National Adaptation Plans in Liberia

Project Overview

The GCF-funded project "To advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia" will work to strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

National partners will include the Environment Planning Authority and the National Climate Change Secretariat. Other key partners are the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, Ministry of Agriculture, National Disaster Management Commission, National Port Authority of Liberia, Liberia Maritime Authority, Bureau of National Fisheries, Liberia National Department of Meteorology, Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services and University of Liberia.

*The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations or UNDP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Expected Outcomes

Output 1 - Strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process

Output 2 - Expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation

Output 3 - Build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems

Output 4 - Formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

Project Details

Levels of Intervention

National

Source of Funds

Green Climate Fund

Funding Amounts

US$2.3 million

Project Partners

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Green Climate Fund

Introduction

The GCF-funded project "To advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia" will work to strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

National partners will include the Environment Planning Authority and the National Climate Change Secretariat. Other key partners are the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, Ministry of Agriculture, National Disaster Management Commission, National Port Authority of Liberia, Liberia Maritime Authority, Bureau of National Fisheries, Liberia National Department of Meteorology, Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services and University of Liberia.

Project Details

Liberia, like other developing countries, especially Least Developed Countries (LDCs), is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While Liberia has a low carbon footprint, the impact and effects of climate change may have severe consequences in multiple sectors and areas.  Changes in temperature and precipitation may affect several sectors and areas across Liberia, including agriculture, fisheries, forests, energy production related to the availability of water resources, coastal areas and health.

At the sectoral level, 70% of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods, while rural areas are as much as 80% vulnerable to food insecurity, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In the 350 miles of coastal areas, these are exposed to the combined effects of ongoing coastal erosion, climate change induced sea level rise, change in the frequency and intensity of storms, and increases in precipitation and warmer ocean temperatures. For health, climate change may lead to increased vulnerability to malaria, cholera and diarrheal diseases, as well as increased incidence of other diseases. Finally, climate change may negatively impact hydroelectric generation from the Mount Coffee hydropower plant.

Liberia began its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process in 2015 with the development of a Road Map in consultation with the main stakeholders in the country. This road map was based on an evaluation of the existing climate adaptation and mitigation initiatives, an assessment of the knowledge, capacity and implementation gaps, as well as an assessment of the capacity development needs. The road map provides a guideline for implementation of the NAP process in Liberia, and the areas to work in the short, medium and long term.

Level of Intervention: 
Implementing Agencies & Partnering Organizations: 
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Green Climate Fund
Project Status: 
Under Implementation
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.3 million

News

Need for Collective Partnership to Avoid Natural Hazards Stressed
Liberian Observer
Monday 5 November 2018
“Liberia is exposed to natural hazards and climate-related risks including floods, windstorms, wildfire, and coastal erosion and, therefore, there is a need for collective partnership and coordination among state and non-state agencies in executing the assessment findings,” EPA Executive Director, Nathaniel T. Blama, said over the weekend. The threats being faced are likely to worsen with climate change, which will have a significant impact on local communities’ livelihoods, he said. In an effort to curtail such natural threats, the National Disaster Management Agency, in partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), on October 26, 2018, launched the National Disaster Risks Assessment in Buchanan, Grand Bassa County, through the hosting of an inception workshop under the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) project that is funded by the Green Climate Fund.

Liberia Faces Natural Hazards Threat, EPA, UNDP Warn
Front Page Africa
Tuesday 30 October 2018

Liberia is exposed to natural hazards and climate related risks including floods, windstorms, wildfire and coastal erosion. There is a need for collective partnership and coordination amongst state and non-state agencies in executing the assessment findings”, EPA Executive Director, Nathaniel T. Blama said. The threats being faced are likely to worsen with climate change, which will have significant impact on local communities’ livelihoods. In an effort to curtail natural threats being experienced, the National Disaster Management Agency in partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) over the weekend, October 26, 2018 launched the National Disaster Risks Assessment in Buchanan, Grand Bassa County through the hosting of an inception workshop under the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) project that is funded by the Green Climate Fund.

