will also install desalination-based water production systems. These systems will secure sufficient water production capacity, enabling decentralised and timely water distribution across all northern outer atolls during the extended dry periods, when shortages may occur.
Finally, early water alerts, based on forecasted meteorological information will feed into the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for system management. In addition to actual investments in water production and distribution the project will support more advanced management capabilities of the utilities for greater efficiency that anticipated climate change driven challenges and complexities demand.
Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 32,000 people
- 11,5023 rainwater harvesting systems for 26,000 residents in 45 islands installed;
- Standard operating Procedures (SOPs) prepared and used by utilities, local councils and households;
- 4 RO desalination water plants in 4 islands installed and made operational, using a grid-tied and / or off grid solar PV technology to provide backup capacity in times of water stress;
- Groundwater recharge system installed for excess rainwater from the RWH collection system on 49 islands, including grey water recycling on selected islands;
- Tariff evaluation criteria and tariff setting guidelines designed and introduced;
- Training programmes in integrated water resource management, planning and budgeting, water economic modeling, expenditure management and performance monitoring developed and delivered for relevant atoll and island councils and the ministries (MEE, MoH); and
- Certification courses for the utilities and sector specialists in the areas of water engineering, capital construction, operation, maintenance, financial management and planning introduced at the Maldivian Polytechnic training institute (MP).
Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution
- 4 sub-national water production and distribution locations to serve all Northern atolls established;
- Institutional coordination and accountability mechanisms between the utilities, the NDMC, MEE and LGA/ councils to facilitate cost-effective and timely water supply during dry season;
- Regulatory framework for competitive and wholesale water distribution services established;
- Early warning system established on the basis of forecasted meteorological information for water emergency alerts and for effective operation of integrated water system.
Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected
- Baseline assessment (hazards inventory and catchment characterization) completed;
- Groundwater monitoring protocols with associated equipment and training delivered;
- Regulatory framework established for coastal land use, including zoning to protect coastal catchment areas and enable natural recharge of groundwater lenses.
Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with the UNDP POPP and the UNDP Evaluation Policy. The Project Manager that will be in charge of running the project on behalf of Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA) will be responsible for day-to-day project monitoring. S/he will develop annual work plans to ensure the efficient implementation of the project.
The UNDP Country Office will conduct, within other monitoring activities, annual supervision missions. The UNDP Country Office will be responsible for complying with UNDP project-level M&E requirements. Additional M&E, implementation quality assurance, and troubleshooting support will be provided by the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor as needed.
A Project Implementation Report (PIR) will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The Project Manager, the UNDP Country Office, and the UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will provide objective input to the annual PIR. The Project Manager will ensure that the indicators included in the project results framework are monitored annually well in advance of the PIR submission deadline and will objectively report progress in the Development Objective tab of the PIR. The annual PIR will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.
An independent mid-term review (MTR) process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.
An independent terminal evaluation (TE) will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. UNDP Country Office will include the planned project terminal evaluation in the UNDP Country Office evaluation plan, and will upload the final terminal evaluation report in English and the management response to the public UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) (www.erc.undp.org). The MTR and TE will be carried out by an independent evaluator. The evaluation report prepared by the independent evaluator is then quality assessed and rated by the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office.
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 29 May 2017
'Towards a climate resilient future in the water sector: Government of Maldives Signs Project Document with UNDP' - May 12, 2017. UNDP Maldives announce official signing with the Ministry for the delivery of safe and secure freshwater for vulnerable communites via the 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages'
‘Protecting (scarce) fresh water in the Maldives’ - April 15, 2016. Keti Chachibaia, Regional Technical Specialist for Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP’s Bangkok Regional Hub, throws light on water security in the Maldives and how funding from the Green Climate Fund will help make vulnerable communities more resilient in the face of climate change.pulation) in the islands of Maldives in the face of climate change risks.
‘Green Climate Fund approves first 8 Investments’ - November 2,2015. The Green Climate Fund announces the approval of funding for eight new projects, including the Maldives proposal for 'Supporting Vulnerable Communities to Manage Climate Change Induced Water Shortages' (GCF funding: 23.6 million)
Output 1: Scaling up an integrated water supply systems to provide safe water to 105,000 people
Output 2: Dry Season water production and distribution
Output 3: Aquifers recharged and protected
Addressing the Risks of Climate Induced Disasters in Bhutan through Enhanced National and Local Capacity for Effective Actions
The current NAPA II project, Addressing the Risk of Climate-Induced Disasters through Enhanced National and Local Capacity in Bhutan, will address urgent and immediate climate change adaptation needs and leverage co-financing resources from national government, bilateral and other multilateral sources, and the private sector. The project is working to “enhance national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihood and livelihood assets.”
The USD 11.49 million project is funded by Global Environment Facility/Least Developed Countries Fund, and coordinated by the National Environment Commission Secretariat in partnership with UNDP, Bhutan. The project will safeguard essential economic and livelihood infrastructure in hazard-prone communities and key industrial areas from increasing climate hazards such as floods, landslides, windstorms and forest fire through reducing vulnerability at high-risk areas and increasing adaptive capacity of community-level disaster risk management institutions.
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012), and the Bhutan NAPA II brochure, June 2015.
