Bangladesh

 

Bangladesh remains one of the world’s poorest and most densely populated countries despite its considerable development gains in the past several decades, including in the areas of gender parity, education, and infant and maternal health (MEF, 2009).  Low economic strength, inadequate infrastructure, low level of social development, lack of institutional capacity, and a higher dependency on the natural resource base makes Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to climate stimuli (including both variability as well as extreme events). Recognizing these vulnerabilities, Bangladesh has developed many adaptation measures to address adverse effects of climate change based on existing coping mechanisms and practices.
 
Bangladesh, except for the hilly regions in the northeast and southeast and terrace land in northwest and central zones, is one of the largest deltas in the world, formed by the dense network of the distributaries of the mighty rivers namely the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. The country is located between 20°34’ to 26°38’ north latitude and 88°01’ to 92°42’ east longitude. The total land area is 147,570 sq. km. and consists mostly of low and flat land. A network of more than 230 major rivers with their tributaries and distributaries crisscross the country. It has a population of about 131 million (BBS, 2002) with very low per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$ 351 per annum (UNDP, 2004). Of this, just about a quarter was in the urban areas including the metropolitan cities . The country’s economy is primarily agricultural, and the majority of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods(USDS, 2010). The country’s main crops are rice and jute, along with maize, vegetables and tea.
 
Population of the country has been growing fast in the sixties and the seventies. The inter-census growth rates had been rising and then falling over the last four decades or so. The falling population growth rate had been possible due to a sharp decline in the total fertility rate which had fallen from 6.3 per woman of reproductive age (15-49) in 1975 to 3.0 by 2004 (NIPORT and Mitra and Associate: 2005). For the future under the assumed rates for this report, the expected population for the year 2030 is 186 million, 61 million in the urban and the rest 125 million in the rural areas. Most people, live in the rural areas. On the other hand, urbanization is growing fast in the country. Between 1961 and 1974, the rate of growth in urban population had been 6.7 % per annum. Between 1974 and 1981 it shot up further to 10.7 % per annum. Since then the rate has fallen, but between 1991 and 2001 it was 3.15 % which is just double the rate of overall population growth. The following section is found in the Meister Consultants Group study: *Floating Houses and Mosquito Nets: Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Around the World*

Related Content

Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan Process in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, including sea level rise in coastal areas, increasing severity of tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall events. Recognizing that climate impacts are undercutting hard won human development gains, Bangladesh has already taken strides on adaptation planning over the last decade, by implementing the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), setting-up climate change trust funds, and pioneering community based adaptation approaches.  However, institutional arrangements and a coordinated strategy for mid- and long-term climate change adaptation investment are not yet in place.  

The objective of this Green Climate Fund (GCF) financed project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on climate change adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (89.766723550477 23.476850914431)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and key personnel working on Climate Change Adaptation relevant programming in water resources, agriculture and food security, coastal zones, and urban habitation (the “priority sectors”) will be the beneficiaries of this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$2,805,990
Project Details: 

The project is designed to support the Government of Bangladesh to meet the objective of formulating the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.

Bangladesh’s location, climate, and development trajectory make it a country especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Bangladesh lies on the Bay of Bengal in the delta floodplain of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flowing from the Himalayas. Consequently, the terrain is predominately low-lying and flat, and the country has only a few mountainous regions.  The delta environment hosts a coastline that is dynamic and subject to coastal erosion, land subsidence, and sediment deposits, despite being home to the Sundarbans, the largest natural mangrove forest in the world.

Bangladesh is a least-developed country (LDC), and in terms of the Human Development Index ranks 139th out of 188 countries (2016). The country has a population of 162,951,560 (2016), of which around 70% live in rural areas. However, there is a high rate of urbanization, with a 3.2% increase in urban populations each year. The poverty ratio has fallen from 49% in 2000 to 31.5% in 2010, but over 70% of the employed population remains below a US $1.90/day purchasing power threshold. Agriculture accounts for around 14% of GDP, but employs approximately 40% of the workforce. Industry, in particular manufacturing, accounts for 29% of GDP, while services, including transport and construction services, account for 56% of GDP.