University of Liberia to Commence Environmental Studies Soon
Wednesday 17 October 2018
In preparation for the commencement of University of Liberia (UL)’s graduate program in environmental studies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Liberia in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) concluded a four-day technical workshop to develop a curriculum for Master’s in Environmental Studies for the tertiary institution. The technical training which ran from 18-21 October 2018 in Gbarnga, Bong County attracted 30 participants including UL President and Vice President of Graduate studies, heads of curriculum development and various departments at UL, as well as representatives of the EPA and partners of regional programs were tasked on developing a draft curriculum, reviewing and producing a final draft, which is expected to be submitted for further review and validation by relevant authorities of UL.

Liberia: 51 Vulnerable Youth and Women Trained in Production of Energy Efficient Cook Stoves
Tuesday 16 October 2018
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-day technical training session to train 51 local inhabitants from seven counties, in the production of energy efficient cook stoves. This initiative is supported by the National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) project implemented by the EPA with support from United Nations Development Programme and funded by the Green Climate Fund. The participants (27 females and 24 males), are unemployed vulnerable youth and women without skills, that were selected from communities in Bong, Margibi, Nimba, Grand Cape Mount, Bomi, Lofa and Grand Bassa Counties by the EPA. During the exercise which took place in the City of Gbarnga, Bong County, the Deputy Executive Director of the EPA, Randall Dobayou emphasized that the right to a conducive environment is a human right that the EPA and its partners are committed to supporting. He noted that the training, besides boosting efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emission and air pollution, will reduce the health risks associated with the use of traditional cook stoves, reduce the time spent by women in cooking and enable them time for additional activities.

Integrating gender in the mitigation of climate change
Monday 17 September 2018
The Focal Point of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for Liberia at the EPA says the issue of climate change continues to be one of the major threats to development. Benjamin Karmoh, said the situation is posing danger to every sector including health, agriculture, education, water and sanitation, energy, and other sectors of the country thereby requiring the collective effort of everyone in addressing the issues of climate change. Karmoh speaking during a two-day inception training on the integration of gender perspective, through the use of sex disaggregated data and gender analysis tools in programme formulation and monitoring. The training targeted staff from line ministries, agencies, and corporations with specific functions in planning, monitoring and evaluation and was held in the port City of Buchannan. The event was organized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) under its National Adaptation Plan Project) with funding from the Green Climate Fund.

EPA, UNDP Hold SDGs Training in Nimba
7 September 2018
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Liberia in collaboration with United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is expected to commence a two day training workshop on Friday, September 7, in Ganta, Nimba County for capacity-building and operation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Liberia. The training, which is being funded by the Green Climate Fund of the National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), is held under UNDP’s NAPs Project, which supports government to advance its NAP process in climate sensitive sectors. According to a release from EPA’s Media Section, the UNDP’s NAPs project focuses on strengthening institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expanding the knowledge based for scaling up adaptation, building capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems. The two day training, according the EPA, will focus on the SDGs that relate to environment, natural resource management, energy, gender and climate change. The training seeks to educate and inform stakeholders on the SDGs related to environment, natural resource management, energy and gender and raise awareness on the link between the NAPS, and SDGs and the importance of Climate Change Adaptation processes for the achievement of SDGs. It also intends to improve understanding on SDGs and climate change adaptation challenges at local and national levels and as well build synergies within environmental actors for their successful implementation of their respective programs and initiatives for climate change adaptation in Liberia. The Project supports the government to advance its NAP process in climate sensitive sectors. It also focuses on strengthening institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expanding the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, building capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulating financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

Liberia Launches National Policy and Response Strategy on Climate Change

15 August 2018

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Liberia with support from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) through the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) has launched the National Policy & Response Strategy on Climate Change. Declaring the official launch of the policy on behalf of the Liberian Government, the Minister of Finance and Development Planning, Samuel Tweah said the climate change policy and response strategy represent a significant milestone in Liberia’s effort to combat the hazard of climate change. Minister Tweah added that the document demonstrates the country’s commitment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement which Liberia’s ratified a fortnight ago. According to the Finance Minister, climate change has the potential to reverse the gains of the past decades and is partly responsible for Liberia’s failure to achieve any of the Millennium Development Goals.

