Bangladesh

 

Bangladesh remains one of the world’s poorest and most densely populated countries despite its considerable development gains in the past several decades, including in the areas of gender parity, education, and infant and maternal health (MEF, 2009).  Low economic strength, inadequate infrastructure, low level of social development, lack of institutional capacity, and a higher dependency on the natural resource base makes Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to climate stimuli (including both variability as well as extreme events). Recognizing these vulnerabilities, Bangladesh has developed many adaptation measures to address adverse effects of climate change based on existing coping mechanisms and practices.
 
Bangladesh, except for the hilly regions in the northeast and southeast and terrace land in northwest and central zones, is one of the largest deltas in the world, formed by the dense network of the distributaries of the mighty rivers namely the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. The country is located between 20°34’ to 26°38’ north latitude and 88°01’ to 92°42’ east longitude. The total land area is 147,570 sq. km. and consists mostly of low and flat land. A network of more than 230 major rivers with their tributaries and distributaries crisscross the country. It has a population of about 131 million (BBS, 2002) with very low per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$ 351 per annum (UNDP, 2004). Of this, just about a quarter was in the urban areas including the metropolitan cities . The country’s economy is primarily agricultural, and the majority of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods(USDS, 2010). The country’s main crops are rice and jute, along with maize, vegetables and tea.
 
Population of the country has been growing fast in the sixties and the seventies. The inter-census growth rates had been rising and then falling over the last four decades or so. The falling population growth rate had been possible due to a sharp decline in the total fertility rate which had fallen from 6.3 per woman of reproductive age (15-49) in 1975 to 3.0 by 2004 (NIPORT and Mitra and Associate: 2005). For the future under the assumed rates for this report, the expected population for the year 2030 is 186 million, 61 million in the urban and the rest 125 million in the rural areas. Most people, live in the rural areas. On the other hand, urbanization is growing fast in the country. Between 1961 and 1974, the rate of growth in urban population had been 6.7 % per annum. Between 1974 and 1981 it shot up further to 10.7 % per annum. Since then the rate has fallen, but between 1991 and 2001 it was 3.15 % which is just double the rate of overall population growth. The following section is found in the Meister Consultants Group study: *Floating Houses and Mosquito Nets: Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Around the World*

Related Content

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh

The United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Bangladesh to develop a project proposal for a new US$6.3 million grant proposal for the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund. The proposed "Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Sustainable Development Pathways of Bangladesh" project will include US$17.4 million in co-financing. The project looks to establish climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making, appraise, prioritize and implement adaptions options for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors, and establish requisite institutional and planning capacities  to integrate climate change adaptation into relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at the national and sub-national levels.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.351562476629 24.056496493275)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$6.3 million (proposed GEF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$17.7 million (proposed co-financing)
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Project Status: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Climate and socio-economic information databases and functional national and sub-national systems established to inform and guide climate-resilient policy and decision-making

Outcome 2 - Adaptation options including for vulnerable agro-ecological regions, population groups and sectors are appraised, costed, prioritized and implemented

Outcome 3 - Required institutional and planning capacities established to integrate climate change adaptation in relevant budgeting, fiscal, planning and social protection frameworks at national and sub-national levels

Datasets: Economics of Climate Change Adaptation

The datasets contained on this page were collected through the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme (ECCA), 2013-2015.

Household surveys were conducted in various countries as part of the ECCA Programme and were made available here for download and analysis.

Data Collection and Sampling Methods: 

The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:

