Turkmenistan is located in the southern part of Central Asia between 35o08’ and 42o 48’ N and 52o 27’ and 66o 41’ E. It is approximately 488.1 thousand square kilometres. Its diverse natural conditions include three main types of landscape: deserts, oases and mountains. However, the majority of the territory is desert, the Karakum desert occupies approximately 80 per cent of the whole country, and has no rivers or surface water flows (World Bank, 2010). The country is richly endowed with hydrocarbons; its recoverable natural gas reserves rank fourth in the world. It also has substantial proven oil reserves and an extensive irrigation system for cotton and wheat, the country’s principal crops. There are also large potassium and salt deposits, many other minerals, iodine and bromide thermal waters. Its main exports include natural gas, oil and oil products, electricity and textile products.
Turkmenistan is vulnerable to climate change due to moisture deficiency. Droughts and higher temperatures are the two limiting factors for water development, agriculture and forestry. The rivers of the country are very important for irrigation; however, their uneven distribution over the country causes a shortage of water available for this purpose, especially in the south and west (Akmuradov, 2006; UNDP, 2009). Climate change is likely to reduce the volume of water available for irrigation and consequently limit the amount of crops produced. This is a threat to food security for the growing population in Turkmenistan. The people of Turkmenistan are also vulnerable to sharp rises in temperature which cause heat stress. It is a dry climate with minimal rainfall and a high percentage of solar days. Overall, Turkmenistan faces significant challenges in improving living standards by addressing poverty and current environmental stresses, including water availability. It is vulnerable to current climatic conditions due to frequent droughts and extreme weather conditions. As well, it has limited capacity to forecast weather and to manage and adapt to the climatic changes (Akmuradov, 2006). Furthermore, as agriculture accounts for about 22 per cent of Turkmenistan’s Gross Domestic Product and is a source of livelihood for more than half of the population, the consequences of climate change for this sector could significantly affect the development of the country and its people (UNDP, 2009).
Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is a water stressed country with one of the harshest climates in the Central Asian region. Climate change modeling indicates significant increases in temperature and reduction in rainfall. This will lead to a decrease in total volume of water availability that is likely to have a profound impact on agricultural production systems and local farmers. The long-term solution envisaged by the Government of Turkmenistan is to mainstream climate change adaptation in order to secure climate resilient livelihoods in agricultural communities. To help the Government meet this objective, the "Supporting Climate Resilient Livelihoods in Agricultural Communities in Drought-Prone Areas of Turkmenistan" project will support three inte-related components, namely (i) improving climate-related socio-economic outcomes in agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through community-based adaptation solutions; (ii) mainstreaming climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy; and (iii) strengthening national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring in the country.
By strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of over 40,000 to 50,000 persons (8,000 to 10,000 households) among the pilot daikhan and livestock associations in the Lebap and Dashoguz target regions, the project will help farmers improve the productivity of their farm operations, be better prepared for increasing water scarcity and introduce alternative income sources.
The project will develop and demonstrate a matrix of climate adaptation solutions for further replication outside of the two velayats. It will focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities, which are engaged in non-state agriculture and livestock management and which are unlikely to benefit from government ́s large-scale water supply and storage infrastructure.
The project seeks to support innovation in the project through the testing, demonstration and replication of adaptation practices in the following areas: (i) participatory planning processes that integrates adaptation into agricultural and water investments at the local level; (ii) integration of adaptation approaches at the sectoral policy level in agriculture and waters sectors; (iii) mainstreaming adaptation into the national planning and budget allocation process; (iv) technological innovations for efficient water use, soil and water conservation and adaptive agricultural practices and crop practices; and (v) enhanced responsibilities for water management at the diakhan association level.
The project will be carried out under a National Implementation Modality (NIM). UNDP will act as a senior supplier and the UNDP country office will provide support services to the project at the request of the Ministry of Nature Protection. As a national partner the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan will oversee all aspects of project implementation. Other national partners are Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On quarterly basis, Project Management Unit will organize meetings with stakeholders, such as the main farmer and livestock associations, to discuss achievements, challenges faced, corrective steps taken and future corrective actions needed for the implementation of planned activities.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions. Achievement of Outcome 1 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 1.1: Participatory vulnerability and adaptation assessments in selected communities to identify priority adaptation solutions;
Output 1.2: Development and implementation of local gender sensitive adaptation plans;
Output 1.3: Implementation of innovations focused on providing additional income and supporting climate UNDP Environmental Finance Services Page 30 resilient livelihoods;
Output 1.4: Participatory mechanisms for implementing and monitoring changes in community climate resilience;
Output 1.5: Dissemination and up-scaling of successful adaptation measures.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy. Achievement of Outcome 2 is supported through the following outputs:
Ouput 2.1: Capacity development for agriculture and water sector enabling effective adaptation planning with gender considerations;
Ouput 2.2: Guidelines to water and agriculture sector ministries on using gender disaggregated data in planning, conducting specific assessments on the needs of women and using these in sector adaptation planning and budgeting;
Ouput 2.3: Regulation and guidelines for inclusion of adaptation in national and local development planning and budgeting developed and linked to sector based planning, coordination and monitoring processes;
Ouput 2.4: Institutional and legal mechanisms for water resource management integrate key principles of efficient use and climate risk management.