Bangladesh is often considered one of the one of the most vulnerable nations to extreme weather events, climate variability, and change (Global Climate Risk Index; Climate Change Vulnerability Index). Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, characterized by a summer monsoon and a winter dry season. However, future scenarios show increases in temperatures and precipitation in Bangladesh. An estimated temperature rise of 1.6°C and an increase of precipitation of 8% are expected by 2050. The country´s location in the Bay of Bengal makes it susceptible to seasonal cyclones, while being a major floodplain increases the risks related to seasonal flooding. For example, floods in 2007 inundated 32,000 sq. km, leading to over 85,000 houses being destroyed and almost 1 million damaged, with approximately 1.2 million acres of crops destroyed or partially damaged, 649 deaths and estimated damages over $1 billion.

Despite development progress and decline in poverty, the increased impacts of storms, sea level rise, and drought due to climate change threaten to reverse the gains in social and economic growth and have implications for the lives and livelihoods of poor women and men across the country.

Bangladesh is already experiencing a host of climate impacts. In particular, sea level rise is already observed along the coast. With future climate change, damaging floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe. And, the low-lying coastal land is particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise.

Bangladesh has already developed a National Adaptation Plan Roadmap. It highlights a range of priority sectors where the impacts of climate change are anticipated to be very high. These include (a) water resources, (b) agriculture (including sub-sectors such as crops, forestry, fisheries, and livestock), (c) communication and transportation, (d) physical infrastructure (including education infrastructure), (e) food and health security, (f) disaster risk reduction (g) people’s livelihoods, (h) urban habitation and built environment (including water supply, sanitation and hygiene) and (i) education.

Recognizing the threat to national development, Bangladesh has developed policy and institutional frameworks supporting CCA planning and investments. In 2005, Bangladesh was one of the first two LDCs to submit its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The NAPA identified and prioritized adaptation projects for immediate and urgent implementation. It was updated in 2009, and additional projects were added. A corresponding Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) was approved in 2009 and runs until 2018. The BCCSAP articulates the national vision for pro-poor, climate resilient, and low-carbon development in alignment with both the GOB’s Vision 2021 and Five Year Plan national planning documents. The BCCSAP sets forward 6 pillars for climate change adaptation and mitigation, while identifying 44 priority programmes.

Climate change adaptation (CCA) is included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020) and the priorities reflect mostly urgent and immediate needs as gauged by ongoing adaptation planning activities.  Under the related Annual Development Plans (ADP), climate change screening tools have been integrated into development project proposals. In addition, CCA has been integrated to a limited degree in key sectoral policies, such as water and agriculture. The ministry of Planning has also appointed a senior government secretary as the SDG Coordinator, and prepared a Sustainable Development Goals tracking matrix as a tool for various ministries to coordinate, track and guide various ministries in implementation of SDGs.

The Nationally Determined Contribution of Bangladesh (NDC -2015) identifies an adaptation goal to “protect the population, enhance their adaptive capacity and livelihood options, and to protect the overall development of the country in its stride for economic progress and wellbeing for the people”.

Also present in the NDC is a list of on-going adaptation actions, climate funds, and an estimate of adaptation costs. Based on estimates by the World Bank (2010), the costs of adapting to tropical cyclones, storm surges and inland flooding by 2050 alone in Bangladesh could amount to US$8.2 billion, in addition to recurring annual costs of US$160 million.

There are several related initiatives to advance GCF Readiness related work in Bangladesh. The GCF country work program is being developed with the support of GIZ Climate Finance Readiness’ Programme and Green Climate Fund Readiness Support with the NDA Secretariat, ERD and the Finance Division, Ministry of Finance. UNDP is also supporting NDA under readiness programme 2 for the preparation of country programmes. GIZ is planning a NAP/NDC Support programme to commence in 2018 with more focus on operationalization and implementation of NDC. UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment with the development of the NAP Roadmap with the contribution of the Government of Norway. It is also supporting the Finance Division under the Ministry of Finance with integration of climate change into budgeting as well as the development of a climate change fiscal framework. The Government of Bangladesh is also engaged in applying to the GEF LDCF for complementary funding for NAPs.