  1. Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
  2. Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
  3. Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
  4. Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
  6. Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
Datasets: 
ECCA Bangladesh
A total of 360 farm households were interviewed for this study drawn from 7 provinces. Of the sampled households, 87% practised irrigated agriculture while 13% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 7.10 acres of land in total, with those practicing rainfed farming owning larger parcels (average 8.99 acres) relative to those practicing irrigated farming (average 6.81 acres).
ECCA Indonesia
The data collection was conducted in Brantas River Basin in East Java district as agriculture center in Indonesia, particularly in villages in Batu City (> 100 m above sea level) and Mojokerto District (< 45 m above sea level). In each location, 100 farm households were interviewed based on purposive sampling by using size of farmland as selection criteria. The households in the survey reported having about 27 years of farming experience ranging from 1 to 70 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 9 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (68%) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 32% have a computer and 20% have access to the Internet.
ECCA Sri Lanka
Three hundred and twenty-one households were interviewed spanning the agro-ecological zones of the country. About 40% of the sample is from the Central Province of the country while the rest are distributed across the other provinces including the North west and Uva provinces that are about 14% of the sample. The majority of the households in the survey reported having about 20 years of farming experience, with a minimum of four years and a maximum of 60 years. On average, each household consisted of five people (minimum four, max 16) with 10 years of education. The majority (88 percent) of the respondents owned a telephone, while 33 percent had a computer, 18 percent of which had access to the Internet.
ECCA Thailand
A total of 395 farm households were interviewed, drawn from 18 provinces. Of the sampled households, 58% practised irrigated agriculture while 42% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 15.18 acres of land in total, with those practicing irrigated farming owning larger parcels (average 18.89 acres) relative to those practicing rainfed farming (average 10.26 acres).
ECCA Viet Nam
Survey locations were selected to cover each of the ago-ecological zones present across Viet Nam in the context of agriculture production. In each location, the Viet Nam country team surveyed 18 households, with a total of 342 surveyed households. Out of the 342 surveyed households, the team obtained 323 usable questionnaires, of which 306 cover households with cultivation activities. The households in the survey have about 27 years of farming experience ranging from one year to 60 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 7.5 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (96 per cent) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 20 per cent have a computer and 15 per cent have access to the Internet. On average, the respondents owned 7.4 acres of land (2.96 ha) with the majority of planted crops in two seasons, while a few planted all the three seasons. The average annual planted area across the three seasons is 5.5 acres (Figure 11), with 2 acres left fallow, on average. A third of the farmers have less than 2 acres of planted area, while nearly 15 per cent of farmers planted more than 10 acres.
Country: 
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Theme: 
Agriculture/Food Security
Tools: 
Title: 
Economics of Adaptation Toolkit
Title: 
Survey Questionnaire
Description: 
Countries Conducting Survey: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

Supporting Bangladesh to advance their NAP process

Status of assistance to Bangladesh for their NAP process:

  • With support from Norway, a National NAP road map has been produced by a team of national experts in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and UNDP. Bangladesh has subsequently applied for LDCF funding through UNDP support to facilitate the implementation of this road map. The GSP provided a review for this road-map. 
  • Delegates from Bangladesh attended the NAP-GSP Regional Training Workshop for Asian LDCs in February 2014 - in which a NAP timeline schedule was formulated by the Bangladesh country team (view below).
  • NAP-GSP is coordinating closely with the UNDP Bangladesh Country Office, which is managing a US $40,000 grant from Norway Government to kick-start a roadmap for NAP. This  national consultative initiative for developing a NAP road-map is currently underway.
  • The ECCA programme is Bangladesh is potentially an important building block for NAP and so is the work for mainstreaming environment and climate in national processes through PEI including the CPEIR.

 

> More NAP-GSP countries

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (90.395507794515 23.695035827151)
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 

Bangladesh overview NAP timeline

The timeline shows Bangladesh's NAP-related activities which government ministries could undertake using existing arrangements (dark blue), NAP-GSP support to supplement NAP country activities (light blue), and NAP activities that Bangladesh could potentially undertake with external support (red):

> More NAP-GSP countries

Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

With the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process driving the climate change adaptation agenda, Bangladesh is forging ahead – setting a precedent for other least developed countries (LDCs) and to other countries developing NAPs. In Bangladesh, the process of planning for a climate resilient future is already well underway, generating vital impetus for increasing action on NAPs.

The imperative for adaptation in Bangladesh is devastatingly apparent. Already the country is highly vulnerable to extreme climatic events, which are expected to become more severe as a result of climate change. Frequent floods, cyclones and tropical storms disastrously impact the lives and livelihoods of communities in extremely fragile and low lying coastal zones, whilst droughts blight the population of the arid and semi-arid north western region. Within the next 50 years, over 20 million people could be displaced and become ‘climate change refugees’, if sea and salinity levels rise in Bangladesh .

