Comoros

 

The Union of the Comoros is an archipelago composed of four islands which are, from East to West: Mayotte (370 sq km), Anjouan (424 sq km), Mohéli (290 sq km) and Grand-Comoro (1148 sq km). In spite of the accession of the country to international sovereignty in 1975, Mayotte is still under French rule. Therefore, this document refers to the three islands only.

The country is located at the northern entry of the Mozambique Channel between Madagascar and the Eastern coast of Africa, thus occupying a strategic position. The islands are separated from deep sub marine channels. The total area of the three islands, which form the Union of the Comoros, is 1862 sq km.

The Comoro archipelago is exclusively of volcanic origin. On the geo-chronological plan, the latest information on the age of the three islands is respectively as follows: 1.49, 0.48, 0.36 millions years (Ma) for Mayotte, Mohéli and Anjouan (Armstrong, 1972: Emerick and Duncan, 1982, 1983: Nougier and al, 1986) and 0, 13 Ma for Grand-Comoro (Emerick and Duncan, 1982, 1983). The island of Grand Comoro is composed of two volcano shields represented by the massif of the Northern Grille in the North and the massif of the Karthala in the South. The latter is still active. The 1977 eruption affected the village of "Singani" in the southwest of the island. The latest eruption dates back to November 2005.

The volcanoes that constitute the islands of Mohéli and Anjouan have reached a more advanced maturation stage and are deeply eroded. Mayotte presents a more advanced evolution stage, which is still characterized by erosion and a very intense alteration. The three islands are affected by two systems of fracture, towards North-West/South-East and North- South. At the local level, as in Anjouan and Mohéli, some signs of subsidence can be noted in Foumbouni and Malé in the Southeast, the oldest risen part of Grand-Comoro. Close to Mitsamiouli in the North-West of Grand-Comoro and Malé, the reef is splitting to give birth to the beginning of a reef-barrier.

The coastal and marine environment offers a great variety in its morphology (low coasts, cliffs, islets, platinum…) and in its nature (lavas, white or black sand beaches, stones, blocks, coral cliffs). Generally speaking, the continental plateau (900 sq km) is highly reduced in the west of the archipelago where the seabeds have suddenly reached depths higher to 3000 meters due to the existence of a North-South rift along the Mozambique Channel. The narrow plateau accounts for the low development of coral reefs. In the East, the seabeds are less deep and are the extension of the Madagascar continental plateau.

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ProDoc - Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster

Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster

Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster

The "Strengthening Comoros Resilience Against Climate Change and Variability Related Disaster" project will work to strengthen institutional, policy and regulatory frameworks to integrate climate and disaster risks into planning, improve knowledge and understanding of key climate drivers and natural disasters, and strengthen community resilience to climate-induced disaster risks. UNDP is currently working with the Government of Comoros to develop the project proposal for a US$8.5 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Countries Fund.

The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate-related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long-term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.409728953023 -11.7745193387)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.5 million proposed GEF LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$36.3 million (UNDP US$1.6 million grant, UNIDSR US$1 million grant, PASDTR US$20 million grant, Qatar and Chinese US$14.5 million frant for medical facilities, ICO Natural Risks Management Project US$400,000)
Project Details: 

Comoros is highly vulnerable to natural disasters (floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami) and epidemics including cholera, dengue and chikungunya. In the last two decades in Comoros, 17 natural disasters were recorded with 148 deaths and more than 400,000 people affected. The biggest disaster was in 2005 when 245,000 people were affected by a volcanic eruption.

In addition, torrential rains, storms and floods have affected more than 117,000 people in the last two decades. Climate projections show that the situation faced by the Comoros in recent years could worsen. According to the IPCC, through projections of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM), the climate change scenarios for small islands in the Indian Ocean from 2040 to 2069 indicate an increase of the average annual rainfall to 3.1% (+ or -0.45%) .

The sea- level rise is expected to reach 20 cm by 2050 . Weather and climate extreme events such as cyclones, tsunamis are also expected to increase in frequency and intensity in the future. Therefore, it is likely that future tropical cyclones would gain intensity, that heavy rainfall and floods would be more intense during the hot season, that on the opposite droughts would be more intense during dry season and that land erosion would be exacerbated.

Among the factors of the Comorian populations’ vulnerability to natural disasters one can note the following:

  • Natural factors: the insularity, the rugged topography with many steep slopes, combined with the natural and soil triggered waterproofing (lava flow) stimulate the runoff strength of rainwater, causing multiple erosions and flooding and leading to destruction of villages.
  • Land-use planning: housing is often temporary and under precarious and anarchical conditions. The vulnerability of some areas is more acute because of their proximity to the sea that threatens to engulf houses built too close to the eroding coast, either as a result of rainfall, tides or because of sand removal used as construction material.
  • Poor transport networks: transport networks are poor and were built without taking in account climate-induced disaster risks. The Union of the Comoros road network comprises 800 km of roads, of which approximately 50% is classified as in “good and fair” condition and almost 30% in “bad and very bad” by the National Roads and Road Transport Office (DNRTR). In several areas the road network is either partially or totally degraded. This situation makes road networks very vulnerable and easily degraded and/or not fully operational in the event of climate induced disasters and this contributes to increased vulnerability of the Comorian communities. In disaster situation they are cut off from health infrastructure and food supply including drinking water and hardly access to emergency relief.
  • Weak socio-economic base of the community contributes a great deal to increase their vulnerability. The strengthening of the resilience of the Comorian communities to climate related natural disasters will in a long term require a profound change in the current practices of development planning and implementation. This will first require greater awareness of decision makers and a better understanding of medium- to long- term climate change risks. This will also require that human settlements, community basic infrastructure and economic development infrastructure be made more resilient to disasters induced by climate change through designing and implementation of effective prevention against natural disasters and the integration of climate change and disaster risk management in the development.
Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Rene Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Systemic and institutional capacities for the long -term management and adaptation planning of disaster risks caused by climate change are strengthened at local, provincial and national levels

Outcome 2 - Knowledge and understanding of medium- to long -term climate-related disaster risks and vulnerability are improved

Outcome 3 - The long-term resilience of the livelihoods and assets of vulnerable communities against climate disaster risks is strengthened

Project Brief: Comoros (August 2015)

This project brief gives an overview of the project, and details Issues, Actions, and Expected Impacts.

Supporting Comoros to advance their NAP process

Recent updates on the Comoros NAP process:

 

  • Government counterparts from Comoros met the NAP-GSP team during COP 21 and requested ongoing support from NAP-GSP to implement the NAP process. In this meeting, the NAP-GSP team highlighted the types of technical support provided, the various avenues for funding from the GCF, LDCF and SCCF in particular and discussed the launch of the non-LDCs NAP support.
  • ​With NAP-GSP support, a stocktaking report that assesses policy and institutional entry points for the NAP process has been drafted and is being discussed by the Government. This report builds on the consultations undertaken in September 2014 and presents a basic analysis of the institutional framework for the NAP, ongoing climate-related initiatives, a SWOT and stakeholder analysis as well as priority interventions to support adaptation planning in the Comoros. The report is also comprised of project fiches in these priority intervention areas which can support the country’s fund mobilization for national adaptation planning. 
  • The NAP process in Comoros was officially launched on 23 September 2014 by the Minister of Environment of the Comoros.
  • This was followed by a three-day NAP Orientation Workshop from 23 to 25 September 2014. The objective of the workshop was to enhance the understanding of the NAP process among national stakeholders, including the Ministries of Environment, Planning and Finance and key sectoral ministries, as well as national NGOs and other partners.

> Comoros NAP Stocktaking Report (French version) - English version coming soon
> More on NAP launch and workshop in Comoros 

 

  • During the workshop, key stakeholders made presentations on the context of the NAP in Comoros and presented relevant activities, initiatives and findings. Specific technical presentations were delivered by NAP-GSP collaborating partners GIZ on vulnerability assessments and M&E, and by UNDP on appraising adaptation options and climate scenarios.
  • The participants were also trained on the UNFCCC/LEG Technical Guidelines and discussed their implementation in working groups.
  • On the last day of the workshop, the participants gathered in working groups to draft a roadmap for the NAP process in the country.
  • The workshop was supported by the UNDP Country Office.
  • Preliminary stock-taking of relevant initiatives and gap analysis were also conducted during the mission, to assist in the drafting of a NAP roadmap.
  • Through in-country consultations, the  NAP-GSP team identified several needs to advance the next steps of the NAP process. These include:
    • Developing a centralised information system;
    • Support to strengthen the coordination and synergy among country institutions as well as among technical and financial partners, and between the national and islands levels;
    • Building capacities both at institutional and individual level and both technical and functional skills, particularly in climate adaptation mainstreaming and funding mobilization, both internal (with support to CCA budgeting) and external (new project development);
    • Requirement for urther sensitisation activities to strengthen ownership of the NAP process ownership by a wide range of stakeholders.  

Previous NAP-related activities and updates

  • The Government of Comoros designated Ismael Bachirou, Directeur Général de l'Environnement et des Forêts (DGEF), Govt. of Comoros (GoC), as the national NAP focal point in January 2014.
  • NAP-GSP held a telecom in January 2014 with Ismael Bachirou and the UNDP CO to discuss NAP support to Comoros.
  • 3 representatives of the Government of Comoros attended the NAP-GSP Africa Regional Training workshop (Francophone) in April 2014. At the training event, a meeting was held with the NAP-GSP team to follow-up on the telecom in January and further discuss specific support required.

NAP - experiences in climate change adaptation planning / PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique

Presentation by the Government of Comoros at the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Comoros à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

> More NAP-GSP countries / En savoir plus sur les pays PAG-PNA

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.242187469528 -11.667730249464)
Funding Source: 
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
Project Details: 

NAP - experiences in climate change adaptation planning / PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique

Presentation by the Government of Comoros at the NAP-GSP / PAG-PNA Africa Regional Training Workshop in April 2014 / Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Comoros à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

> More NAP-GSP countries / En savoir plus sur les pays PAG-PNA

Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

Comoros NAP Training Workshop

A National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Training Workshop took place from 23-15 September 2014 in Moroni, Comoros. The meeting was organized and led by the Government of Comoros with support from NAP-GSP, the UNDP Country Office and GWP. Additional support was provided by GIZ. The Minister of Environment of the Government of Comoros opened the workshop and launched the climate change National Adaptation Plan process in Comoros on 23 September 2014.


Created with flickr slideshow.

The three-day workshop brought together approximately 60 international and national experts to focus on climate change adaptation requirements in Comoros. The goal was to advance the process of developing a National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (NAP) in Comoros.

 

> About - Comoros NAP Training Workshop

> Media coverage of the NAP launch and workshop in Comoros

> PowerPoint Presentations

News and Updates: 

Moroni, Comoros, Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014: On Tuesday 23 September 2014, the Minister of Environment of the Government of Comoros launched the climate change National Adaptation Plan process in Comoros. This plan is crucial in Comoros, since the country is increasingly experiencing the effect of climate extremes, including heavy rains and disastrous floods.

[Version française est en dessous: Please scroll down the page for French version]

The launch of the National Adaptation Process was followed by a three-day workshop in Moroni, bringing together approximately 60 international and national experts to focus on climate change adaptation requirements in Comoros. The goal is to advance the process of developing a National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (NAP) in Comoros. The launch and the worshop were supported by UNDP/UNEP NAP-GSP, the UNDP Country Office in Comoros, and GIZ. The NAP launch in Comoros was extensively covered in national media.
[To read coverage, please click on the newpaper images below.] 

"Climate change is an issue which affects many key development sectors in Comoros - including infrastructure, public health and agriculture," said Ismael Bachirou, Ministry of Environment and Forests.

"Climate change adaptation is a complex challenge, but it is crucial to ongoing sustainable development in Comoros," said Abdou Madi Nassur, Minister of Production, Energy and Environment.

The results of the Second National Communication indicate that Comoros is extremely vulnerable to climate change due to decreasing rainfall, an increase in mean annual temperature, the increase in the frequency and intensity of cyclones and tropical storms, as well as rising sea levels.

"Comoros is vulnerable to significant natural disasters," warned Nassur. "The likely immediate consequences of the changing climate are a reduction of water resources and a deterioration of agricultural productivity from 3 to 4%, due to the necessity for reliable precipitation. In addition, we are experiencing frequent floods, such as those seen in April 2012 which affected more than 11% of the national population, causing extensive loss of life and property damage worth millions of dollars."

"Climate change is a threat today because it is fundamentally altering our lives and livelihoods. The rapidity of these changes poses a threat to the ability of ecosystems and human communities to cope. In addition, we are seeing environmental damage due to human intervention, including a significant loss of biodiversity and natural resources, depleting fish stocks and rivers drying up. These combined effects mean that our country is becoming increasingly vulnerable and fragile ecologically, socially and economically."

Nassur concluded with a call to action. "We must initiate a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) policy which will advance our ability to adapt to climate threats and natural disasters. This will help us to avoid the worst effects, especially in key development sectors such as health, energy, tourism, biodiversity, fisheries, agriculture, water, forests, infrastructure, coastal and marine ecosystems. As part of the NAP process we will draw on past experiences, and utilise a participatory approach involving all stakeholders. The process must be in accordance with the reality in Comoros. This will be a country-driven process, addressing our unique needs."

> Comoros NAP Stocktaking Report (French version) English version coming soon
More on NAP in Comoros
> Vew media coverage of NAP launch in Comoros
> More NAP-GSP news


Elaboration d’un plan national d’adaptation aux changements climatiques

Moroni, mercredi 24 septembre 2014  – Le ministre de l’Environnement a lancé hier mardi, le processus de l’élaboration du plan national d’adaptation aux changements climatiques en Union des Comores. Un plan qui vient à point nommé puisque le pays fait face ces dernières années, à de fortes pluies provoquant parfois des inondations.

Le changement climatique est au menu d’un atelier de trois jours, regroupant des experts étrangers et des spécialistes locaux dans le domaine de l’environnement. Une rencontre qui doit se pencher sur l’élaboration du plan national d’adaptation aux changements climatiques du pays. « Un phénomène transversal » selon Ismael Bachirou, directeur général de l’Environnement et des forêts, qui touche aussi bien les infrastructures, la santé que  l’agriculture.

A entendre Abdou Nassur Madi, ministre de la production, de l’énergie et de l’environnement, ce processus est complexe « mais ô combien pertinent pour le développement durable » des Comores. Les résultats issus de la seconde communication nationale révèlent que le pays est fragile et vulnérable à plusieurs égards, notamment par rapport à la diminution progressive des précipitations et l’augmentation de la moyenne annuelle des températures, de la fréquence et de l’intensité des cyclones, des tempêtes tropicales, de l’élévation du niveau de l’océan et des phénomènes géophysiques fréquents.

Face à ces menaces, les Comores risquent des « catastrophes naturelles et écologiques assez importantes et dont personne ne peut en évaluer le risque», alerte le ministre de l’Environnement. Selon lui, les « conséquences immédiates les plus ressenties sont donc une diminution des ressources en eau et une détérioration de la croissance agricole, passant de 3 à 4% dans les années 80 à des valeurs négatives ou nulles à la fin des années 90, en raison de la dépendance de l’agriculture à des précipitations ». Et d’ajouter, «d’autres évènements encore plus douloureux sont les inondations devenues plus fréquentes telles que celles d’avril 2012 qui ont affecté plus de 11% de la population nationale, avec des pertes humaines et des dégâts matériels évalués à plusieurs millions de dollars américains ». 

« Le changement climatique constitue une menace aujourd’hui parce qu’il est source de modification des conditions de vie et de production et que cette évaluation est trop rapide et pose des problèmes pour l’aptitude de écosystèmes et des communautés humaines à y faire face (…) en outre, les pratique actuelles de la population entrainent une diminution importante de la biodiversité et de ses ressources naturelles, notamment halieutiques et tarissement des rivières. Cela rend le pays particulièrement vulnérable et fragile écologiquement, socialement et économiquement ». 

Le ministre suggère une politique d’adaptation face aux menaces et aux catastrophes  naturelles pour « éviter le pire, notamment dans les secteurs de développement clés comme la santé, l’énergie, le tourisme, la biodiversité, la pêche, l’agriculture, l’eau, les forêts, les infrastructures, la zone côtière et l’écosystème marin ». Il attend par ailleurs des résultats de ce processus de l’élaboration du plan national dont il tire les leçons du passé, et dit s’inscrire dans une démarche participative intégrant tous les acteurs. Il évite surtout d’imposer les modèles de l’extérieur dont l’application est parfois « non conforme à la réalité du pays ».

> More on NAP in Comoros
> Vew media coverage of NAP launch in Comoros
> More NAP-GSP news

Information in French / Informations en français: 

Activités récentes du processus PNA aux Comores

  • Le processus PNA a été officiellement lancé aux Comores le 23 septembre 2014 (par le Ministre de l'Environnement)
  • Ce lancement a été suivi d'un atelier de sensibilisation de trois jours du 23 au 25 septembre. L'objectif de l'atelier était de renforcer la compréhension du processus PNA des parties prenantes du pays, dont les ministères de l'Environnement, du Plan et des Finances ainsi que les ministères sectoriels clés, les ONG nationales et autres partenaires. 
    > PNA l'atelier aux Comoros

En savoir plus sur le lancement du PNA et l'atelier aux Comores

  • Au cours de l'atelier, les principales parties prenantes ont présenté le contexte du PNA aux Comores ainsi que les activités, initiatives et informations pertinentes pour le processus PNA. Des présentations techniques spécifiques ont été fournies par des collaborateurs du PAG-PNA, la GIZ, sur l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité et le suivi)évaluation, et par le PNUD sur l'examen des options d'adaptations et les scénarios climatiques.
  •  Les participants ont pu être formés sur les Directives techniques de la CCNUCCC/LEG et ont discuté de leur mise en application pratique dans des groupes de travail.
  • Lors du dernier jour de l'atelier, les participants ont travaillé sur une ébauche de feuille de route pour le processus PNA aux Comores en groupes de travail.
  • L'atelier était appuyé par le bureau pays du PNUD.
  • Un recensement préliminaire des initiatives pertinentes et une analyse des lacunes ont aussi été menés au cours de la mission afin d'aider à élaborer une feuille de route.

Activités précédentes

• Le Gouvernement des Comores a désigné Ismael Bachirou, Directeur Général de l'Environnement et des Forêts (DGEF) du Gouvernement comorien, comme point focal PNA au mois de janvier 2014.
• Le PAG-PNA a organisé une conférence téléphonique en janvier 2014 avec Ismael Bachirou et le BP PNUD afin de discuter de l’appui PNA aux Comores.
• 3 délégués des Comores ont participé à l'atelier francophone PNA et, en parallèle à la formation, ont rencontré l'équipe PAG-PNA afin de faire le suivi de la téléconférence et de discuter de l'appui ciblé requis.

PNA - expérience en adaptation au changement climatique

Présenté par la délégation du gouvernement du Comoros à la Atelier régional de formation en Afrique Organisé par le PAG-PNA - Addis Abeba, Ethiopie, 21-24 avril 2014.

> More NAP-GSP countries / En savoir plus sur les pays PAG-PNA

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Comoros – LDCF Project Identification Form

Project Identification Form (PIF) for the project titled “Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Resilience to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector in Comoros”

Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Resilience to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector in Comoros

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, contributing over 90% towards Comoros’s exports earnings. Despite the crucial role of agriculture in the economy and for employment, the domestic agricultural sector is struggling to provide the food needs of the population. The project's objective therefore, is to strengthen the capacities of vulnerable communities to cope with the additional risks posed by climate change as well as the variability on agro-sylvo-pastoral systems through training and dissemination of information. Cover Image: Maesha ya lavani, the first cooperative on the islands focused on vanilla. A dozen of its members are women. Photo: UNDP Comoros

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.2421874769 -11.7114096113)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$ 8,990,909
Co-Financing Total: 
$ 35,000,000
Project Details: 

More information to come...

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

The project is expected to achieve the following –

  1. Strengthening the adaptive capacity of the agriculture-sector institutions through the design and implementation of training programmes for management of climate risks for Agro-sylvo-pastoral systems (Outcome 1.1) and; Revision and integration of climate risks into national, regional and local development plans (Outcome 1.2)
  2. Production and dissemination of agro-meteorological information for informed decision-making in the agricultural sector including identification and monitoring of severe weather warnings, and climatic information needs for climate resilient agricultural in the 30 most vulnerable communities (Outcome 2.1); Development of training programmes for the staffs of agriculture, meteorology and disaster management divisions (Outcome 2.2) and; Design of a decision-support system which combines information on agricultural and climatic conditions (Outcome 2.3)
  3. Diffusion of climate resilient agro-sylvo-pastoral technologies in the most vulnerable communities including climate-resilient food crop, and fruit farming and livestock breeding technologies (Outcome 3.1); Low cost community infrastructures to fight against climate induced erosion (Outcome 3.2); Creation of a climate resilient agriculture advisory support group (Outcome 3.3); Creation of a sustainable climate-resilient agricultural inputs delivery system between inputs supply companies and strengthened rural retailers (Outcome 3.4); Public private partnership enabling private and public sector contribution towards integrating climate risks and adaptation options (Outcome 3.5) and; Creation of innovative financial products to finance farmers to make climate change adaptation investments (Outcome 3.6)
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

More information to come...

Contacts: 
UNDP
Henry Diouf
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

More information to come...

 

News and Updates: 

Securing vanilla for farmers and development in Comoros

Nasmata Ahamada Djaé got involved in vanilla production two years ago, although she still works full time at a hospital. “My parents never worked in agriculture, and the cooperative has been very supportive,” said Nasmata. “Vanilla is now key to our economy and this is important for my children’s education.” Nasmata works in the vanilla field only during the weekends. She is among the 54 members of Maesha ya lavani, the first cooperative on the islands focused on vanilla. A dozen of its members are women. Abdillah Mohamed Saïd is one of the founding members of the cooperative, and has been making a living from vanilla since he was a teenager. “It was my father who guided me into working with vanilla. I have no regrets, since vanilla has given me salaries way higher than those of civil servants,” says Said. “Our plots are packed with vanilla; other crops are a minority. I personally grow vanilla, I must have around 10,000 vanilla vines in three quarters of my plot. The other 25 percent has mangos, oranges, coconut, lemons, etc.”

ReliefWeb
Thursday 28 September 2017

 

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