In January 2015, the GOB with the support of the government of Norway and UNDP, developed the “Roadmap for Developing a National Adaptation Plan for Bangladesh”. The GOB decided to develop this NAP Roadmap as a first step towards developing a full Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan, to contextualize the key components that require elaboration - thematic areas and sectors have been prioritized and include: Water resources, Agriculture (including sub-sectors), Communications, Physical infrastructure, Food and health security, Disaster risk reduction, Livelihoods and Urban habitation.  The NAP Roadmap has customised the steps of the LDC Expert Group guidelines in the context of the needs of Bangladesh and has also prepared a methodological approach based on Bangladesh realities.

This was a useful and essential exercise with activities and results defined for Bangladesh to kick-start the complex NAP process. The gap that remains, however, is to operationalise the next steps in the Roadmap and develop the National Adaptation Plan. This proposal for readiness support to prepare the Bangladesh NAP responds to this gap in line with the technical guidance set out in the Roadmap by proposing to advance the NAP process in a transparent and participatory manner.

In March 2017 a two-week stocktaking for national adaptation planning (SNAP) process was conducted by GIZ in collaboration with UNDP and MoEF, during which national experts were interviewed and asked to assess current and future national adaptation planning capacities based on several success factors. This is another useful input to the operationalisation of the NAP Road Map as it provided a mapping of different initiatives that are relevant to operationalising the NAP. The results of the SNAP process were presented at the National Stakeholder Workshop and the participants participated in a joint review of results. The workshop resulted in a report titled “Stocktaking for Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Process: Achievements, Gaps, and Way Forward” that details the inputs as well as the SNAP process (March 30, 2017). This report will be a resource for NAP formulation moving forward. Subsequently UNDP and GIZ have met several times during preparation of this GCF NAP proposal and inputs and suggestions from GIZ are included.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning.

  • Assess technical and institutional capacity, information, and data gaps at the national, sectoral, and thematic levels for CCA planning
  • Enhance climate change adaptation mandate and institutional coordination mechanisms to support the NAP process
  • Build expanded information and knowledge base with focus on detailed CC risks and vulnerability and interpretation of CCA planning scenarios for the mid- and long-term.

 

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated.

  • Review and prioritize mid-and long-term adaptation options for inclusion in the NAP, national development plans, and other CCA policies, actions, and programs
  • Formulate and communicate a NAP based on identified CCA priorities and in close coordination with plans already in place

 

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels.

  • Integrate CCA into national development and sectoral planning, programming, and budgeting by beginning a pilot effort in at least 3 prioritized sectors
  • Expand training on CCA mainstreaming and development of bankable project skills, specifically for personnel in priority sectors working on CCA programmes

 

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate adaptation investments tracking mechanism set up and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation prepared.

  • Establish standards and protocol to track CCA project financing and investments
  • Identify and prioritize actions, policy, and partnership strategies for prolonged investment in CCA; integrate into a NAP programming and financing strategy that focuses on priority sectors and builds on existing financing mechanisms
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The project results will be monitored and reported annually and evaluated periodically during project implementation to ensure the project effectively achieves its aims. 

Project-level monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken in compliance with UNDP requirements as outlined in the UNDP POPP and UNDP Evaluation Policy. The UNDP Country Office will work with the relevant project stakeholders to ensure UNDP M&E requirements are met in a timely fashion and to high quality standards. Additional mandatory GCF-specific M&E requirements will be undertaken in accordance with relevant GCF policies. 

The project will be audited according to UNDP Financial Regulations and Rules and applicable audit policies on DIM implemented projects.   Additional audits may be undertaken at the request of the GCF.

The following reports will be made available: an initial project Inception Workshop Report; Annual Project Reports; an Independent Mid-term Review (MTR) and an independent Terminal Evaluation (TE) upon completion of all major project outputs and activities.

The project’s final Annual Project Report along with the terminal evaluation (TE) report and corresponding management response will serve as the final project report package, including a reflection on lessons learned and opportunities for scaling up.  

Contacts: 
UNDP
Rohini Kohli
Lead Technical Specialist, NAP Global Support Programme, UNDP Global Environmental Finance Unit
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

How long-term planning can work

The Daily Star
Wednesday 19 September 2018

Bangladesh has a strong tradition of medium term planning through the periodic Five Year Plans, of which we are now in the 7th Plan. At the same time, the country has a large number of professional planners both within the Planning Commission as well as embedded within the Planning Department of every ministry who help develop the sectoral plans for each ministry. This is a strong foundation of human skill and capacity based on which the country can now move towards making longer term plans for different sectors as well as for the country as a whole. There are already a number of sectoral and national plans being developed for longer time scales. These include the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Climate Change goals which all have a time horizon to 2030. Very recently, the government has also approved the development of the Delta Plan which will have a time horizon until 2100. Only the Netherlands (with whose assistance Bangladesh is developing it) has done a plan for such a long time horizon so it will be quite a daunting task for us. At this time horizon, it is likely to be more of an aspirational goal rather than a detailed plan. Finally, we are expecting the prime minister to soon unveil her Vision 2041 for Bangladesh which will be more of a vision for the country than a specific plan. Under the above circumstances, the country will need to modify the standard processes for the Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission in order to think about the longer-term vision and to involve not only all the different parts of the government but also other stakeholders from outside the government. In other words, it will not only have to take a whole-of-government approach but also a whole-of-society approach. The government is well aware of this need and has already put in place a special unit in the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) to monitor the implementation of the SDGs under the leadership of very senior people. They have already started ensuring that each ministry develops its own SDG-related targets and ways of monitoring them. Civil society actors and academics have also set up groups around each of the SDGs for implementation and monitoring progress. In the realm of climate change, the government has already developed the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) as required under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and will be preparing the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) soon.

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The objective of this project is to formulate the Bangladesh National Adaptation Plan with a focus on long term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacity for integration of climate change adaptation in planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional coordination and climate change information and knowledge management for medium- to long-term planning

Outcome 2: Adaptation options appraised and prioritized and National Adaptation Plan formulated

Outcome 3: Climate risk informed decision making tools developed and piloted by planning and budget departments at national and sectoral levels

Outcome 4: Nationally appropriate participatory adaptation investments tracking mechanism and financial plan for mid- and long-term CCA implementation set up

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2021
Civil Society Engagement: 

A national stakeholders workshop on NAP readiness was held on March 7, 2017 to provide input to the proposal for this project. This stakeholders workshop was co-facilitated by MoEF, UNDP, and GIZ and included 70 attendees from many GOB ministries (including MoEF, the Planning Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare), as well as representatives from other UN agencies, donors, civil society organization, and NGOs operating in Bangladesh. In addition, private development companies and university representatives were present and provided inputs.

 

National Adaptation Plans in focus: Lessons from Bangladesh

This briefing on the process to formulate and implement the National Adaptation Plan in Bangladesh considers firstly the country context and the climate change risks. The groundwork for supporting the NAP is considered, covering the policy, planning and budgetary framework, priority adaptation sectors in NDC, climate assessments, the implementation of adaptation actions and plans thus far. The briefing contains a timeline of the Bangladesh NAP process. Challenges, successes and opportunities are also discussed.

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh

Against the backdrop of high incidence of poverty and limited scope of formal employment of the poorer segments of its population, Bangladesh decision-makers have recognized the risks associated with climate change

The country has been allocating budget to climate-change adaptation for over a decade. In 2005, Bangladesh became one of the first two Least Developed Countries to produce a National Adaptation Programme of Action. In 2008–2009, the Government formulated the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, effectively grounding all subsequent national climate change adaptation activities.

With a grant approved by the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund in December 2017, the project Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh ​will enhance the availability of information on climate change, in support of the NAP process; appraise adaptation options, including ecosystem and social costs and benefits; and build institutional capacity for effective integration of climate change into national budgeting and fiscal decision-making.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 24.056496493275)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5,700,000 grant via the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$17,700,000 ($15 million Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief of Bangladesh; $2.7 million UNDP);
Project Details: 


Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Adviser
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Civil Society Engagement: 


Enhancing Adaptive Capacities of Coastal Communities, especially Women, to Cope with Climate Change-Induced Salinity in Bangladesh

Lead by the Bangladesh Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, this project focuses on strengthening the adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women and adolescent girls, to cope with impacts of climate change-induced salinity on their livelihoods and water security.

The 6-year project (2018-2024) focuses on the Southwestern coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira, both of which frequently experience cyclones and tidal flooding and experience severe drinking water scarcity due to salinity.

Under the project, communities will be empowered as ‘change-agents’ to plan, implement, and manage resilient livelihoods and drinking water solutions.

The project will promote a paradigm shift away from a focus on short-term responses and technology-led interventions towards community-centric solutions that build ownership and capacities across multiple stakeholders, to sustain and scale-up adaptive responses to safeguard livelihoods and water security.

An estimated 719,229 people (about 245,516 directly and 473,713 indirectly) are set to benefit.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (91.40624997644 24.696934228745)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
An estimated 719,229 people (about 245,516 directly and 473,713 indirectly) are set to benefit from this project.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$32.98 million total financing. $24.98 million from Green Climate Fund
Co-Financing Total: 
US$8 million from the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs
Project Details: 

Under three inter-related outputs, the project will implement the following:

Output 1. Climate-resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities (responsible party for execution of the activities is DWA, department of Ministry of Women and Children Affairs)

Activity 1.1 Enterprise- and community-based implementation of climate-resilient livelihoods for women

Activity 1.2 Strengthened climate-resilient value-chains and market linkages for alternative, resilient livelihoods

Activity 1.3 Community-based monitoring and last-mile dissemination of early warnings for climate-risk informed, adaptive management of resilient livelihoods

Output 2. Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions (responsible party for execution of the activities is the Department of Public Health Engineering)

Activity 2.1 Participatory, site-specific mapping, beneficiary selection, and mobilization of community-based management structures for climate-resilient drinking water solutions

Activity 2.2 Implementation of climate-resilient drinking water solutions (at HH, community, and institutional scales)

Activity 2.3 Community-based, climate-risk informed Operation & Maintenance (O&M) and management of the resilient drinking water solutions

Output 3. Strengthened institutional capacities, knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security (responsible parties for execution of the activities are DWA and Department of Public Health Engineering)

Activity 3.1 Strengthen the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs’ technical and coordination capacities for design and implementation of gender-responsive, climate-resilient coastal livelihoods

Activity 3.2 Strengthen DPHE capacities for climate-risk informed innovation and management of drinking water solutions across the Southwest coast

Activity 3.3. Establish knowledge management, evidence-based learning, and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) mechanisms to promote long-term, adaptive capacities of coastal communities

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Overall, the project will benefit 719,229 direct and indirect beneficiaries in vulnerable coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira (about 16.25 per cent of the total population of the two districts) with 245,516 people directly benefiting from the project interventions in building resilience across water and livelihoods through household, community, government, and partner capacities.

The interventions will provide indirect benefits to 473,713 people to the nearby communities in the targeted Wards and other unions in the 5 Upazilas through integration of climate change concerns into planning and implementation of the mandated agencies as well as the pathways established for replication to other communities through knowledge and learning mechanisms.

The primary measurable benefits that will be realized include:

  • 25, 425 women will directly benefit from the interventions to switch to (or phase in) climate-resilient livelihoods with associated 500 people benefiting from capacity building and support to value-chain and market actors.
  • 245, 516 people will benefit from timely, gender-responsive early warning information and climate risk reduction strategies, facilitated through the women and girl volunteer groups established by the project at each of the targeted wards.
  • 68, 327 females and 67, 783 males  will benefit through year-round access to safe and reliable drinking water improving their health and safety, and significantly decreasing the unpaid time burden of women in regards of water collection and thereby creating opportunities for education and/or enhanced income generation.
  • 525 government staff will benefit from improved capacities for climate-risk informed planning and implementation of resilient solutions for water and livelihood security.
  • The project support to women groups for climate resilient livelihoods options in aquaculture and agriculture yields increased income benefits and enables participation in the formal economy, for a total expected increase in income of USD15 million (over the full life of the project). By providing an alternate higher quality source of water, salt intake by the population in the target communities will substantially decrease deaths and averting quality adjusted life years (the rainwater harvesting technologies have sufficient capacity to provide for basic drinking water needs even in times of low precipitation), for net benefits measuring US$4 million.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

A project implementation report will be prepared for each year of project implementation. The annual report will be shared with the Project Board and other stakeholders.

An independent mid-term review process will be undertaken and the findings and responses outlined in the management response will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s duration.

An independent terminal evaluation will take place no later than three months prior to operational closure of the project. 

The UNDP Country Office will retain all M&E records for this project for up to seven years after project financial closure in order to support ex-post evaluations.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation arrangements will comply with the relevant GCF policies and Accreditation Master Agreement signed between GCF and UNDP.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Advisor - Climate Change Adaptation, UNDP
UNDP
Srilata Kammila
Regional Technical Advisor - Climate Change Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

'Bangladesh to empower women and girls in the face of increasing climate impacts' - UNDP Bangladesh, February 28 2018.  The world's largest multilateral fund for climate change action, the Green Climate Fund, has approved almost US$25 million in grant funding in support of Bangladesh’s efforts to build the adaptive capacities of vulnerable coastal communities. With a focus on women and adolescent girls, a new 6-year project is set to benefit 700,000 people living in disaster-prone southwestern districts.

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
Lead by the Bangladesh Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, this project focuses on strengthening the adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women and adolescent girls, to cope with impacts of climate change-induced salinity on their livelihoods and water security. The 6-year project (2018-2024) focuses on the Southwestern coastal districts of Khulna and Satkhira, both of which frequently experience cyclones and tidal flooding and experience severe drinking water scarcity due to salinity. Under the project, communities will be empowered as ‘change-agents’ to plan, implement, and manage resilient livelihoods and drinking water solutions.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Climate resilient livelihoods, focusing on women, for enhanced adaptive capacities of coastal agricultural communities

Output 2: Gender-responsive access to year-round, safe and reliable climate-resilient drinking water solutions

Output 3: Strengthened institutional capacities knowledge and learning for climate-risk informed management of livelihoods and drinking water security

Project Dates: 
2018 to 2024
Civil Society Engagement: 

The project was designed through extensive stakeholder consultations, including with civil society, bi-lateral donors, and communities and contributes towards the Government of Bangladesh's priorities outlined in the country's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and climate change strategies.

Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) were consulted with the objective of gathering feedback, particularly on gender considerations and gender empowerment strategies in Bangladesh, as well as on the full design of the project and the proposed activities, including the exit strategy.

 

Datasets on Climate Change Adaptation

In an effort to connect stakeholders with new data on climate change adaptation actions in Africa and Asia, UNDP is partnering with various sectors of academia, civil society and the private sector to share and analyze datasets gathered through UNDP-supported initiatives across the globe. These datasets will be made available upon request, as a new sharing platform is being developed.

This new initiative is in its nascent stage. Working with academics from leading institutions such as Harvard and Yale, along with partner governments, civil society, think tanks and private-sector partners, UNDP is building a proof of concept and working model to share data and improve analysis.

The overall goal is simple: evidence-based decision-making has the potential to significantly improve the impact of global investments in climate actions. To learn more about the data available and the coalition that is currently forming, please sign up below.

About the data available

Current datasets are available from Africa and Asia. These datasets were collected through UNDP-supported initiatives on the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in Asia (ECCA) and Climate Information and Early Warning Systems Projects in Africa.

Household surveys were conducted in various countries and will be made available for download and analysis. Future datasets will also be shared with this coalition.

Data Collection and Sampling Methods: 

ECCA Asia

The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team with 300 household surveys. Datasets are available from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:

  1. Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
  2. Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
  3. Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
  4. Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
  6. Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.

 

Climate Information and Early Warnings Africa

In Africa datasets on climate information and early warnings were gathered from 2000 household surveys. The data were collected between 2015 and 2016 by a national team. Datasets are currently being cleaned, and will be available from Burkina Faso, Liberia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.  

The questionnaire was divided into 4 main parts:

  1. Hazard identification by community and household. This section provided information on the different hazards prioritized by communities. This will feed into the EWS system to help target/provide information that will be useful for project delivery.
  2. Past experience on EWS, climate change, communications and responses. This section gathered data that that can be used to evaluate the current EWS system in the countries.
  3. Household information. This section provides detailed information on the kind of household and gender roles and basic infrastructure availability
  4. Information to estimate outcomes of interest – components of farmer (crop and livestock) and fishers revenue, cost and profit: depending on the kind of agent. This section provides data on labor available to the household, type of crops grown if a farmer, the growing season to differentiate different crops and value of EWS information, fertilizer use to estimate costs and inputs, irrigation use and cost, machinery, and similar information for livestock farmers.
  5. GPS locations for geo-spatial information and analysis. Spatial variation is a valuable instrument to help with identification of control and treated groups.

 

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Datasets: 
ECCA Bangladesh
A total of 360 farm households were interviewed for this study drawn from 7 provinces. Of the sampled households, 87% practised irrigated agriculture while 13% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 7.10 acres of land in total, with those practicing rainfed farming owning larger parcels (average 8.99 acres) relative to those practicing irrigated farming (average 6.81 acres).
ECCA Indonesia
The data collection was conducted in Brantas River Basin in East Java district as agriculture center in Indonesia, particularly in villages in Batu City (> 100 m above sea level) and Mojokerto District (< 45 m above sea level). In each location, 100 farm households were interviewed based on purposive sampling by using size of farmland as selection criteria. The households in the survey reported having about 27 years of farming experience ranging from 1 to 70 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 9 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (68%) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 32% have a computer and 20% have access to the Internet.
ECCA Sri Lanka
Three hundred and twenty-one households were interviewed spanning the agro-ecological zones of the country. About 40% of the sample is from the Central Province of the country while the rest are distributed across the other provinces including the North west and Uva provinces that are about 14% of the sample. The majority of the households in the survey reported having about 20 years of farming experience, with a minimum of four years and a maximum of 60 years. On average, each household consisted of five people (minimum four, max 16) with 10 years of education. The majority (88 percent) of the respondents owned a telephone, while 33 percent had a computer, 18 percent of which had access to the Internet.
ECCA Thailand
A total of 395 farm households were interviewed, drawn from 18 provinces. Of the sampled households, 58% practised irrigated agriculture while 42% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 15.18 acres of land in total, with those practicing irrigated farming owning larger parcels (average 18.89 acres) relative to those practicing rainfed farming (average 10.26 acres).
ECCA Viet Nam
Survey locations were selected to cover each of the ago-ecological zones present across Viet Nam in the context of agriculture production. In each location, the Viet Nam country team surveyed 18 households, with a total of 342 surveyed households. Out of the 342 surveyed households, the team obtained 323 usable questionnaires, of which 306 cover households with cultivation activities. The households in the survey have about 27 years of farming experience ranging from one year to 60 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 7.5 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (96 per cent) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 20 per cent have a computer and 15 per cent have access to the Internet. On average, the respondents owned 7.4 acres of land (2.96 ha) with the majority of planted crops in two seasons, while a few planted all the three seasons. The average annual planted area across the three seasons is 5.5 acres (Figure 11), with 2 acres left fallow, on average. A third of the farmers have less than 2 acres of planted area, while nearly 15 per cent of farmers planted more than 10 acres.
Burkina Faso CI/EWS
Coming soon.
Country: 
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Theme: 
Agriculture/Food Security
Tools: 
Title: 
Economics of Adaptation Toolkit
Title: 
Survey Questionnaire
Description: 
Countries Conducting Survey: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.