“We cannot escape the destructive effects of a changing climate,” said Mr. Quzi Munirul Islam Deputy Chief (Planning) Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF), Government of Bangladesh. “We have no choice but to adapt - we must adapt for the survival of our people.”

The climate change challenge in Bangladesh threatens to undermine the significant advancements achieved through more than more than two decades of development – which has seen a reduction in extreme poverty and increasing self-sufficiency in the production of staple food crops such as rice. The effects of climate change for all developing countries, and particularly LDCs mean that effective, sector-targeted and long term adaptation strategies are urgently required.

“Climate change is no longer only an environmental issue; it is a development issue,” said Dr Hasan Mahmud, MOEF, Government of Bangladesh . “We have invested billions in adaptation measures such as flood management schemes, coastal embankments, cyclone shelters and others. However, the journey is far from being over.” 

This is the rationale for the development of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) for all developing countries, following the Cancun Adaptation Framework adopted at COP16 in 2010. The development of the NAP Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) is supported by a large consortium comprising; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), World Health Organization (WHO), Global Water Partnership (GWP), The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

The NAP-GSP is now working to assess the requirements of LDCs including Bangladesh which have requested support, to develop robust and effective processes to integrate adaptation into national planning at all levels.

The Government of Bangladesh has been quick to forge ahead with the development of the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP). The BCCSAP is now forming a significant foundation for Bangladesh’s ongoing activities. The plan is being implemented in six programme areas: food security, social protection and health, disaster management; resilient infrastructure; knowledge development; mitigation and low-carbon development; and capacity building and institutional strengthening.

“The BCCSAP process has already highlighted access points where support for adaptation is required,” said Mr. Sultan Ahmed, Director of Natural Resource Management, Department of Environment, Government of Bangladesh. “We have significant knowledge and expertise in Bangladesh, so we know best how to identify our country’s adaption needs. But there is a significant requirement for financing the process of consolidating our knowledge base, unifying associated planning processes and implementing our plans at all levels and within all relevant sectors.”

“The UN system is currently engaged with the Ministry of Environment & Forests to prepare the grounds for the NAP process in Bangladesh,” said Md. Tarik-ul-Islam, Assistant Country Director, Climate Change, Environment and Disaster Cluster, UNDP – Bangladesh. “We plan to support key stakeholders to develop a national framework and strategy for the NAP initiative in Bangladesh in the light of COP decisions and reflecting Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. This framework will help establish a country-driven process to integrate climate change adaptation concerns into existing development planning processes, in an inclusive and participatory way, according to Bangladeshi circumstances, given the need for medium- and longer-term strategic responses on adaptation.”

Recently, the Government of Norway granted USD 40,000 to Bangladesh to develop this framework strategy. Government consultations are underway to assign a focal point and key leaders to carry the process forward. The Government of Bangladesh have requested support from the NAP-GSP to provide the necessary technical assistance and targeted training to officials. In light of similar requests from other countries, an upcoming regional consultation between Asian LDCs set for December 2013 in Siem Reap, Cambodia, will be used as a platform to deliver the required training. This regional consultation represents a key opportunity to share lessons and best practices on advancing NAPs.

NAP-GSP support for Bangladesh builds on a solid foundation of ongoing initiatives for mainstreaming climate change into national planning. Already, there is a broad portfolio of adaptation interventions in Bangladesh, supported by an array of development and funding partners. UNDP and UNEP are currently supporting Bangladesh on adaptation with financing from the GEF’s Least Developed Countries Fund. Additional initiatives include the UNEP/UNDP Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI), and the World Bank Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), alongside those from FAO, IFAD and Asian Development Bank.

The fact that Bangladesh is already undertaking a national adaptation planning process, and is collaborating with strong adaptation partners, puts the country ahead of other LDCs. This provides a significant opportunity for Bangladesh to share valuable experience and knowledge with other LDCs – as well as with many other countries undertaking the NAP process.

More NAP-GSP countries

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GEF SPA CBA Country Programme Report (2008-2012) - Bangladesh

The country programme report is a consolidated report for all activities and outcomes of the GEF SPA Community-Based Adaptation Project.

Reporting period is from 2008 to 2102.

Bangladesh - CCCD Project Identification Form

Project Identification form for the project "National Capacity Development for implementing Rio Conventions through Environmental Governance in Bangladesh”.