Ouput 2.5: National sectoral planning and rural development investments take account of and address climate change related risks.
Ouput 2.6: Ecosystem services valued and potential impacts of climate change on natural pastures assessed to inform pasture management decision-making
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring. Achievement of Outcome 3 is supported through the following outputs:
Output 3.1: Mechanism for iterative monitoring, reporting and verification of implementation of the mainstreamed adaptation actions established.
Output 3.2: Vulnerability/resilience indicators and protocols for gender-disaggregated data collection, storage, processing and use in planning and decision-making.
Output 3.3: Actions to build the evidence base for robust decision making implemented.
Output 3.4: Communication and outreach strategy to support the medium and long-term adaptation planning of NEPAAM developed and implemented.
Outcome 1: Improved climate related socio-economic outcomes in the targeted agricultural communities in Lebap and Dashoguz velayats through the implementation of community-based adaptation solutions.
Outcome 2: Mainstreamed climate adaptation measures in agricultural and water sector development strategy and policy.
Outcome 3: Strengthened national capacity for iterative climate change adaptation planning, implementation and monitoring.
Promoting climate-resilient farming in Turkmenistan. With funding from the Adaptation Fund and championed by the Government of Turkmenistan, UNDP and the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan are working together to implement the Addressing climate change risks to farming systems in Turkmenistan at the national and community level project.
Introduction of land levelling technology to address climate change in the project region Sakarchaga
The joint project AF/UNDP/MNP “Addressing climate change risks to farming system in Turkmenistan at national and local levels” continue activities to introduce adaptation measures aimed to address sustainable water management in the context of climate change. In Sakarchaga project region (oasis area) the evenly flatted field surface - is of main factors in ensuring the effective use of fertilizers, land, water and energy resources and obtaining high yields of major crops.
Adaptation Technologies 101: Intro to climate resilient use of water resources by local communities in Turkmenistan
This success story represents best practice in the Sakarchaga project region.
UNDP facilitates cooperation between experts from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan on sustainable land and water management in the context of climate change
A delegation of 12 experts from the Republic of Kazakhstan were in Turkmenistan to exchange experience with Turkmen colleagues in the framework of a climate change adaptation action run by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The pilot region of Sakarchaga (oasis zone) of the AF/UNDP/MNP “Addressing climate change risks to farming system in Turkmenistan at national and local levels” has just recently embarked on the implementation of yet another set of adaptation measures, which had been designed based on the needs of the local communities.
Press Release (ENG) 26 June 2014: Strengthening legal framework for rational use of water resources and community-level water management
Ashgabat, 26 June 2014 – Within the framework of the AF/UNDP/MNP project on “Addressing climate change risks to farming system in Turkmenistan, at the national and local levels”, local experts discussed proposals and recommendations for improving the legal framework on the use and management of water resources and introducing amendments to the law of Turkmenistan “On Farmers’ Associations”.
Press Release (RU) 26 June 2014: Укрепление правовых основ рационального использования и управления водными ресурсами на уровне местных сообществ
Ашхабад, 26 июня 2014 года – в рамках проекта АФ/ПРООН/МОПТ: «Реагирование на риски, связанные с изменением климата, на систему фермерского хозяйства в Туркменистане на национальном и местном уровнях» местные эксперты провели обсуждения предложений и рекомендаций по совершенствованию правовых основ в сфере использования и управления водными ресурсами и внесение изменений и дополнений в закон Туркменистана «О дайханских объединениях».
Press Release (ENG) 14 July 2014: Strengthening legal framework for rational use of water resources and community-level water management
Ashgabat, 14 July 2014 – Within the framework of the AF/UNDP/MNP project on “Addressing climate change risks to farming system in Turkmenistan, at the national and local levels”, local experts discussed proposals and recommendations for improving the legal framework on the use and management of water resources and introducing amendments to the law of Turkmenistan “On Farmers’ Associations”.