UNDP and partners sign agreement on graduate programme for environmental studies

15 August 2018

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the University of Liberia have signed an agreement for support toward the setting up of a graduate program in environmental science at the University of Liberia. The agreement was signed during the launch of the National Policy & Response Strategy on Climate Change. The programme is being funded by the Green Climate Fund through UNDP's National Adaptation Plans project. The Programme is designed to prepare students to address the social and biophysical complexities of environmental problems. Along with the required core courses, the program will draw upon the strengths of current curriculum and resources to develop a unique course. This course combines the features of interdisciplinary, environmental literacy, integration of qualitative and quantitative skills, problem solving in the context of climate change resilience and adaptability. UNDP Liberia Country Director Pa Lamin Beyai signed on behalf of his Agency, while the President of the University of Liberia, Ophelia Weeks and EPA's Executive Director Nathaniel Blama, signed on behalf of their respective institutions.

Liberia set to launch National Policy and Response Strategy on Climate Change

14 August 2018
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through the National Adaptation Plans project funded by the Green Climate Fund will on Wednesday, August 15, 2018, launch the National Policy & Response Strategy on Climate Change by 11am at the Bella Casa Hotel in Sinkor, Monrovia. The event will be attended by high level policy makers and representatives from government entities, partners, representatives of the donor community, international and local NGOs, women and youth groups, and research and academic institutions. Following the official launch, copies of the policy will be distributed amongst participants and posted on the EPA website.
 

Liberia ratifies Paris Agreement on climate change in ‘milestone achievement’ to foster low-carbon climate-resilient development

ReliefWeb
Tuesday 10 July 2018

The National Legislature of Liberia ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change this June with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Liberian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), bringing the country one step closer to reaching its goals for low-carbon, climate-resilient development. “After reviewing and critically analyzing the Paris Agreement, Liberia stands to benefit from the financial and technological support in maintaining low-carbon climate-resilient development through effective adaptation to climate change and greenhouse-gas emission reduction,” the committee headed by Maryland County Senator H. Dan Morais said. Despite having contributed little to climate change, Liberia, like many other developing countries, is especially vulnerable to its impacts. Sea-level rise, soaring temperatures and increased rainfall threaten economic and social gains. The agricultural sector, which ensures the livelihoods of around 70 percent of the population, is especially vulnerable, with flooding, erosion and changing rainfall patterns putting lives at risk in a country where nearly eight out of ten people do not have secure access to food.

UNDP Equips EPA Monitoring System
Liberian Observer

Tuesday 10 July 2018

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) yesterday donated 25 motorbikes and basic accessories to authorities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for environmental monitoring and data collection initiatives across the country. UNDP Country Director, Dr. Pa Lamin Beyai, made the donation in Monrovia, which was received by EPA Executive Director, Nathaniel T. Blama. Dr. Beyai said that the donation is necessary because there are numerous current environment and climate change challenges in the country, including deforestation, coastal erosion, pollution of rivers and coastal waters, raw sewage, change in temperature and rainfall patterns that demand partners to adequately equip the EPA to face these challenges. “This donation is intended to boost EPA’s capacity to monitor and collect data for environmental compliance, while at the same time supporting adaptation planning,” Beyai said. He spoke of the agency’s limited capacity to monitor, coordinate and supervise the sustainable management of the environment that was recognized in 2015 during a stock-taking exercise UNDP conducted at the formulation process of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP). The NAP’s project, which is supporting the country to advance its preparation for medium-term investment planning in climate sensitive sectors, presents a unique opportunity for UNDP and EPA to work together to build resilience across the sectors.

National Disaster Management Agency, UNDP-Liberia Conduct Training on National Disaster Readiness
Front Page Africa
Thursday 7 June 2018

The training was funded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). According to E. Abraham T. Tumbey, NAP’s project manager, the training session focused on strengthening national disaster response and helped citizens understand the steps to be adopted to respond to various disaster situations. Tumbey added that the training increased participants’ knowledge disaster preparedness by increasing each agencies’ understanding of participants’ roles and responsibilities before and during a disaster. Tumbey said planning, coordination and high state of preparedness were the necessary steps to handle crisis successfully. The NAP project manager said the training was also meant to create awareness among participants about the firefighting techniques and the ways to respond swiftly in times of such emergency situation.

Government, Partners Launch National Adaptation Plan of Liberia
Front Page Africa
Friday 16 March 2018

The National Adaptation Plan (NPA) is funded by the Green Climate Fund (GCF) created to support the effort of developing countries to response to the challenge of climate change in line with the 2015 Paris Agreement. The project was launched at the National Adaption Plans Inception workshop implemented by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the National Climate Change Secretariat March 12 at a local hotel in Monrovia. Outlining the NAP’s priorities at the launch, the EPA’s new Executive Director, Nathaniel T. Blama, Sr. noted that Liberia is the first country that have started the implementation of NAP; even though the country received approval alongside the Republic of Nepal. “The strategic priorities of the NAP are to mainstream climate change adaptation into development policies, plans and strategies; build long-term capacities of institutional structures involved in NAP; implement effective and sustainable funding mechanisms, advance research and development in climate change adaptation, and improve knowledge management” he said.

Environment chief: Why we’re prioritizing climate governance in Liberia
UNDP connects with the Executive Director of Liberia’s Environmental Protection Agency to explore new steps towards climate resilient development
8 March 2018

Climate change poses significant risks to Liberia in reaching its goals for sustainable development and climate action. Strong governance will be a key in building the enabling and transformative institutions necessary to protect the people of Liberia from sea level rise and other climate impacts, propel development gains to reduce hunger and poverty so that no one is left behind, and protect peaceful climate-resilient economic and social development. Madam Anyaa Vohiri is a climate hero from Liberia. Her work as the Executive Director of the Environmental Protection Agency provides unique insights into how least developed countries can plan for climate change and build for the future.

Liberia receives first instalment of US$2.2 million GCF grant for climate adaptation
10 July, 2015, Green Climate Fund
The Government of Liberia has recently received US$805,000 as part of a US$2.2 million Green Climate Fund grant to support its national climate adaptation planning process. The release of funds to the West African country represents GCF’s first transfer of adaptation resources to a least developed country (LDC). Supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the GCF-funded project "to advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process for medium-term investment planning in climate-sensitive sectors (i.e. agriculture, energy, waste management, forestry and health) and coastal areas in Liberia" will work to strengthen institutional frameworks and coordination for the implementation of the NAP process, expand the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation, build capacity for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems, and formulate financing mechanisms for scaling-up adaptation, including public, private, national and international.

GCF approves first grants for National Adaptation Planning in Liberia and Nepal
15 November 2016, Green Climate Fund
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) today announced the approval of its first grants in support of processes to develop National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). Under the GCF's Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme, Liberia will receive USD 2.2 million with UNDP acting as its delivery partner to implement its NAPs activities, whilst Nepal will receive a grant of USD 2.9 million via UNEP.

Country Initiatives

Supporting Liberia to advance their NAP Process

Enhancing Climate-Resilient Agriculture in Liberia

The project, 'Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change by Mainstreaming Adaptation Concerns into Agricultural Sector Development', aims to to enhance the resilience of Liberia's agricultural sector. The focus is on enhancing resilience to increasing rainfall variability.

Enhancing Resilience Of Liberia Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas To Climate Change Risks II

The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Liberia to ensure investment of a new tranche of US$4 million from the Least Developed Countries Fund is used to reduce the vulnerability of physical assets and natural systems, protect coastal areas, and mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The "Enhancing Resilience Of Liberia Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas To Climate Change Risks II" project will work to build national capacity and drive policy coordination in the coastal county of Montserrado to plan and respond to climate change.

Enhancing Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas to Climate Change Risks in Liberia

Liberia is highly vulnerable to climate change in coastal areas. The coastal population is poor and all social indicators are very low. Unemployment is high and the gender situation is weak. A large proportion of the coastal community live in temporary and/or poorly constructed housing with little protection from sea or storm surges. A large proportion of these people live on very low lying land, often in unplanned settlements, illegal or extra-legal settlements.

Strengthening Liberia's Climate Information and Services to Enhance Climate Resilient Development and Adaptation

This project responds to priorities and actions identified in the Liberia's NAPA which articulate the need for securing, transferring and installing critical technologies, as well as developing the necessary systems for climate change-related information to permeate into decision-making processes. The technologies required to achieve these aims will increase the capacity of the national early warning network to forewarn and rapidly respond to extreme climate events. 

Enhancing Resilience Of Liberia Montserrado County Vulnerable Coastal Areas To Climate Change Risks II

Enhancing Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Areas to Climate Change Risks in Liberia

Liberia is highly vulnerable to climate change in coastal areas. The coastal population is poor and all social indicators are very low. Unemployment is high and the gender situation is weak. A large proportion of the coastal community live in temporary and/or poorly constructed housing with little protection from sea or storm surges. A large proportion of these people live on very low lying land, often in unplanned settlements, illegal or extra-legal settlements.

Key Results and Outputs

Output 1: Strengthening of Institutional Frameworks and coordination for the NAPs process

1.1. Development of a climate change strategy and action plan for adaptation, in support of the on-going development of the Climate Change Policy

Prior to the NAP, the GoL has implemented a number of climate change related initiatives; including the NAPA in 2008, Initial National Communication in 2012, National Climate Change Policy and REDD+ in 2012. The lack of institutional and technical capacity on climate change adaptation in Liberia prevents the GoL and the stakeholders to integrate fully ACC into planning and budgeting processes, and to implement successfully adaptation strategies.

1.2. Development of sector-based climate change strategies and actions plans in agriculture and coastal management

The coastal development and management and agriculture have been identified as priority sectors for NAP in Liberia. The present project will focus primarily on these sectors. In order to integrate the CCA in sectoral policy, it is important to evaluate all current adaptation options and integrate adaptation into all sectoral policies. Updated and relevant climate vulnerability and risk assessment, studies on the economic impacts of climate change as it relates to the key sectors and most important resources give decisions makers and the most vulnerable population adequate tools/information to integrate climate change into their planning strategies. Also, it enables them to better plan their medium and long-term adaptation programs/policies/strategies.

Output 2: Expansion of the knowledge base for scaling up adaptation

At the moment, there is limited scientific data (resources, socio-economic indicators, meteorological, etc.) and information on climate impacts in Liberia, with limited knowledge of current climate variability, climate risks and no early warning system data. There is a need to develop and disseminate socio-economic scenarios to project the future impacts of climate change in Liberia and develop vulnerability studies at the sector and national level. Related to climate services, there is limited capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyse and communicate hydro-meteorological and climate change information. The modelling capacity, infrastructures and human capacity of the meteorological department and other climate services need to be reinforced in order to identify climate change hazards and to explore/ evaluate suitable adaptation options in the vulnerable sectors.