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Assessments and Background Documents
Plans and policies of relevance to NAPs for Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
The overarching objective of the project is to increase national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate-induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihoods and livelihood assets. This objective is fully aligned with the development priorities of the RGoB as set out in Bhutan’s tenth 5-year plan, which is in turn underpinned and guided by the long-term development vision of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness. Under the four pillars of GNH (i.e. sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance), the 5-year plan places a strong emphasis, among others, on balanced rural-urban development for poverty alleviation, expansion/maintenance of key economic infrastructure including road infrastructure that connects rural and urban centers, and strengthening of the agricultural sector which continues to employ the majority of Bhutanese and be the backbone of the rural economy.
This project will implement priority interventions addressed in Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Actions corresponding to the following objectives, in part or full, as outlined in NAPA profile:
- Disaster management strategy
- Weather forecasting system to serve farmers and agriculture
- Landslide management and flood prevention
- Flood protection of downstream industrial and agricultural area
- Rainwater harvesting
- Promote community-based forest fire management and prevention
Situated on the southern slope of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan’s landscape is mountainous and rugged with elevations ranging from 100m in the southern foothills to 7500m towards north. Due to its topography, habitable and arable areas are limited to approximately 8.3% and 2.9%, respectively, of the landmass. Agriculture, which employs 69% of the population and accounts for 78% of monetary income in rural households, and industrial activities are largely practiced in this highly confined space that its topography permits. While Bhutan is in general endowed with abundant water resources from the four major rivers and their tributaries, most of the large rivers are at the bottom of valleys and gorges rendering these rich water resources largely inaccessible for agriculture or domestic use. As a result, irrigation is limited to areas near small perennial streams that exist above main rivers and majority of farmers rely primarily on monsoonal rains, which account for 60-90% of annual precipitation.
Bhutan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the Asia-Pacific region, irrespective of the presence of climate change. The country is exposed to multiple hazards, most prominently flash floods, landslides, windstorms, earthquakes, forest fires, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In terms of relative exposure to flood risks (as % of population), Bhutan ranks fourth highest in the region. Although the direct human risks of landslides, windstorms, and forest fires are not particularly higher compared to other countries, the socioeconomic repercussions from these events are thought to be high due to the baseline poverty prevalence.
Climate change is likely to magnify the intensity and frequency of these hazards. In fact, according to the International Disaster Database, among the top 10 natural disasters in Bhutan between 1900 to 2012, in terms of the number of casualties and number affected, all of them occurred in the last two decades (except epidemic outbreaks), which makes certain degree of attribution of climate change to the increasing magnitude of such hazards plausible. The most pronounced consequences of climate change in Bhutan are two folds: disruptions in the monsoonal system and increasing/intensifying trends of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards, both of which are obviously closely linked. These disturbances will amplify the socioeconomic challenges for the Bhutanese society, especially in rural areas where the majority of the population is engaged in rain-fed agriculture and rampant poverty makes them least equipped to adapt to creeping changes in climate.
Monsoon rains generally arrive during the summer months (from late June to late September). Downscaled simulations undertaken in Bhutan’s SNC indicate that the mean annual rainfall will increase by 26-30% by 2069 compared to the baseline year of 1980. This increase occurs primarily during the summer monsoon season while the dry winter season rainfall is projected to decline slightly. In addition, accelerated melting of glaciers, which act as a gigantic natural water retention and dispensing mechanism to communities downstream, is disrupting the hydrological regime of the perennial river systems in the region. All in all, climate change will increase the uncertainty of water availability throughout the year, and rural farmers are likely to have to better manage high fluctuation of rainfalls – increasing volume of monsoonal rain so that they can sustain longer dry periods. This poses significant risks to development when built rural infrastructure to alleviate water shortages, such as communal rainwater harvesting, is minimally available.
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)
- Outcome 1: Risks from climate-induced floods and landslides reduced in the economic and industrial hub of Bhutan
- Output 1.1: Protection of Pasakha Industrial area from flooding events through riverbank protection, river training and development of flood buffer zones
- Output 1.2: Slope stabilization to reduce climate-induced landslides in the Phuntsholing Township
- Output 1.3: Integrated risk hazard assessment and mapping completed in 4 critical landslide and flashflood prone areas with data collection standards compatible with the national database
- Outcome 2: Community resilience to climate-induced risks (drought, flood, landslides, windstorms, forest fires) strengthened in at least four Dzongkhags
- Output 2.1: Climate-resilient water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in at least four Dzongkhags, based on observed and projected changes in rainfall patterns and intensity
- Output 2.2: Community-level water resource inventory completed and maintained by Dzongkhag administration to increase the adaptive capacity of communities in the face of increasing water scarcity
- Output 2.3: Disaster Management Institutions at various levels established and trained in four Dzongkhags to prepare for, and respond to, more frequent and intense floods, storms and wildfire events
- Outcome 3: Relevant information about climate-related risks and threats shared across community-based organizations and planners in climate-sensitive policy sectors on a timely and reliable basis
- Output 3.1: Enhanced quality, availability and transfer of real-time climate data in all Dzongkhags which experience increasing frequency of extreme hydo-meterological events
- Output 3.2: Increased effectiveness of National Weather and Flood Forecasting and Warning Center through improved capacity to analyze, manage and disseminate climate information in a timely manner
Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)
- Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
- Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.
- Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.
- Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July). The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.
Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:
- UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress. Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
Mid-Term of Project Cycle:
- Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.
End of Project:
- Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
- Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.
Learning and Knowledge Sharing:
- Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums.
- The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
- Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus.