Disaster Risk Reduction

Taxonomy Term List

National Adaptation Plans in Ecuador

Through the “Green Climate Fund Readiness and Preparatory Support for National Adaptation Plan in Ecuador” project, the Government of Ecuador is working to develop a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, build adaptive capacity in prioritized sectors, and facilitate the coherent integration of climate change adaptation into development planning processes, policies and strategies related to food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; productive and strategic sectors; health; water patrimony; natural heritage; and human settlements.

The development of Ecuador’s NAP will follow the directives of the National Strategy for Climate Change (NSCC) and form an integral part of the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement, as well as efforts to reach the goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

The project will contribute to increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions; increased resilience of health and well-being, and food and water security; increased resilience of infrastructure and the built environment to climate change threats; improved resilience of ecosystems and ecosystem services; strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate-responsive planning and development; increased generation and use of climate information in decision-making; strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks; and strengthened awareness of climate threats and risk-reduction processes.

Region/Country: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-79.584960937617 -2.1118256301711)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$3 million
Project Details: 

The project will be carried out for the four elements of the NAP process laid out by the UNFCCC technical guidelines, with special emphasis on elements A, B and C. The gaps in CCA integration into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels were identified during the inception workshop that took place in February 2017, and will be further addressed during the NAP process. The main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into sectoral, territorial and local planning and budgeting are: a. lack of policies and technical standards to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral and territorial scale; b. limited scale resolution of available climate projections and poor territorial coverage of vulnerability studies; c. insufficient information and limited capacities to perform climate risks analysis at sectoral and territorial level; d. limited capacities of the technical staff (public and private technical staff) to integrate CCA on development planning; and e. insufficient coordination between ministries and Decentralized Autonomous Governments (at different levels of governance) to implement CCA actions and integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local level.

GCF resources will enable the Government of Ecuador to contribute to the creation and strengthening of technical capacities (individual and institutional) to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into the central and local governments' development planning and budget processes. The resources will also enable the generation of climate information with better resolution and scale, as well as assessments of vulnerability and climate risks at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In addition, the funds will allow for the design of technical tools and instruments (guidelines, standards, strategies, etc.) to guide the integration of CCA into development planning and enable the dissemination of it progress and results. The funds will also allow the formulation of financing strategies / mechanisms for adaptation management at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

Objectives, outcomes and impact

The project will ultimately enable reducing vulnerabilities of communities and assets throughout Ecuador. By targeting processes of adaptation and development planning at both central and local levels, the project aims to strengthen planners and decision makers’ capacity to assess climate risks and vulnerability and to identify best suitable adaptation actions and investments to increase their resilience. The project aims particularly to build enabling conditions for integrating climate risk information in development planning through: (i) Improving the coverage and spatial and temporal resolution of climate projections, risk and vulnerability analyses; (ii) Strengthening institutional capacities through the development of guidance documents (standards, technical guidelines, etc.), regulations (at central and local levels), standardized methods and tools to facilitate managing climate risks; (iii) Providing training to key staff, partners and stakeholders (public and private) to facilitate the integration of CCA into development planning and budgeting processes at sectoral, territorial and local level; iii) Designing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) mechanisms for the NAP process and for the adaptation actions implemented by stakeholders; iv) Formulating strategies to ensure that financing, sustainability, scaling up and replication of CCA actions meet the surge in requirements during the NAP process.

The impacts of these activities will be far-reaching in creating the foundation for integrating climate risks in development planning through improved climate information, strengthened institutional and technical capacities, tools to identify and implement adaptation options and a financing strategy. It is expected that this would lead to an increased adaptive capacity and resilience and reduced vulnerability of human and natural systems. In addition, a few major current and planned national initiatives will be complemented, improved and strengthened through the NAP process, as is the case of: SENPLADES’s guidelines to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans; MAE’s guidelines to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local level; and, CONGOPE’s planned project to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies.

The NSCC and the proposed NAP are in line with the Constitution of Ecuador which outlines that the State would adopt measures to respond to climate change and protect the populations at risk, and are also aligned with the National Development Plan (NDP) of Ecuador which states the need to "Implement mitigation and adaptation to climate change to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability."

Ecuador started the NAP process with an inception workshop hosted in February 2017 involving several key national institutions as well as agencies that have shown an interest in integrating climate change adaptation into the development planning process at sectoral and territorial levels.

Context

Ecuador is an Andean country in the Western Hemisphere, in the north-west of South America, with a total area of 257,217 km2 including the Galapagos Islands, and 16.3 million habitants as of 2015. The Southern Andes mountain range divides the continental territory of Ecuador into three different regions: Coast, Andes and Amazon. It is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries on the planet.

The National Participatory Planning System (NPPS) considers and incorporates climate change criteria in its structure, through the “top-level planning tools,” consisting of: Constitution of the Republic, National Development Plan (NDP), National Agenda for Productive Transformation, and National Strategy for Equality and Eradication of Poverty.

The Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador is a global pioneer in its acknowledgment of the rights of Nature, and establishing the State's obligation to reduce the vulnerability of people, communities and nature against the negative effects of natural or man-made disasters (including climate related). The NDP further states the specific requirement to "implement climate change mitigation and adaptation to reduce economic and environmental vulnerability".

The NPPS is complemented by secondary-level planning tools such as: Sectoral Policy and Institutional Planning (tools that provide, at government level, the strategic guidelines that have been identified and prioritized by the top-level planning tools); Zonal Planning Agendas (which articulate the national public policy according to the provisions of the National Territorial Strategy (NTS)); and Inter-sectoral Coordination Agendas (which manage cross-cutting issues such as environmental and risk management, and climate change). Meanwhile, various policies related to the management of climate change are contained in the National Climate Change Strategy.

Stakeholders

The key actors for the NAP process are the members of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC), established in 2010 as the governmental organ for the coordination and integral execution of national policies related to climate change. The ICCC is led by the Ministry of Environment (MAE), through its Under-Secretariat for Climate Change. The ministry is also the National Focal Point for the UNFCCC, as well as the NDA for the GCF. Other key actors in the NAP process include various ministries, national secretariats, public research institutes, universities, Decentralized Autonomous Governments and their associated bodies, and civil society organizations, including women´s groups and indigenous populations, among others.

Ecuador began its NAP process in February 2017 with an Inception Workshop, which convened the main stakeholders involved in climate change adaptation management in the country. The workshop began a consultation- and interaction-oriented process, with the aim to compile useful information for the preparation of the initial proposal and subsequent activities. Participants to this workshop included representatives of nearly all ministries, local government representatives as well as specialized agencies (Meteorological institute), and civil society organizations.

The NAP process will include very extensive consultations at all levels to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensuring the participation of indigenous populations, and prevent the buildup of adverse social implications. The NAP will make use of all existing mechanisms and bodies (e.g. citizen council sectors) to enable as wide a participation of all relevant actors as possible.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

This output will address three of the four steps of the element A of the NAP guidelines. Its main objectives are to support the institutionalization of the NAP process as well as to assess and address the technical and policy gaps that limit the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in the country. Recognition of barriers is further promoted through studies and inventories of the needs, weaknesses and gaps that hinder assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors in Ecuador, as well as limitations and restrictions of available future climate information. Finally, communication and awareness strategies on the importance of climate change adaptation will be designed.

1.1 Establish a methodology and institutional coordination process for the development, implementation and review of NAP.

The NAP process has been initiated in the country through an Inception Workshop, but it is now necessary that this process be institutionalized. For that purpose, a common methodology needs to be agreed by the stakeholders outlining the main steps, tools and methods needed for steering, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the NAP. This methodology will be guiding the NAP development and implementation as well as possible future revision of the NAP with attention given to ways for financing the future exercises in an autonomous, sustainable manner.

The Inception Workshop also discussed the need for improved institutional coordination to integrate CCA into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Participants agreed that the Ministry of Environment (MAE) should lead the NAP process in its capacity of chair of the Interinstitutional Climate Change Committee (ICCC) and as the National Designated Authority of the Green Climate Fund, and the National Secretariat for Planning and Development (SENPLADES) should participate as main partner in the design and implementation of the NAP´s phases. While the ICCC provides a high-level coordination body for climate change policies on the country, there is a need to design coordination mechanisms at other levels to coordinate the development and implementation of NAP, including the creation of Sectoral Working Groups for the sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and to consider the inclusion of other stakeholders in addition to the government ministries and agencies.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.1.1 Design and establish through normative instruments (e.g. ministerial agreements) a specific and detailed methodology that guides the preparation and future revisions of the NAP, to be steered by the intra-institutional committee on Climate Change. This methodology will be developed through workshops, official consultations and other participatory and gender-balanced coordination mechanisms steered by the NDA’s office and will enable the institutionalization of the NAP process.

1.1.2 Establish institutional integration mechanisms for the coordination of the NAP, taking into account the structure and sectoral priorities established by the NSCC, and ensuring participation of all relevant stakeholders.  Priority will be given to the participation of women groups and indigenous people in consultation processes that will be carried out during NAP construction. Existing and other emerging mechanisms and bodies will be used (e.g., ICCC, Citizen Councils, Sectoral Working Groups related with the NAP process and other Working Groups that are being established for the National Determinate Contributions (NDC) construction phase).

1.2. Stocktake and assess gaps impeding adaptation planning, in climate information and analyses, technical capacity and skills at sectoral, territorial and local levels. In Ecuador, a limited degree of knowledge about the strengths, weaknesses and gaps in information, resources and tools necessary to facilitate, directly and indirectly, the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels remains. Some relevant actors and principal sources of information that support the development of this activity have been identified in the Stocktaking Report. A thorough assessment and gap analysis of climate information as well as capacity needs assessment are needed to enable identify adequate measures to palliate these gaps.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

1.2.1 Perform a comprehensive inventory with a proper analysis of the shortcomings and gaps of the social, economic and environmental information necessary for preparing assessments of vulnerability and climate risk in the 6 prioritized sectors established by NCCS: i) food sovereignty, agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries; ii) productive and strategic sectors; iii) health; iv) water patrimony; v) natural heritage; and vi) human settlements. The inventory will be complemented with an assessment of available climate studies with focus on: a) a comparative study of their respective potentials to be used as inputs in the modeling of climate change impacts at the sectoral, territorial and local levels (useful in climate risk analysis); and b) a technical document with recommendations on complementary climate studies required.

1.2.2 Compile relevant experiences (from past and ongoing initiatives) of CCA actions in the six prioritized sectors that have been integrated (directly or indirectly) by ministries or GADs (sub-national governments) in development planning at territorial or local level. Additionally, complement these with information about other experiences relevant to CCA management in Ecuador (e.g. PRAA, PACC, REDD+ and other projects). This exercise will particularly attempt to synthesize lessons learned and best practices related to the private sector participation as well the incorporation of gender considerations and the effective participation of indigenous people in developed adaptive and/or consultation processes could be identified.

1.2.3 Analyze strengths, weaknesses (including technical skills) and resources needed to integrate climate change adaptation into current and in future processes of development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels (defined by NDP and oriented by SENPLADES through technical guidelines) as well as in policies, programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors, including planned private sector initiatives.

1.2.4 Design a proposal to strengthen and update the technical capacities of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with the aim to generate better climate data and relevant studies of climate change. The proposal will include a focus on training, equipment, and improvements in the processes of gathering and processing information.

1.3 .Design strategies for communication, awareness-raising and training for key actors linked to the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

The success of the NAP depends on having informed and committed stakeholders, partners and direct / indirect beneficiaries of the project that are conscious of the importance of integrating adaptation into the development planning process and its expected results (reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience at sectoral, territorial and local levels). This activity will focus on designing and implementing strategies for communication, awareness raising and capacity building for public and private planners and decision makers and other key actors related to the NAP process, including private sector. These strategies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 1.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

1.3.1 Develop and implement a communication and awareness-raising Strategy for relevant partners (i.e. technical and political focal points of ministries of the six prioritized sectors) and other key stakeholders (civil society delegates, local professional associations, private-sector staff, NGO personnel, academics and researchers, local governments, indigenous communities, private producer associations, women groups, etc.) linked to the NAP. This strategy will be constructed through a participative and gender sensitive process oriented to emphasize the importance of integrating CCA into development planning as an effective instrument to increase resilience; as well as to institutionalize the NAP process in the country.

1.3.2 Design and implement a training programme to strengthen the skills of technical staff (at least 100 public and private Technical staff) related to the integration of adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. This programme will be developed building upon the results of input 1.2.3 and in sets of workshops with national coverage, ensuring gender balance and participation of indigenous populations, and will also be part of the NAP institutionalization process.

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

This output will address the five steps of the element B of a NAP. Its main objective is to establish a solid base of information and knowledge that will adequately inform decision-making and facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels in Ecuador. The optimization of climate forecasts will enable undertaking thorough climate vulnerability and risk assessment (including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses). Also, this output will address the identification, prioritization and valuation of adaptation actions and the development of guidelines for the integration of adaptation into development planning processes that will complement and improve existing sectoral and territorial guidelines (emitted by SENPLADES) and established technical procedures to work in CCA at local level (emitted by MAE). Finally, the NAP formulation and the design of the respective dissemination tools are also planned as part of this output.

2.1. Generate technical documents and additional climate studies for Ecuador.

Currently, in Ecuador there are multiple climate studies and future climate projections, but these fail to satisfy end-user requirements, because of their limited resolution and scale. There are climate projections useful for the medium and long term (the next 15 years, and until the end of the century) as well as statistical climate analyses that allow climate projections for the short and medium term (between 5 and 10 years into the future). The cell size has a low resolution (more than 100x100 km). In a cell of this size there are multiple topographic and land use conditions, and such a resolution is not granular enough to facilitate more accurate analysis and inform decision making at local level. For these reasons, it is essential to improve the available studies through downscaling techniques (dynamical or statistical downscaling) and use of observed weather data from additional meteorological stations.

These additional climate studies and technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the available climate projections and other available climate studies will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.1.1 Analyze available climate indices (related to extreme meteorological events) and climate trends (related to climate variability and change) to make short- and medium-term climate forecasts, useful for a precise identification of short- and medium-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels, which would in turn allow the definition of climate change adaptation actions to be included in the NAP.

2.1.2 Develop and apply a technical methodology for prioritization of specific zones (one specific geographical zone for each prioritized sector) based on sectoral needs, socio-economic scenarios and the information generated through the activities of output 1, activity 1.2. These prioritized zones will be useful for preparing studies of regionalization of climate projections (ref. 2.1.3) that provide key information to make long-term climate “forecasts” for the subsequent identification and prioritization of long-term climate impacts at sectoral, territorial and local levels.

2.1.3 Generate six downscaled climate projections (one foreach prioritized sector) based on input 2.1.2, that allow the identification and categorization of climate hazards for each sector and the subsequent identification and prioritization of the respective CCA actions.

2.2 Perform vulnerability and climate risk studies at territorial and sectoral scales, including the assessment of impacts and generation of adaptive responses.

The vulnerability analyses available for Ecuador have been developed using different methodologies and approaches, which in many cases are not comparable. In addition, these analyses are not officially recognized because they do not have national coverage (in most cases they have local coverage: at the level of a watershed or canton or parish, or exceptionally at the provincial level).

On the other hand, the approach given by the IPCC in its Fifth Report in 2014 is still little known or used, which is why climate risk assessments are still at an early stage in the country. Undoubtedly, information about vulnerability and climate risk is a key input for decision-making in the development planning processes of ministries and GADs. These vulnerability and climate risk studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected the information generated in activity 2.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.2.1 Produce six sectoral Vulnerability and Climate Risk studies (one for each prioritized sector) including assessments of climate change impacts in the medium and long terms, using software models. These will be based on the information generated by inputs 2.1.2 and 2.1.3. Additionally, these studies will include the formulation of sets of CCA options (at the sectoral level) that will be integrated in the NAP document. In all cases, these studies will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into formulated actions. The studies will include assessing climate risks and impacts on vulnerable groups (e.g. women and indigenous peoples’) as well as some of their major livelihoods and economic activities.

2.2.2 Generate one territorial Vulnerability and Climate Risk study with local level granularity and with national coverage that includes an assessment of short- and medium-term impacts of climate threats. This study will use the information generated by input 2.1.1 and will establish adaptation actions typologies and CCA action profiles at territorial and local levels (at least 10 actions) to be included in the NAP. These typologies and adaptation action profiles will be developed with inputs from and consultation with relevant local stakeholders (key informants, private sector delegates and other relevant actors) and Sectoral Working Groups, making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations into the formulated actions.

2.3 Develop valuation studies of climate change adaptation options.

Ecuador has not fully developed yet experience of determining the costs of CCA, and no standardized methodologies. It is essential to have accurate and reliable information about the costs of implementing prioritized adaptation actions as part of the activities of the NAP process, so that strategies and funding mechanisms can be designed appropriately. Such evaluation studies will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.2 and 3.1 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.3.1 Prioritize, appraise and evaluate CCA options emanating from inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 (to be selected and prioritized applying the criteria developed in input 3.1.1), considering the following aspects: i) cost analysis of non-adaptive options; ii) cost analysis of the social, economic and environmental benefits of adaptation; iii) cost analysis of adaptation actions to be implemented (selected in consideration of CCA actions identified in inputs 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 and applying the prioritization criteria indicated in point 3.1.1); and iv) gender. In all cases, these analyses will be carried out with the support of Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval) making sure to include gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

2.4 Formulate and communicate an overarching NAP document that takes into account Sectoral and Sub-National considerations

Since the publication of the NSCC in 2012, there has been no other official instrument to guide public policy related to CCA management in Ecuador. In addition, the guidelines issued by MAE in 2014 (Ministerial Agreement N° 137) only address the integration of adaptation into local development planning. Therefore, the formulation of the NAP and the subsequent dissemination of its results and progress constitute a unique opportunity to have specific public policy instruments that facilitate the integration of adaptation into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels. The availability of the NAP constitutes a fundamental contribution to its institutionalization process.

A draft NAP will be developed building on the results of activities 2.1,2.2, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.4 and 5.2. In addition, the NAP will be finalised after a process of consultation involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector. The consultation process will be defined in detail during activity 1.1.1 that sets out the methodology for the NAP. Following the consultation, the comments received will be compiled and integrated into the final NAP. This activity will be implemented as follows:

2.4.1 Formulate a draft National Adaptation Plan, structured as follows: i) diagnostics drawn from the studies/analysis of output 1; ii) climatic and vulnerability baseline Scenario drawn from activities 2.1 and 2.2; iii) prioritized adaptation options based on activities2.2 and 2.3; iv)NAP building process that includes the identification of key stakeholders, beneficiaries, responsible, deadlines, budgets, funding, etc.; v) implementation arrangements drawn from activity 3.2; vi) enabling instruments for the NAP process based on activities 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; vii) implementation strategy drawn from activity 3.4; viii) NAP MRV system and dissemination strategy drawn from activities 4.1 and 4.2; and, ix) funding strategy drawn from activity 5.1.

2.4.2 Undertake a participatory process involving sectoral and local stakeholders, including women’s groups, community‐based organizations, environmental and social non‐governmental organizations as well as the private sector to validate the draft NAP. This process will include very extensive consultations to guarantee a participative and gender-balanced approach, ensure the participation of private sector and indigenous populations, and prevent the build-up of adverse social and environmental implications.

2.4.3 Compile and finalise the NAP integrating review comments. The final NAP document will be included as the main input for the adaptation chapter in the Fourth National Communication expected to start in 2018.

2.5. Prepare guidelines for the vertical integration of CCA into development planning at the territorial and local scales.

The Explanatory Guide (MAE, 2014) provides guidelines for the preparation of local plans for climate change and for the effective incorporation of the climate change dimension into updating the development and land use plans of the GADS (additional to those published on this topic by SENPLADES in 2011 and 2014). These tools have produced satisfactory, if limited results, but it is clear that much more targeted instruments are needed. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, with new and improved technical guidelines and/or regulations. Undoubtedly, these guidelines will constitute a key element in the integration of adaptation in development planning processes under the responsibility of sectoral ministries and the GADs.

These guidelines to integrate CCA into development planning will be developed under this activity. It is expected that the information generated in activities 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

2.5.1 Develop three technical guidelines and/or regulations to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning (one guideline for each level: sectoral, territorial and local). These instruments will be developed in inter-institutional articulation procedures between MAE, SENPLADES and the respective Sectoral Working Groups of the six prioritized sectors, with the final purpose of facilitating the integration of CCA in subnational development planning processes. This activity will complement other CCA current initiatives such as that undertaken by SENPLADES to incorporate the climate change dimension into development and land use plans, and the one initiated by MAE to impulse the formulation of specific climate change plans at local scale.

Output 3.NAP implementation is facilitated.

This output will address the four steps of element C of the NAP. Its main objective is to contribute to the building of conditions necessary for the implementation of the NAP process in the country, and to promote, complement and improve the availability of tools and key instruments for the facilitation of the integration of CCA into development planning gat the sectoral, territorial and local levels (e.g., CONGOPE’s planned initiative financed by European Union to generate useful technical documents for the design and implementation of provincial climate change strategies). For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy for the implementation of adaptation actions, generating technical standards that will be useful for the planning and implementation of programs and projects related to the six sectors prioritized by the NCCS, and preparing a proposal for joint actions with similar initiatives at regional or supranational levels.

3.1 Define criteria for the prioritization of CCA actions.

Despite the many experiences in the design and implementation of projects and initiatives for CCA that exist in Ecuador, no standardized criteria have been developed to prioritize adaptation actions. Through various past and ongoing initiatives, various types of prioritization criteria have been tested (using different methodologies), but all of them only on an experimental basis. For this reason, it is essential to develop, in a standardized way, criteria that allow the prioritization of adaptation actions across the country.

The criteria will be developed by experts using the results of input2.3.1 with the sets of CCA options identifiedfrominputs2.2.1 and 2.2.2. It is expected that the criteria will be useful in other adaptation initiatives at sectoral, territorial and local levels; and it will be used as an official instrument of the MAE (through ministerial agreement or another other regulation) for future processes as well. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.1.1 Develop a list of prioritization criteria for CCA options (including multi criteria tools with a strong emphasis on gender). The prioritization criteria will be carried out with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring that it includes gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations, as well the private sector engagement to participate in the implementation of CCA actions.

3.2 Elaborate an implementation strategy of adaptation actions, joint actions with others ongoing adaptive initiatives (at national and international scale) and sustainability of the adaptation processes being promoted.

Many actors in Ecuador, must assume responsibility for the integration of CCA into development planning at the sectoral, territorial and local levels, per their institutional functions. Similarly, other relevant actors, especially in the private sector, have participated in implementing adaptation initiatives that sometimes have been managed in isolation. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop a strategy that will enable a coordinated and synergistic action between different institutions in the public and private sector. It is expected that the information generated in activities 1.1 and 2.3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.2.1 Develop an implementation strategy to carry out the prioritized adaptation options (prioritized through input 2.3.1) and for identifying synergies (at national and sub-national levels) that complement and provide sustainability to the NAP process. The strategy will be developed in coordination with sectoral ministries and other relevant stakeholders (through specific inter-ministerial/institutional arrangements defined through activity 1.1) by planned participation and discussion spaces (such as those that will be constituted for the Sectoral Working Groups, as mentioned in input 1.1.1 and section 6 of this proposal). This strategy also aims to incorporate the adaptation dimension into other planned sectoral actions which will increase the expected impact of the NAP because sectoral budgets will be added for the design and implementation phases of CCA selected options.

3.3. Generate technical documents for the horizontal integration of climate change adaptation into development planning at the sectoral levels.

Currently there are still very few usable technical standards in Ecuador that specifically relate climate change adaptation with the different phases of the project cycle. There are neither sufficient complementary normative instruments, nor technical documents that allow, for example, sufficient climate change adaptation-related information for adequate planning, design and execution of programs and projects of the six prioritized sectors. The availability of these technical documents (standards and instruments) would constitute a fundamental contribution to the integration of adaptation into the development planning process. These technical documents will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in activity 2.2 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.3.1 Generate six technical standards relevant to the six prioritized sectors to integrate climate change adaptation into development planning processes at the sectoral level. These technical standards will provide technical data, recommendations and other inputs useful for the design and implementation of sectoral programmes and projects, and they will be developed in a participative manner with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations.

3.3.2 Develop two technical guidance documents on: i) adaptation options’ typologies; and ii) relevant aspects of CCA options design. These instruments will provide theoretical definitions, practical recommendations and examples for the main adaptation actions typologies (different kinds of CCA actions in each prioritized sector) and key aspects of their design (i.e. engineering adaptive solutions against the potential impacts of seasonal flow variations on the infrastructure or the operations of projects in the water sector). These documents will be used by technical staff, academics, consultants and other people connected to the phases of design and implementation of CCA options at sectoral, territorial and local levels, and they will be developed with the support of the Sectoral Working Groups (with the roles of feedback and approval), ensuring the inclusion of gender and indigenous peoples’ considerations. This activity will complement other planned CCA initiatives, such as the one that will be undertaken by CONGOPE to generate useful technical documents for the design of climate change provincial strategies, and will provide specific inputs for other relevant initiatives at sectoral level like the NDC formulation and implementation process.

3.4. Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level.

In recent years, several actions or joint projects for climate change adaptation have been undertaken in the Andean region.

Most of these have been isolated cases and mostly with of a pilot or demonstration nature (e.g. the PRAA project). Undoubtedly, the development of the NAP process opens the way for synergistic / coordinated action with parallel initiatives in neighbouring countries (countries of the Andean region and/or South America), as well as other adaptive initiatives that are already in development. For this reason, it is essential to generate a proposal of synergies that permits the optimization of the use of the funds and better results in adaptation processes. This proposal will be developed by consultants. It is expected that the information generated in most of activities of outputs 2 and 3 will be used as a relevant input for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

3.4.1 Identify synergies with other plans, projects and initiatives of climate change adaptation at regional level (e.g., the Andean region and / or South America), including the drafting of Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) for interaction, exchange and transfer of information/knowledge and technology, etc. The agreements would be signed between the ministries of Ecuador and their counterparts in neighboring countries or with other competent authorities, as appropriate. Regional agreements will facilitate the development of binational/regional proposals that seek funding for joint CCA actions at the sectoral level.

Output 4. Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place. This output will address two of the four steps of the element D of an NAP. Its main objective is to build a mechanism that systematically allows the monitoring of the NAP process as well as the evaluation and dissemination of its progress and results. Undoubtedly, the use of indicators will allow a strong and appropriate evaluation mechanism of the progress and results of NAP process.

4.1 Design an MRV system for the NAP process effectiveness, based on indicators.

In Ecuador, the use of indicators to assess CCA actions and initiatives is still a pending task, because only experimental experiences or pilot projects are available. The measurement of the effectiveness of adaptation actions goes beyond the verification of their degree of compliance. A planned action must not only be executed according to the agreed timeframe and outputs, but also achieve the expected results. An MRV system will contribute significantly to the success of the NAP, and the integration of adaptation measures into the development planning processes.

This activity will be implemented as follows:

4.1.1 Develop indicators and a system of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of the national adaptation plan effectiveness, to measure: i) the level of integration of adaptation into the development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels; ii) the increased resilience and / or the reduced vulnerability at the sectoral, territorial and local levels; and iii) gender& indigenous peoples’ mainstreaming. This system will include a strategy for collecting data that will feed into the indicators.

4.2Generate periodic reports on progress and results of the NAP process.

The dissemination of the results generated by an MRV system ensures improvements in the public and private management of CCA, and in particular will significantly support the integration of adaptation into development planning at sectoral, territorial and local levels. Also, it is important that this kind of information be available because it constitutes a relevant input to the next National Communication on Climate Change.

These reports will be developed by the NAP team. All information related to the NAP process, as well as information from the MRV system (according to point 4.1.1), will be key inputs for the Fourth National Communication on Climate Change expected to start in 2018 (and subsequent National Communications). It is expected that the system implemented in activity 4.1 will be used as a relevant instrument for this activity, which will be implemented as follows:

4.2.1Prepare and disseminate annual reports (technical documents) on the progress and results of the NAP process.

Output 5. Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

The main objective of this output is to support the generation of specialized information and a detailed strategy that provides concrete possibilities to ensure the financing and sustainability of the NAP process. Key instruments must be developed to help stakeholders mobilize the funding necessary for the integration of CCA into development planning, as well as for the implementation of prioritized CCA actions, including effective options for the private sector investments. For these reasons, it is very important to generate this specialized strategy as an instrument that allows the NAP process.

5.1 Define and design a funding and sustainability strategy of the NAP process (Including scaling and replication options).

In Ecuador, there have been only a few experiences of formulation of strategies for financing CCA at sectoral, territorial or local level. Equally, the theme of sustainability of adaptive actions and processes has usually come up against the absence of long-term resources. To overcome this limitation, it is planned to design a sustainability strategy to ensure ongoing and future adaptation initiatives. This activity will be implemented as follows:

5.1.1 Develop a financing and sustainability strategy for the NAP process (including options for scaling and replication) which quantifies the cost of adaptation options included in the NAP, and the identification of elements from the public and private sector, international cooperation, multilateral agencies, etc., who could co-finance adaptation activities in Ecuador. This strategy will include a detailed analysis of the alternatives and mechanisms to promote investments from the financial stakeholders, Also, this strategy will include a specific section of economic resources mobilisation options for private sector investments and the identification of coordinated and integrated measures and incentives to create a supportive and enabling environment for adaptation-related private investment, all of it with the final purpose to ensure the engagement of this sector. In addition, the Ecuadorian legal framework of Public & Private Alliances is expected to be applicate.

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed and addressed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP are in place to develop a knowledge base and formulate the NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation is facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for reporting, monitoring and review of NAPs and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP and CCA is available.

Integrating adaptation into cities, infrastructure and local planning in Uruguay

This GCF-financed project will support the Government of Uruguay to advance its National Adaptation Planning process in cities and local governments (NAP-Cities). The objectives of the National Adaptation Planning process are to:  Reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience in cities, infrastructures and urban environments; and to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies that apply to cities and local planning. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment (MVOTMA).

The focus on cities and local governments has been chosen in line with the priorities set forth in the National Policy on Climate Change, particularly as climate change adaptation in cities requires collaborative problem solving and coordination across many sectors and across central and local governments (land use, housing, transportation, public health, tourism, water supply and sanitation, solid waste, food security, energy, disaster risk management, etc).

Cities and local governments are well positioned to act as conveners of a wide range of stakeholders. Indeed, adaptation efforts in cities and local governments will often involve multiple government agencies, as well as broad partnerships that include other local governments, local communities, civil society organizations - including trade unions, academic institutions, and the private sector. The project builds upon important opportunities in Uruguay, in particular the development of the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017 and an increased awareness and desire of various national agencies to improve adaptation planning.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((-57.842285346257 -33.96037159508, -57.88623065875 -33.96037159508, -57.842285346257 -33.96037159508)), POINT (-57.402832221337 -33.814449534364))
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.7 million
Project Details: 

The project will address the main gaps to integrating climate change adaptation into cities and local government planning and budgeting, as identified in a stakeholders’ consultation process that was undertaken in 2016 and in line with the priorities under the National Climate Change Response Plan of 2010 and the National Policy on Climate Change of 2017, as well as the framework of the 2012 LEG Technical Guidelines on NAP.

Underlying challenges include: Limited awareness and consideration of future climate change in local and urban planning; limited access to and integration of national and international available data on climate change, risks and socio-economic vulnerabilities; in most cases, current risk assessment of climate-related hazards do not consider future climate change scenarios; and imited linkages and synergies between adaptation actions, public and private investments and long term land planning and public budgeting.

By its very nature, the NAP-Cities project would facilitate integration of climate change adaptation into existing strategies, policies and programmes, and the project  aims at achieving this with a focus on urban and spatial planning through: Building and strengthening capacities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning, and budgeting processes and systems in both central and local governments improving existing risk and vulnerability analyses with future climate scenarios to produce policy-relevant and actionable risk assessments for cities and local governments; the design and integration of methods, tools and information systems to effectively inform decision-making on the climate risks to development in an integrated fashion; the formulation of financing strategies and mechanisms for scaling up adaptation in cities and local governments

Whereas the reduction of vulnerability will be achieved through implementation of adaptation programmes and projects that will ultimately emanate from the NAP-Cities, project aims to strengthen institutional coordination and capacities, and build the foundation for integrating climate change scenarios and climate risks to inform planning and decision making both at central and local governments.

It will further identify pathways to reduce vulnerability through the implementation strategies to be defined in the NAP-Cities. The project will ultimately contribute to the GCF Fund level impacts of (i) Increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods of the most vulnerable people, communities, and regions, (ii) Strengthened institutional and regulatory systems for climate- responsive planning and development, (iii) Increased generation and use of climate information in decision making, and (iv) Strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

1.1 Launch the NAP-Cities process and establish institutional arrangements for coordination

  • Establish a coordination mechanism, with a clear scope and mandate, to steer the development of NAP-Cities, and establish and fund a secretariat to coordinate the development and implementation of the plan
  • Integrate and harmonize climate change messaging in communications of sectoral agencies to local government and develop targeted climate change adaptation information products for urban areas
  • Develop specific climate change information products to raise and strengthen awareness of key decision makers at central and local level on needs for adaptation planning
 
1.2 Stocktake of urban adaptation planning, and assess gaps in available information on climate change impacts at city level
  • To inform adaptation planning (risk, hazards, vulnerability, gender, socio-economic and environmental) and assess obstacles and limitations to its use and shareability for urban planning with the objective of developing an integrated information management system
  • Conduct an inventory and stocktaking of on-going and past adaptation activities by all sectors in urban areas (Health, Water, DRR, Development Planning) with a rapid assessment of their effectiveness
  • Identify, document and analyse existing national experiences and best practices that have successfully integrated climate change in urban planning and develop options to scale them up
  • Assess strengths and weaknesses of current institutional planning mechanisms with regards to urban areas and identify potential barriers and disincentives to the planning, design and implementation of adaptation

 

1.3 Identify capacity gaps and weaknesses in implementing  NAP-Cities 

  • Undertake a capacity needs assessment for planning, decision making and implementing adaptation in urban areas, both at central government agencies, local governments and other target groups

 

1.4 Comprehensively and iteratively assess development needs from a climate perspective

  • Screening of existing development and investment plans of central agencies that involve cities (e.g. spatial planning, health, tourism, water, sewage treatment…) and existing local land-use plans to identify needs regarding the assessment and integration of climate-related risks. 

 

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

2.1 Undertake multi-hazard risk assessments addressing major climatic hazards to cities

  • Carry out multi-hazard risk assessments addressing flood and extreme weather events, and other major climate related risks in selected Uruguayan urban areas, building on existing information and taking account future climate scenarios to inform planning, preparedness and adaptation actions in at least 4 urban areas (The multi-hazard risk assessments will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)

 

2.2 Assess new and important climate-induced vulnerabilities in urban areas

  • Analyse vulnerabilities to water-born diseases, heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change.

 

2.3 Identify and appraise adaptation options for major hazards affecting Uruguayan cities

  • Evaluate the adaptation potential of urban ecosystems, urban green areas and urban forestry, including the cost-effectiveness of conservation measures and design ecosystem-based adaptation strategies to buffer the impact of extreme weather events and heat waves
  • Analyse effectiveness and cost/benefit of the on-going pilot urban flood adaptation measures to improve urban water planning in mid-sized cities, and develop a strategy to scale up implementation of the most effective measures
  • Analyse current climate related early warning systems for urban environments and develop a strategy to strengthen the development of those systems for scaling up their implementation.
  • Review, appraise and prioritise adaptation options for water-born diseases heat islands, heat waves and vector-born diseases that relate to climate variability and change, as well as adaptation options related to water and sewage managements.
  • Identify and analyse adaptation options in relation to infrastructure and built environments, in particular improved building codes in relation to climate variability and change.
  • Review and design of adaptation options for other climate hazards identified in activities 2.1.

 

2.4 Formulate and disseminate the NAP-Cities

  • Carry out participative workshops to discuss and formulate the NAP-Cities, including participation of national and local governments, civil society, academia, private sectors and other relevant stakeholders
  • Compile the NAP-Cities integrating review comments and process the adoption of the Plan at the national level
  • Develop a communication strategy and tools for NAP-Cities

 

2.5 Integrate climate change adaptation into national and local development and sectoral planning and budgeting

  • Develop and test interactive and multi-criteria decision support tools to help national and local governments and communities to assess, visualize and understand the potential impacts of climate change and develop adaptive solutions. (The decision support tool will include gender and age disaggregated data whereas possible)
  • The engagement with the private sector is an essential strategy to include climate resilience aspects in their investment in urban areas and infrastructure and also contributing to climate adaptation on the ground.

 

 

 

 

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

3.1 Prioritize climate change adaptation in national and local planning and budgeting

  • Develop and pilot a standardized method, and policy recommendations, to integrate adaptation planning in city and local spatial plans and budgets for the medium-term period, considering gender and age, as appropriate.
  • Develop and test criteria for screening urban public investment programmes in adaptation, and prioritising budget allocations of public and private investments with adaptation benefits

 

3.2 Develop an implementation strategy for NAP-Cities

  • Develop an inter-institutional management model for the NAP-Cities implementation and adaptation mainstreaming in infrastructure design and investment and urban land planning.
  • Design integrated Geographic information systems that enables sharing and utilising data to inform urban planning and incorporating gender and age-disaggregated data.
  • Advance on a specific effort to find areas of revenue in the NAP Cities and Infrastructure where private capital equity might find interesting to invest, such areas might be associated with urban built environment and infrastructure insurances; built environment technology development; among others.

 

3.3 Enhance capacity for planning, budgeting and implementation of adaptation

  • Develop and execute a three-year work plan for capacity building of local and national authorities to address the gaps and priorities identified in the capacity needs assessment. The capacity building programme should target at least 100 officials and planners from local governments and 100 officials from central agencies
  • Undertake specific trainings for at least 60 planners in central and local agencies on methodologies for planning under uncertainty
  • Develop training tools and undertake training on integrating gender and age through the use of gender and age disaggregated data and gender and age analysis tools in programme formulation and monitoring
  • Training and building awareness of the private sector, national and local professional associations and trade unions on investing in adaptation planning, both in their businesses through risk reduction measures and climate proofing their supply chain, and exploring new market opportunities and investments for the development of resilience building goods and services.
  • Technical assistance to local governments on the preparation of local adaptation frameworks or options.
  • Training and building awareness to local communities and local education institutions regarding climate risks in urban environments and in relation to early warning systems.
  • Develop capacities to evaluate the prioritization of actions and projects through training courses at national and local level for adaptation options appraisal (e.g. Cost Benefit Analysis/Multicriteria Analysis etc).

 

 

 

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

4.1 Enhance capacity to monitor the NAP-Cities process and adaptation progress

  • Collect data and develop indicators for adaptation planning, readiness, and resilience of infrastructure and urban areas. These indicators will be integrated with the National Climate Change Response Plan, and the National Climate Change Policy and with other urban and territorial planning tools.

 

4.2 Review the NAP-Cities process to assess progress, effectiveness and gaps.

  • Develop and implement mechanisms to monitor and update the National Policy on Climate Change, and the NAP cities building on the above mentioned indicators

 

4.3 Conduct outreach on the NAP-Cities process and report on progress and effectiveness

  • Undertake an outreach programme to local government to present the NAP cities and its various tools, and assess progress and effectiveness at the local level.

 

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

5.1 Conduct studies to inform future investments in adaptation across sectors at the cities and local level

  • Identify suitable incentives, and evaluate their costs and effectiveness to foster private investment in new climate-sensitive and resilience-building approaches and to encourage public-private partnerships to implement climate adaptation measures in the Uruguayan planning and budgeting context

 

5.2 Identify, analyse and recommend policy options for scaling up financing for adaptation, including through public-private partnerships

  • Undertake a policy analysis for future financing instruments/options for adaptation including identification of alternative funding sources (private, local, etc.) as well as municipal level financing instruments that can be leveraged for financing in cities

 

5.3 Develop a financing strategy for the NAP-Cities

  • Develop a financing strategy for the implementation of NAP-Cities. The strategy will be updated iteratively in the framework of the NCCRS after the Readiness is concluded.
  • Develop a funding strategy for the NAP Readiness which will include more traditional approaches regarding funding from international climate related sources, such as the GCF, and/or national sources such as the national and subnational budgets.  

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Umberto Labate
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Project Launch: 24 May 2018
Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Secretariat: 8 January 2018
Project submitted to GCF Secretariat: 13 February 2017
Framework Readiness and Preparatory Support Grant Agreement: 2 September 2016

Uruguay’s cities make headway towards sustainability through adaptation planning
16 October 2018, Uruguay
 - The National Adaptation Plan for Cities and Local Governments project (NAP-Cities) presented on progress and anticipated challenges for the next few months at a Sustainable Cities event on October 11 in Uruguay. Español

Government of Uruguay launches new project to boost resilience of cities and reach targets outlined in Paris Agreement
24 May 2018, Uruguay – The “Integrating adaptation into cities, infrastructure and local planning in Uruguay Project” (NAP-Cities) was launched May 24, 2018 under the leadership of Uruguay’s Ministry of Housing, Territorial Planning and Environment (MVOTMA), with support from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Available in Spanish.

Uruguay comenzó elaboración de plan que busca la adaptación al cambio climático en las zonas urbanas - Audio
El Ministerio de Vivienda, Ordenamiento Territorial y Medio Ambiente lanzó el Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en ciudades e infraestructuras, como parte de las acciones para cumplir con los ODS 2030. Implica tres años de trabajo para la elaboración del plan. Se centrará en el enfoque de adaptación en ciudades, infraestructura y el ordenamiento territorial en Uruguay, informó la ministra Eneida de León. Leer mas.

Ministra de Vivienda Se lanza hoy el programa Ciudades Sostenibles
El 93% de la población de Uruguay vive en zonas urbanas y un 70% en zonas costeras. El Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en ciudades e infraestructuras se centrará en ciudades de más de 10.000 habitantes (40 ciudades, incluida Montevideo).

Connecting people with planning in Uruguay
As Uruguay advances in its commitments toward climate-resilient and low-carbon development, the country embraces social inclusion, sectoral adaptation plans and a coordinated approach to reaching its goals. To plan for the impacts of climate change - and support the nation in achieving its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement, and its highly successful poverty reduction efforts - the Government of Uruguay is looking toward improved sectoral plans, social inclusion and increased coordination as key mechanisms for climate-smart economic development.

Videos

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1 - National mandate, strategy and steering mechanisms are in place and gaps are assessed

Output 2 - Preparatory elements for the NAP in place to develop a knowledge-base and formulate a NAP

Output 3 - NAP implementation facilitated

Output 4 - Mechanisms for Reporting, Monitoring and Review of NAP-Cities and adaptation progress in place

Output 5 - Funding strategy for the NAP-Cities and climate change adaptation is available

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021

Adapting Afghan Communities to Climate-Induced Disaster Risks

The "Adapting Afghan Communities to Climate-Induced Disaster Risks" project will improve the preparedness and resilience of select Afghan communities to climate-induced disaster risks. The five-year project will improve decisions and implementation of climate-induced disaster risk measures, deploy and effectively utilize community-based early warning systems, support climate-resilient livelihood strategies in targeted community, and strengthen institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial plans, budgets and policies.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (65.039062490217 33.293803563174)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5.6 million (GEF LDCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$54 million
Project Details: 

As the variability and intensity of extre me weather effects , including floodi ng and landslides (rapid onset) and drought (slow onset) increases, the efforts to manage and respond to climate change induced risks in Afghanistan is significantly challenged. According to the National Adaptation Progr amme of Action (NAPA) , these key climate change hazards in Afghanistan present a threat to ecosystem services and livelihoods. The most vulnerable economic sectors are water and agriculture. In 2012, 383 natural disaster incidents were recorded in 195 dist ricts that resulted in 4,790 deaths, affected 258,364 people and damaged or destroyed 29,374 homes (OCHA, 2012). Most recently, torrential rains in April 2014 led to flash floods, affecting 27 districts in western, northern, and north- eastern provinces, ki lling more than 150 people, affecting 67,000 and displacing 16,000. In May 2014, thousands of people were seriously affected during a mudslide triggered by heavy rains, in Argo District, Badakshan. In addition to loss of lives, climatic hazards also caused extensive damage to assets and property worth millions of dollars. According to a UNISDR report, 80% of the economic loss is due to climate induced disasters caused by floods, drought and extreme winters

The Government of Afghanistan’s long-term preferred solution to this worsening problem is to establish efficient and effective mechanisms by which vulnerable communities are better equipped to anticipate and respond to climate change-induced risks. However, the preferred solution is hindered by several political, socio-economic, and institutional barriers, at both the national and sub-national level. In particular, an efficient response to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate-induced disaster risks is constrained, among others, by:

• Insufficient data and limited understanding of climate change-induced disaster threats. Across institutions at the national and sub-national levels, there is insufficient understanding of the likely impacts of climate change effects and intensity of climate change-induced disasters. At the community level, there is also limited awareness and ineffective communication on disaster preparedness and the linkages with climate change. There is an absence of centralized data management system for climate change induced disasters and disaster management and an absence of effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track impacts of interventions. Further, there is limited research on the gaps in contingency plans and emergency preparedness and response at village and district levels. Gender sensitive data is missing in the country, which constrains the formulation of adequately targeted responses.

• Policies and regulations do not efficiently link climate change, disaster occurrence and risks and development planning : There is an overall absence of adequate policies and regulations on climate adaptation in the context of disaster risk management. Inadequate enforcement of existing relevant policies, plans and programmes including National Priority Programs (NPPs) as well as the obligations under the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is also observed.

• Insufficient institutional coordination to manage and respond to disasters: The limited coordination between different governmental agencies, as well as between government and international organizations and non-governmental organizations, hinders the management of disasters at the provincial, district and village levels. Community Based Organizations (CBOs) who are capacitated in disaster response are limited in number and resources, making it difficult for authorities to collect data and information and respond to emergency situations in a comprehensive manner. An effective and functional institutional organizational framework for key stakeholders to implement coordinated action on climate change and DRM is missing. The main government agency tasked with DRM coordination, ANDMA lacks substantive capacity to strategically assess disasters that are linked to climate change and those that are not.

• Inadequate engagement of women in disaster risk reduction activities: Women lack capital, networks and influence and have little access and control over land and economic resources that are vital in disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. Unbalanced gender norms affect women’s access to assistance from climate induced disasters. Low literacy level and status of women hinders their empowerment to act as promoters of resilience in the communities.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Decision-making and implementation of climat induced disaster risks reduction measures are improved in selected communities, through enhanced capacities

Resources will be used to raise awareness and increase understanding at the community level on the importance of integrating accurate climate information into DRM efforts, and development planning. The project will build the capacities of the communities and Community Development Councils (CDCs) and the local extension offices of MRRD and MAIL in systematically collecting, monitoring, tracking, and analyzing climate data for adequate preparedness and risk reduction.

Communities will be the key actors and decision-makers in a participatory situational analysis to ensure successful mapping, analysis and effectiveness of the adaptation interventions. Given the low technical capacities and the current state of extension offices facilities it has been noted that the technologies procured for this effect should be user-friendly and easy-to-install and maintain (upstream and downstream gauges, rain gauges, staff gauges, etc). Hazard maps and vulnerability and risk assessments will then be produced by capacitated community councils in collaboration with extension officers and national officers of MRRD and MAIL, so they may further replicate this activity in other provinces.

Outcome 2: Community-based early warning systems in place and effectively utilized
A community-based approach to EWS is proposed recognizing that the first response to a disaster always comes from the community itself. In order to pilot effective CBEWS in the selected provinces, this outcome will focus in delivering timely information in order to lessen the negative impacts of weather-induced disaster. The CBEWS will ensure that all community members’ needs, especially the most vulnerable (women, children, people with disabilities) are considered. In order to do this, the proposal will aim to achieve three main inter-related interventions: i) Ensure that there is a mechanism through which climate hazards can be monitored 24/7 , including adequate calculation of lead time and threshold values on which warning and alert levels will be based; ii) Coordinate warning services with relevant stakeholders (extended offices of MAIL and ANDMA) and enable efficient warning dissemination channels using multiple communication channels (mobile phones, sirens, loudspeakers on mosques, TVs and megaphones); iii) Strengthen response capabilities of the communities. It will be essential to define clear roles and responsibilities of the community and plan and allocate human resources. Contingency plans (addressing evacuation, first aid, health, shelter, water and sanitation, and rescue issues) to reduce impact of disaster will be designed in partnership with active NGOs, UN Agencies and other actors.

Outcome 3: Climate-resilient livelihoods are implemented in targeted communities

Resources will be used to complement improved preparedness with more resilient physical assets and income-generating opportunities for community beneficiaries. Based on appropriate vulnerability assessments and hazard maps completed under Outcome 1.1, MRRD will support CBOs and community authorities to design, assess (through appropriate feasibility studies) and build climate-proofed habitats and emergency shelters. Households will be better equipped to endure harsh weather conditions (heat or cold), as well as be less susceptible to damages from intense flooding, rains, and/or landslides. Climate-resilient emergency shelters will be multi-functional to serve as temporary education facilities, community meeting places, emergency supply storage, and/or primary health care. These infrastructures would also support home-based economic activities such as storage of food and agro-products, processing and canning. Secondly, location-specific risk planning and land zoning will help identify suitable areas for these infrastructures as well as other land uses such as crop culture, agroforestry, forestry and horticulture. Micro-enterprise development with a specific focus on women and youth will help communities capitalize on these new opportunities by incorporating improved disaster preparedness and CBEWS set up in Outcome 2.1.

These efforts will ultimately help increase savings and enhance food security at the community level, reducing the vulnerability of these communities to climate-induced disasters. Livelihood interventions will be identified during PPG phase to ensure tailored design that engages the most vulnerable. A robust market survey will be conducted to ensure that income-generating activities have a real market demand.

Outcome 4: Strengthened institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial development plans, policies, budgetary allocation and implementation mechanisms
In order to address the limited understanding of the implications of climate change in disaster risk and in development, this project will provide capacity-building to key government actors, to increase institutional coordination and synergies on climate change adaptation efforts. LDCF resources will be used to strengthen technical capacities within the Climate Change Department within NEPA on climate change policy, adaptation, and linkages between CCA, DRM, and development, at the national level. This is critical to ensure that national climate change policies and strategies are adequate and that the Department is able to promote, across ministries, the importance of incorporating climate risks into longer-term development planning.

This Outcome aims to support the Government of Afghanistan in kick-starting the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to establish a mechanism whereby medium and long-term development planning and budgeting takes into account climate risks. This is particularly important when planning for DRM/DRR efforts, and in the case of Afghanistan, it is vital to sustain any development interventions.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Decision-making and implementation of climate induced disaster risks reduction measures are improved in selected communities, through enhanced capacities

Outcome 2: Community-based early warning systems in place and effectively utilized

Outcome 3: Climate-resilient livelihoods are implemented in targeted communities

Outcome 4: Strengthened institutional capacities to integrate climate risks and opportunities into national and provincial development plans, policies, budgetary allocation and implementation mechanisms

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022
Civil Society Engagement: 


Senegal National Adaptation Plan

The "Senegal National Adaptation Plan" project will strengthen the capacity of sectoral ministries and local governments to better assess the implications of climate change and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures. With US$2.9 in proposed funding from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund, the project will develop technical and functional capacities of climate and hydrological monitoring centers, and build the necessary instruments to prioritize climate change adaptation into national and subnational budgets and plans.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-14.238281261823 15.074775638102)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2.9 million proposed GEF-LDCF grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$9 million total co-financing (Ministry of Finance and Planning US$6.5 million, Ministry of Environment US$200,000, UNDP US$2.3 million)
Project Details: 

As part of an early response to the challenges posed by a variable and changing climate, the Government of Senegal (GoS) formulated and published a National Adaptation Programmes for Action in 2006. The NAPA seeks to facilitate capacity building and in particular address urgent and immediate adaptation needs. However, while a number of development projects are currently being conducted in the agriculture and fisheries sectors , few take into consideration the complexities and multi-sectoral impacts of climate change. Furthermore, few economic assessments in Senegal showcase the economic impacts of climate change (with and without adaptation considered as a factor). As a result there is very little political traction for implementing proactive adaptation responses and climate risk management.

In the absence of systematic action or a strategic framework to guide adaptation over the medium and long term and without the mainstreaming of climate change responses and climate risk management into national development planning and budgeting processes, climate change will continue to pose a serious threat to hard-won development gains.

Given the uncertainties on future climate and economic circumstances and the high risks that need to be accounted for, there is need to start building “country systems” (including capacities, institutions, mandates and information sources) at national and local levels to support medium- and long-term planning and budgeting.

With resources from the GEF-LDCF, the capacity of sectoral Ministries, local governments and communities will be strengthened to better assess the implications of climate change, and to adjust existing policies and budgets for the integration of medium- and long-term climate change risks and adaptation measures.

Relevant national policies will be targeted such as: the Strategy Paper on Poverty Reduction III (2013 - 2017), the National Programme for Local Development (PNDL), the IWRM Plan, the Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection’s Multiyear Framework of Sector-based Expenses (DPPD ) and local development plan.

The National Adaptation Plan process offers an opportunity to take a more considered approach, working towards transformational change in the country’s capacity to increase resilience to climate change. By promoting adaptation investment into key development sectors and territorial plans , it will ensure environmental, social and economic development in a long-term, sustainable and resilient manner.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers ( LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA ) and decisions makers ( staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Output 1.1. The generation and use of climate, geophysical, geotechnical and socio-economic data by c limate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE) and research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) to support the projection of climate risks.

Output 1.2. The establishment of data collection/production, information and communication platforms.

Output 1.3. The design and institutionalization of training kits and programmes to improve decision maker’s skills. 

Output 1.4. The identification & categorisation of adaptation options to address priority vulnerabilities in target national and sectoral policies.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Output 2.1. Relevant national and local development plans reviewed and budgets appropriately adjusted in support of effective adaptation 

Output 2.2. A climate readiness strategy developed and implemented to ensure that necessary funds will be in place to support the adaptation options identified.

Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and hydrological monitoring centers (ANACIM, DGPRE), research centers (LPAOSF/UCAD, CSE, ISRA) and decisions makers (staffs from relevant ministries and target councils/departments ) will have the capacity to produce and utilise information on historical and future climate and expected impacts to plan short- and long-term responses and adapt to climate change.

Outcome 2 - Adjusting policies for long-term resilience to climate changes to prioritize and mainstream adaptation and related budgets within national and subnational development and sectoral planning instruments

Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster

The "Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster" project will work to strengthen institutional, policy and regulatory frameworks to integrate climate and disaster risks into planning, improve knowledge and understanding of key climate drivers and natural disasters, and strengthen community resilience to climate-induced disaster risks. UNDP is currently working with the Government of Comoros to develop the project proposal for a US$8.5 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund.

The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate-related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long-term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.409728953023 -11.7745193387)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.5 million proposed GEF LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$36.3 million (UNDP US$1.6 million grant, UNIDSR US$1 million grant, PASDTR US$20 million grant, Qatar and Chinese US$14.5 million frant for medical facilities, ICO Natural Risks Management Project US$400,000)
Project Details: 

Comoros is highly vulnerable to natural disasters (floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami) and epidemics including cholera, dengue and chikungunya. In the last two decades in Comoros, 17 natural disasters were recorded with 148 deaths and more than 400,000 people affected. The biggest disaster was in 2005 when 245,000 people were affected by a volcanic eruption.

In addition, torrential rains, storms and floods have affected more than 117,000 people in the last two decades. Climate projections show that the situation faced by the Comoros in recent years could worsen. According to the IPCC, through projections of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM), the climate change scenarios for small islands in the Indian Ocean from 2040 to 2069 indicate an increase of the average annual rainfall to 3.1% (+ or -0.45%) .

The sea- level rise is expected to reach 20 cm by 2050 . Weather and climate extreme events such as cyclones, tsunamis are also expected to increase in frequency and intensity in the future. Therefore, it is likely that future tropical cyclones would gain intensity, that heavy rainfall and floods would be more intense during the hot season, that on the opposite droughts would be more intense during dry season and that land erosion would be exacerbated.

Among the factors of the Comorian populations’ vulnerability to natural disasters one can note the following:

  • Natural factors: the insularity, the rugged topography with many steep slopes, combined with the natural and soil triggered waterproofing (lava flow) stimulate the runoff strength of rainwater, causing multiple erosions and flooding and leading to destruction of villages.
  • Land-use planning: housing is often temporary and under precarious and anarchical conditions. The vulnerability of some areas is more acute because of their proximity to the sea that threatens to engulf houses built too close to the eroding coast, either as a result of rainfall, tides or because of sand removal used as construction material.
  • Poor transport networks: transport networks are poor and were built without taking in account climate-induced disaster risks. The Union of the Comoros road network comprises 800 km of roads, of which approximately 50% is classified as in “good and fair” condition and almost 30% in “bad and very bad” by the National Roads and Road Transport Office (DNRTR). In several areas the road network is either partially or totally degraded. This situation makes road networks very vulnerable and easily degraded and/or not fully operational in the event of climate induced disasters and this contributes to increased vulnerability of the Comorian communities. In disaster situation they are cut off from health infrastructure and food supply including drinking water and hardly access to emergency relief.
  • Weak socio-economic base of the community contributes a great deal to increase their vulnerability. The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long- term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Systemic and institutional capacities for the long -term management and adaptation planning of disaster risks caused by climate change are strengthened at local, provincial and national levels

Outcome 2 - Knowledge and understanding of medium- to long -term climate-related disaster risks and vulnerability are improved

Outcome 3 - The long-term resilience of the livelihoods and assets of vulnerable communities against climate disaster risks is strengthened

Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea

Through the project, "Strengthening climate information and early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change in Guinea", UNDP seeks to support  strengthened national capacities, including the participation of communities to prevent, reduce, mitigate and cope with the impact of the systemic shocks form natural hazards. The project also aims to  to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to mainstream climate change adaptation policies into national development plans.

Photos: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5 million (proposed GEF LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$39 million (proposed co-financing)
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Outcomes:
• 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change
• 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1. Enhanced capacity of national hydro-meteorological (NHMS) and environmental institutions to monitor extreme weather and climate change

Outcome 2. Efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and mainstreaming CC in the long-term development plans

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh

Against the backdrop of high incidence of poverty and limited scope of formal employment of the poorer segments of its population, Bangladesh decision-makers have recognized the risks associated with climate change

The country has been allocating budget to climate-change adaptation for over a decade. In 2005, Bangladesh became one of the first two Least Developed Countries to produce a National Adaptation Programme of Action. In 2008–2009, the Government formulated the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, effectively grounding all subsequent national climate change adaptation activities.

With a grant approved by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund in December 2017, the project Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh ​will enhance the availability of information on climate change, in support of the NAP process; appraise adaptation options, including ecosystem and social costs and benefits; and build institutional capacity for effective integration of climate change into national budgeting and fiscal decision-making.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 24.056496493275)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5,700,000 grant via the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$17,700,000 ($15 million Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief of Bangladesh; $2.7 million UNDP);
Project Details: 


Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Adviser
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Civil Society Engagement: 


Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam

The five-year project Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam (2017-2022) will increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change, scaling-up interventions that have already been tested.

Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods.

To support and sustain the impacts of this project - as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities - climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application will be systematized in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (107.66601559196 16.405787866187)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
30 million coastal residents will benefit from improved planning integrating climate risk information, 20,000 people will benefit from climate-resilient housing, and 3,8 million people in the target coastal provinces will benefit from the protection offered by healthy and robust mangrove regeneration. An estimated 1.9 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided.
Funding Source: 

News story: UNDP-GCF project to benefit coastal communities vulnerable to climate-related impacts in Viet Nam

The UNDP-GCF project seeks to create transformative impact by replicating and scaling-up proven successful approaches to increase access to flood and storm resilient housing, reinforce mangrove storm surge buffer zones and improve access to quality climate change risk information.

Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam - PROMO

Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios. The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund project "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" aims to bolster the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change.

NetViet TV coverage on the GCF-funded project to improve resilience of coastal vulnerable communities to climate change impacts

Financing Amount: 
US$29.5 million (GCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$11 million (US$8 million from the Ministry of Construction, US$1.4 million from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and US$1.6 million from UNDP according to GCF website)
Project Details: 

Poor communities living in coastal regions of Viet Nam are adversely impacted by frequent flooding. Each year approximately 60,000 houses in coastal provinces are destroyed or damaged by floods and storms. This is likely to worsen given climate change scenarios.

Resultant economic impacts make it increasingly difficult for vulnerable families to escape the cycle of poverty. With funding from the Green Climate Fund, this project will scale-up already tested interventions to increase the resilience of target communities. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people.

As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, the project will systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of the country.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1:  Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000  poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes

  • In the flood and typhoon prone areas of coastal of Viet Nam. This project will provide for the additional cost of safety features and improved monitoring (approximately US$2,000/house), to 4,000 houses constructed under the broader government housing programming benefitting the poor. Specifically these include (a) a concrete roof with strengthened bracings and fittings (US$900), (b) reinforced windows, doors and sealing (US$400) (c) improvements to drainage, siting and raising plinths (US$400) and (d) improved monitoring to ensure that the finished product is one that reflects all of the resilience features of the house design (US$300). This will be fully coordinated with the government housing programme, and grant support to beneficiaries will follow the government’s monitoring and disbursement schedule.
  • Risk assessments will be conducted through the established CBDRM mechanism, to ensure that house siting is on a safe location. Links will be made to existing information such as the storm surge maps generated by the Disaster Management Center.
  • The 100 target communes selected for this work will serve as learning hubs for broader dissemination in adjacent communes and provinces. Selection of communes and households to receive support will follow existing government criteria. Criteria and prioritization criteria are further detailed in Annex II: Feasibility Study.
  • Training on engineering innovations for flood and storm resistant housing technologies, and to deliver hands-on advice and guidance to local authorities and affected households on safe and affordable house designs and construction.

Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of coastal mangrove storm surge buffer zones using successful evidence-based approaches

  • This project will support regeneration of approximately 4,000 hectares of mangroves, in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change impacts. This project will enable scale up of good practices from various pilots and integrate field proven best practices. Supplementary funds will allow for the application of improved planting and maintenance technologies outlined above, and implement the measures to ensure that livelihoods are maintained (such as relocating communal shrimp ponds to where the pressures on the mangrove stands will be minimized and the shrimp production can be well maintained).
  • Specific sites within the province for project intervention will be identified/assessed through various criteria, namely (a) exposure to climate change induced events (i.e. typhoons, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal flooding), (b) potential for mangrove restoration, and (c) complementarity with ongoing government or partner support to maximize the impact of combined resources. Regeneration and rehabilitation efforts will be implemented in phases. While the techniques to be used are based on best practices of previous mangrove rehabilitation efforts, a phased approach will allow time for further monitoring and assessment of techniques, as well as review of risk mitigation measures. Adjustments will be made as needed to maximize the survival rate.
  • Target communes will set up a community committee incorporating both local government and a cross-section of residents to complete a CBDRM risk assessment and planning process. Additional sessions on coastal mapping, mangrove regeneration and livelihoods maintenance will be added. The community CBDRM plans will therefore include location specific actions to support implementation and maintenance of the mangroves. The project will then roll out mangrove regeneration actions to enable application of improved techniques to increase survival rates. This will be community driven process as part of the commune planning and implementation using the CBDRM process for community mobilization and engagement.

Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for  private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam

  • MARD with assistance of UNDP has worked to establish the first natural disaster loss and damage database, strengthening early warning system design and meteorological service capacity. MONRE with assistance of UNDP has strengthened climate change data and analysis and has completed the Special Report on Extreme Events (SREX) submitted to the IPCC in 2014.  The government has recently developed Viet Nam’s first coastal storm surge maps to improve coastal inundation mapping.
  • MARD and MONRE will make improved information more accessible to government decision makers especially at the sub-national level, on-going national programs and the private sector. This will be done by developing integrated risk maps at the sub-national level using the established methodology that Viet Nam has already been applied to produce maps in 20 out of 63 provinces. Viet Nam will be able to produce risk mapping of the entire coastal area, combing local level knowledge with the best scientific data. Data quality will also be improved by including super-storm and storm surge data based on 2014-2015 models and more accurate sea level rise projections included in the fifth IPCC assessment report. Additional analysis of salt water intrusion zones using new satellite based technology will also be included. Although this data has been developed, or is near finalization, it is not currently being systematically applied by the government at any level.  This would be a transformative change in Viet Nam’s ability to analyze and compare climate change risks in coastal areas.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Mariana Simoes
Regional Technical Adviser
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 30 June 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 September 2017
First disbursement received: 19 September 2017
Project Inception Workshop with key stakeholders:  24 November 2017

“Finally, we have a resilient house to protect our lives and assets” - UNP Viet Nam, September 20 2018. “My area is often flooded and we usually have to move to one of my neighbours’ houses for two or three days because they are located at a higher altitude." Ms. Nguyen Thi Mua's new resilient house is one of 85 being built under the UN Development Programme and the Green Climate Fund-supported project, ‘Improving the Resilience of Vulnerable Coastal Communities to Climate Change Related Impacts in Viet Nam’ in 2018.

'Forty storm-resilient houses presented to vulnerable families in Quang Ngai' - UNDP Viet Nam, May 5 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) together with UNDP and Quang Ngai People's Committee have handed over a further 40 storm-resilient houses to poor and vulnerable households. 

'Resilient houses help people change their lives' - UNDP Viet Nam, April, 2018. Ms. Nguyen Thi Mun, 77, is one of seventy-seven poor households in Quang Ngai province to receive storm-resilient housing under the GCF-supported project, “Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Viet Nam.

'Coastal province of Quang Nam to accelerate implementation of the nation's first Green Climate Fund-financed project' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 16, 2018. Project to build 243 storm-resilient homes and restore 135 hectares of mangrove forests over next five years, boosting the resilience of thousands.

'Go inside when storm comes and go upstairs when it floods' - UNDP Viet Nam, March 1, 2018. UNDP is supporting the construction of 4,000 safe houses in five coastal provinces of Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue and Thanh Hoa over the next 4 years. One of the early recipients, Tiem, now lives in what she calls a new, ‘resilient’ home. She stores most of her furniture on the upstairs floor where she can stay safer during the flooding, and there is a big window that serves as an exit for evacuation.

'Storm-proof housing increases the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, February 13, 2018. The Viet Nam Disaster Management Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and UNDP hand over storm-resilient houses to households in the province of Quang Ngai. Thirty-seven houses have been built so far, with more than 300 houses to be built in 2018.

 
'UNDP-Green Climate Fund project to benefit coastal communities vulnerable to climate-related impacts in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, November 24, 2017. Implementation of Viet Nam’s first project funded by the Green Climate Fund, 'Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change-related impacts in Viet Nam', took a step forward today with an inception event in Ha Noi.

'Shelter from the Storm: Why flood and storm resilient housing is key to sustainable development in Viet Nam' - UNDP Viet Nam, November 12, 2017. By Jenty Kirsch-Wood, UNDP Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Specialist

Speech by Mr. Kamal Malhotra, UNDP Resident Representative in Viet Nam at the Viet Nam - Green Climate Fund Cooperation Dialogue - UNDP Viet Nam, June 26, 2017.

VTV4 News covers project, enhancing the resilience of coastal communities to the impacts of climate change, featuring visit of GCF Executive Director, Howard Bamsey. July 5, 2017.

'Green Climate Fund announces $29.5mn project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Tuoi Tre News, June 26, 2017. The $29.5 million project was announced during a dialogue between GCF executive director Howard Bamsey and Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment in Hanoi. Bamsey, who was on his first-ever Vietnam visit, joined local officials in discussing how the Southeast Asian country could take action to achieve climate-resilient development and green growth.

'Green Climate Fund announces project to boost Viet Nam’s climate resilience' - Nhan Dan Online, June 26, 2017. Viet Nam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment, UNDP and the Green Climate Fund announce GCF-funded project to increase the climate resilience of coastal residents.

'Global Green Climate Fund helps coastal communities improve climate resilience' - UNDP, June 26, 2017. UNDP and the Government of Viet Nam have announced a $29.5 million project, 'Improving the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to cimate change related impacts in Viet Nam'. “This is a really exciting project with benefits to communities, benefits to the country, and benefits globally,” said H.E Howard Bamsey, GCF Executive Director, who joined leaders of the Ministry of Planning and Investment and UNDP to announce the project during his first visit to Viet Nam.
 

Call for public consultation and review of the Environmental and Social Management Plan, UNDP, April 29, 2016.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The "Improving resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in Viet Nam" project seeks to scale-up interventions that have already been tested, to increase the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change. Building on ongoing social protection programmes related to housing for the poor and marginalized, the project will incorporate storm and flood resilient design features in new houses, benefiting 20,000 poor and highly disaster-exposed people. As part of an integrated response to managing flood risks, 4,000 hectares of mangroves will be rehabilitated and/or planted to function not only as storm surge buffers, but also to provide ecosystem resources that can support coastal livelihoods. Moreover, to support and sustain both the impact of this project, as well as future requisite government policy adjustments that strengthen the resilience of coastal and other communities, resources will be used to systematize climate and economic risk assessments for private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output1: Storm and flood resilient design features added to 4,000 new houses on safe sites, benefiting 20,000  poor and highly disaster-exposed people in 100 communes

Output 2: Regeneration of 4,000 hectares of costal mangrove storm surge buffer zones 

Output 3: Increased access to enhanced climate, loss and damage data for  private and public sector application in all 28 coastal provinces of Viet Nam 

Civil Society Engagement: 


Addressing the Risks of Climate Induced Disasters in Bhutan through Enhanced National and Local Capacity for Effective Actions

The current NAPA II project, Addressing the Risk of Climate-Induced Disasters through Enhanced National and Local Capacity in Bhutan,  will address urgent and immediate climate change adaptation needs and leverage co-financing resources from national government, bilateral and other multilateral sources, and the private sector.  The project is working to “enhance national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihood and livelihood assets.”

The USD 11.49 million project is funded by Global Environment Facility/Least Developed Countries Fund, and coordinated by the National Environment Commission Secretariat in partnership with UNDP, Bhutan. The project will safeguard essential economic and livelihood infrastructure in hazard-prone communities and key industrial areas from increasing climate hazards such as floods, landslides, windstorms and forest fire through reducing vulnerability at high-risk areas and increasing adaptive capacity of community-level disaster risk management institutions.

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012), and the Bhutan NAPA II brochure, June 2015.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.3851300344 26.8640612086)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural communities in Bhutan
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 11.49 million (as detailed in the Project Brochure, June 2015)
Project Details: 

The overarching objective of the project is to increase national, local and community capacity to prepare for and respond to climate-induced multi-hazards to reduce potential losses of human lives, national economic infrastructure, livelihoods and livelihood assets. This objective is fully aligned with the development priorities of the RGoB as set out in Bhutan’s tenth 5-year plan, which is in turn underpinned and guided by the long-term development vision of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness. Under the four pillars of GNH (i.e. sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance), the 5-year plan places a strong emphasis, among others, on balanced rural-urban development for poverty alleviation, expansion/maintenance of key economic infrastructure including road infrastructure that connects rural and urban centers, and strengthening of the agricultural sector which continues to employ the majority of Bhutanese and be the backbone of the rural economy.

This project will implement priority interventions addressed in Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Actions corresponding to the following objectives, in part or full, as outlined in NAPA profile:

  • Disaster management strategy
  • Weather forecasting system to serve farmers and agriculture
  • Landslide management and flood prevention
  • Flood protection of downstream industrial and agricultural area
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Promote community-based forest fire management and prevention

Situated on the southern slope of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan’s landscape is mountainous and rugged with elevations ranging from 100m in the southern foothills to 7500m towards north. Due to its topography, habitable and arable areas are limited to approximately 8.3% and 2.9%, respectively, of the landmass. Agriculture, which employs 69% of the population and accounts for 78% of monetary income in rural households, and industrial activities are largely practiced in this highly confined space that its topography permits. While Bhutan is in general endowed with abundant water resources from the four major rivers and their tributaries, most of the large rivers are at the bottom of valleys and gorges rendering these rich water resources largely inaccessible for agriculture or domestic use. As a result, irrigation is limited to areas near small perennial streams that exist above main rivers and majority of farmers rely primarily on monsoonal rains, which account for 60-90% of annual precipitation.

Bhutan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the Asia-Pacific region, irrespective of the presence of climate change. The country is exposed to multiple hazards, most prominently flash floods, landslides, windstorms, earthquakes, forest fires, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In terms of relative exposure to flood risks (as % of population), Bhutan ranks fourth highest in the region. Although the direct human risks of landslides, windstorms, and forest fires are not particularly higher compared to other countries, the socioeconomic repercussions from these events are thought to be high due to the baseline poverty prevalence.

Climate change is likely to magnify the intensity and frequency of these hazards. In fact, according to the International Disaster Database, among the top 10 natural disasters in Bhutan between 1900 to 2012, in terms of the number of casualties and number affected, all of them occurred in the last two decades (except epidemic outbreaks), which makes certain degree of attribution of climate change to the increasing magnitude of such hazards plausible. The most pronounced consequences of climate change in Bhutan are two folds: disruptions in the monsoonal system and increasing/intensifying trends of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards, both of which are obviously closely linked. These disturbances will amplify the socioeconomic challenges for the Bhutanese society, especially in rural areas where the majority of the population is engaged in rain-fed agriculture and rampant poverty makes them least equipped to adapt to creeping changes in climate.

Monsoon rains generally arrive during the summer months (from late June to late September). Downscaled simulations undertaken in Bhutan’s SNC indicate that the mean annual rainfall will increase by 26-30% by 2069 compared to the baseline year of 1980. This increase occurs primarily during the summer monsoon season while the dry winter season rainfall is projected to decline slightly. In addition, accelerated melting of glaciers, which act as a gigantic natural water retention and dispensing mechanism to communities downstream, is disrupting the hydrological regime of the perennial river systems in the region. All in all, climate change will increase the uncertainty of water availability throughout the year, and rural farmers are likely to have to better manage high fluctuation of rainfalls – increasing volume of monsoonal rain so that they can sustain longer dry periods. This poses significant risks to development when built rural infrastructure to alleviate water shortages, such as communal rainwater harvesting, is minimally available. 

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Risks from climate-induced floods and landslides reduced in the economic and industrial hub of Bhutan
    • Output 1.1: Protection of Pasakha Industrial area from flooding events through riverbank protection, river training and development of flood buffer zones
    • Output 1.2: Slope stabilization to reduce climate-induced landslides in the Phuntsholing Township
    • Output 1.3: Integrated risk hazard assessment and mapping completed in 4 critical landslide and flashflood prone areas with data collection standards compatible with the national database
  • Outcome 2: Community resilience to climate-induced risks (drought, flood, landslides, windstorms, forest fires) strengthened in at least four Dzongkhags
    • Output 2.1: Climate-resilient water harvesting, storage and distribution systems designed, built and rehabilitated in at least four Dzongkhags, based on observed and projected changes in rainfall patterns and intensity
    • Output 2.2: Community-level water resource inventory completed and maintained by Dzongkhag administration to increase the adaptive capacity of communities in the face of increasing water scarcity
    • Output 2.3: Disaster Management Institutions at various levels established and trained in four Dzongkhags to prepare for, and respond to, more frequent and intense floods, storms and wildfire events
  • Outcome 3: Relevant information about climate-related risks and threats shared across community-based organizations and planners in climate-sensitive policy sectors on a timely and reliable basis
    • Output 3.1: Enhanced quality, availability and transfer of real-time climate data in all Dzongkhags which experience increasing frequency of extreme hydo-meterological events
    • Output 3.2: Increased effectiveness of National Weather and Flood Forecasting and Warning Center through improved capacity to analyze, manage and disseminate climate information in a timely manner

Source: UNDP Bhutan Project Identification Form (May 1, 2012)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Ugyen Dorji
Project Support Officer
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
ldcf
Project Status: 

Strengthening Community Resilience to Climate Induced Natural Disasters in Rural Timor-Leste

The government of Timor-Leste is currently investing heavily in transport infrastructure as a basis for securing the country’s long-term development goals. These investments are at risk as a result of climate change and therefore require a strategy to ensure their long-term sustenance. The Dili to Ainaro development corridor is one such region that is increasingly at risk from climate change and disaster related impacts including localized flooding, landslides and strong winds. Therefore, this project will focus on the populace dependent on critical economic infrastructure to make it more resilient through prevention and preparedness measures. Consequently, this will help to secure the medium to long-term development benefits of vulnerable local people of this region.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (126.496582012 -8.59731586984)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Population dependent on critical infrastructure in the Dili to Ainaro development corridor
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$5,748,750 (As of February 2013, detailed in PIF)
Co-Financing Total: 
$78,726,780 (As of February 2013, detailed in PIF)
Project Details: 

(More information to come)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project has three main components with the following associated outcomes –

  1. Improved climate and disaster risk management is enabled through the establishment of a national training and knowledge hub focusing on climate risk and vulnerability assessment, damage and loss assessment, contingency planning among others (Outcome 1.1) and; the extension of national DRM policy and institutional roles to address climate change and disaster risk reduction measures, including assessment methods etc. (Outcome 1.2).
  2. Climate and disaster risk planning along with its budgeting and delivery is strengthened including the strengthening of district and sub-district Disaster Management Committees and District Disaster Operation Centres to plan, budget and deliver climate induced disaster prevention financing (Outcome 2.1) and; design of community to district level EWS systems for climate induced extreme events (Outcome 2.2).
  3. Investments are made in climate resilient community-based adaptation measures including community level climate change vulnerability and risk assessments with a specific focus on gender (Outcome 3.1) and; design and implementation of community level watershed management measures to reduce direct physical impacts of high intensity rainfall events in climate vulnerable hotspots along the Dili to Ainaro development corridor (Outcome 3.2).

 

 

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

(More information to come)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

(More information to come)