2.1. Effective Climate data and related information knowledge sharing platform created

Actual and past climate data collection and analysis are essential to the NAP process. Furthermore, with climate change cutting across multiple sectors, it’s necessary for Liberia to implement a platform to make accessible climate data and related information across all sectors, and to engage all stakeholders in the process (producers and beneficiaries). Related to climate services, there is limited capacity to monitor, forecast, archive, analyze and communicate hydro-meteorological and climate change information.

2.2. Natural disasters risk management and reduction strategies developed

Climate related hazards (floods, windstorms, fire, and sea erosion) are likely to worsen with climate change in Liberia. This in turn will have significant impact on local communities livelihood, the key sectors and overall national economic performances. One possible entry point for NAP is the integration of natural disasters risk management and reduction strategies for in Liberia public financing.

Output 3: Development of guidelines and criteria for mainstreaming climate change adaptation in Government budgeting and planning, climate-proofing projects, and reporting

3.1. Development of technical guidelines for the personnel of Ministry of Finance & Development Planning (MFDP) and other relevant Ministries to include climate change into budgeting and planning.

The NAP process as a transversal process integrates multiple sectors. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into policy and budgeting processing (at the sectoral, national and subnational) implies identifying and evaluating all current and on-going CCA options and developing guidelines for the personnel of key Ministries to include climate change into all planning and budgeting processes.

3.2. Capacity building for the private sector, financial intermediaries and other stakeholders in the implementation of adaptation activities.

In addition to strong institutions and coordination mechanisms, adequate level of technical knowledge on climate change and ACC of staff of sectoral ministries, private sector, financial intermediaries and other stakeholders are needed to implement and prioritize adaptation options.

3.3. Development of tools (screening tools, scorecards) for climate proofing of investments in infrastructure and other areas that may be sensitive to the impacts of climate change, to be able to withstand those impacts.

Climate-proofing a project is to reduce the climate change potential impact on the project activities. The final goal is to increase resilience to climate change, protect investments and increase the project sustainability. Generally, it involves assessing the risks posed by climate change and modifying the project design to reduce those risks. In order to climate proof investments in infrastructure and other areas that may be sensitive to the impacts of climate change, it is important to develop and apply tools (such as, the Climate Proofing for Development, designed by GIZ) enabling the inclusion climate aspect into planning and designing of project at national, sectoral, and local levels.

3.4. Implement reporting system to track investments and other climate related finance in adaptation.

The NAP process being an ongoing process with iterative steps, it is essential to periodically monitor and evaluate the progress made. The guidelines of the LEG on the NAP insist on the importance of the M&E process (Axis D). Moreover, M&E is useful for reporting to the international and bilateral donors and as well as to the UNFCCC.

Output 4: Formulation of financial mechanisms for scaling up adaptation In Liberia, like many other developing countries, a significant handicap is the non-appropriation of processes at all levels and the lack of local funds to sustain previous investments.

4.1. Designing of procedures to scale up adaptation investments and address financial gaps.

The GCF resources will allow the GoL to identify and provide adequate alternative funding to support adaptations strategies implementation. Additionally, inclusion of climate change into the planning and national budget process at an early stage will secure co-financing of internationally funded projects by the GoL.

4.2. Fostering Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) to support adaptation investments

Public private partnerships (PPP) in identifying and managing climate variability and to manage climate change, is essential planning climate change adaptation actions. The private sector companies, for their own economic interest, collect and analyse climate data. To be cost effective, it is necessary to learn and capitalize the private sector’s experience in identifying climate variability and managing climate change. The importance of the private sector in supporting Liberia’s CCA actions is well established in its Initial National Communication (2013) and INDC (2015). With Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), the private sector (petroleum and industrial companies) is a major producer of GHGs in Liberia (the energy and agricultural sector GHGs production amount to 67.5% and 31.9% of the national total, respectively). The role of the private sector in CCA in Liberia can be summarized in the following: (i) identification and implementation of strategies to reduce GHGs emissions, (ii) provision and sales of climate-sensible technologies and services, and (iii) funding of CCA projects.