Seychelles

 

Natural habitats and biodiversity, the coastal zone and human settlements, agriculture, water resources, fisheries, human health, natural disasters and insurance are the key socio-economic sectors that were considered for sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change.

Adaptation strategies will require the strengthening of technical and institutional capacity in monitoring and research, as well as the development and implementation of better and appropriate policies for integrated coastal zone management. All stakeholders must be mobilised in the conservation of nature reserves, so that they can play a useful role in the protection of natural habitats and biodiversity under the potential threat of climate change.

Government of Seychelles (2000)
Initial National Communications under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ministry of Environment and Transport, Republic of Seychelles.

The Seychelles consists of 115 islands with a total land area of 455 km2. Forty-one of the islands are granitic and are located within a radius of 50 km from the main granitic island of Mahe, the most populated in the group. The capital, Victoria, is located on Mahe, which has a land area of 148 km2. The remaining 74 islands are coral islands; Aldabra being the furthest located 1,150 km to the southwest of Mahe. The Seychelles has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 1.4 million km2.

 

Related Content

Seychelles – GEF Trust Project Document

Project Document (Prodoc) for the project titled “Capacity Development for Improved National and International Environmental Management in Seychelles.”

Capacity Development for Improved National and International Environmental Management in Seychelles

The Environment Management Plan of Seychelles (EMPS) is the principal institutional mechanism for addressing national and international environmental concerns. Currently, there is a lack of a comprehensive framework for linking these concerns with other national development priorities. Further, as a result of deficiencies in the current institutional and policy framework, there are unnecessary divisions between sectors, ministries and organizations/NGOs involved in conservation.

This UNDP-supported, GEF Trust funded project therefore, is designed to address key institutional barriers and related capacity limitations that constrain the effectiveness of the current EMPS operations. It will also help integrate local and global environmental management and enhance the capacity to implement global environmental management objectives within national programmes.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (55.4809570005 -4.62570406121)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Department of Environment, which is responsible for the implementation of the EMPS in Seychelles
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$400,000 (as detailed in the Project Document)
Co-Financing Total: 
$260,000 (as detailed in the Project Document)
Project Details: 

(More information to come)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

The project has three major outcomes with the following associated outputs –

  1. Awareness and capacity are developed for mainstreaming global environment conventions into national programmes. This will include a review, extension and incorporation of the international commitments in the EMPS (Outcome 1.1); Establishment of a new EMPS Secretariat (Output 1.2); Identification and appointment of National Centres of Expertise for EMPS implementation (Output 1.3) and; Training of key technical and management staff from lead stakeholder groups on the global environmental conventions and mainstreaming opportunities (Outcome 1.4)
  2. Environmental information and reporting is strengthened through the development of a central environmental database on key indicators related to global conventions (Outcome 2.1) and a “State of the Environment” reporting framework (Outcome 2.2)
  3. Capacity for local implementation of global environmental conventions is developed, applied and disseminated. This will be achieved through the development of an institutional framework (legal and organizational basis) for mainstreaming global objectives into local land and water management in residential and rural contexts (Outcome 3.1); Development of a training programme for promoting integrated implementation of climate change, biodiversity and land management objectives in land and water management at the local level (Outcome 3.2); Training of government staff, NGOs and local stakeholders on integrated approaches to Rio Conventions implementation at the local level (Outcome 3.3); Design of demonstration sub-projects to promote integrated environmental management at the local level (Outcome 3.4) and; Monitoring, reporting and dissemination of experiences that support Rio Conventions implementation (Outcome 3.5)
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

 

Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures.

The Programme Coordination Unit (PCU) will be responsible for day-to-day monitoring activities including submission of (i) Inception Report; (ii) Annual Project Report; (iii) Project Implementation Review; (iv) Quarterly Progress Reports; and (v) Project Terminal Report.

Annual Monitoring will occur through the Tripartite Project Review (TPR). The TPR will be composed of representatives of GOS, UNDP and the Project. Additionally, the project will be subjected to at least one independent external evaluation.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

(More information to come)

Seychelles' Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities:

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Fisheries
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Disasters

To view progress on Seychelles' SNC click here.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (55.4515159331 -4.62205413927)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

The Seychelles consists of 115 islands with a total land area of 455 km2. Forty-one of the islands are granitic and are located within a radius of 50 km from the main granitic island of Mahe, the most populated in the group. The capital, Victoria, is located on Mahe, which has a land area of 148 km2. The remaining 74 islands are coral islands; Aldabra being the furthest located 1,150 km to the southwest of Mahe. The Seychelles has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 1.4 million km2.

The Seychelles is a multiparty independent state with a mixed-origin indigenous population of just over 78,800 with about 90% residing along the coast. Mahe accounts for 40% of the population. The coastal zone on the granitic islands consists of narrow, flat coastal strips and marshy areas. The plateau area on the islands, which accounts for about 7% of the total land area, is small, but it is where most development including tourism, transport and housing takes place. The urbanisation rate is 2.2% per year.

Located just 40 south of the Equator, Mahe and other main granitic islands are not within the direct track of the tropical cyclones, although they are indirectly affected by such atmospheric perturbations. Trade winds from May to October result in drier conditions, with droughts, which results in severe water shortages, and hence affecting agriculture and all other sectors of the economy.

The small economy of the country is primarily dependent on tourism and fisheries, which provide most of the country's total foreign exchange earnings. The government has been promoting privatisation with a view to increasing domestic investments in the country. The private sector is now employing 48.2% of the labour force. To encourage investment, a 1994 Investment Promotion Act offers a wide range of tax concessions for private sector activities.

The fisheries sector is second to tourism in terms of economic importance. The export of canned tuna, fresh and frozen fish constitutes about 83% of the value of Seychelles’ exports of goods or about 10% of total foreign exchange earnings.

Only about 10% of the 60 km2 of potential agricultural land is being utilised for intensive arable farming. A mountainous terrain and low soil-fertility severely constrains agricultural productivity. The country has now become almost self- sufficient in the production of poultry meat, eggs and pork, while it remains heavily dependent on the import of beef and staples such as rice, potatoes and some fresh produce.

The Seychelles has a per capita (including tourists) water consumption of 140 litres/day (l/d) with an increasing demand in the domestic, tourists, industrial and commercial institutions, and government sectors. Fresh water is an extremely important resource for the Seychelles, especially due to the steep profile of the granitic islands and the small, low-lying coral islands.

Like other oil-importing countries, the Seychelles is vulnerable to oil price fluctuations. Due to increases in tourism and fisheries development, the energy demand increased from 58,000 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 1988 to 102,000 toe in 1994. The energy sector is dominated by the importation of petroleum products, which makes up about 95% of the primary energy supply. The transport sector is the largest consumer of petroleum products after electricity generation.

Presently some 46% of the archipelago’s land and an additional 228 km2 of ocean are legally protected in the form of national parks and reserves. An additional 20-25% are classified as being sensitive and may become protected areas in the near future. The Seychelles has more than 1,000 endemic flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. The Aldabra Atoll, home of 150,000 giant land tortoises, and the Vallée de Mai Nature Reserve covered in the endemic Coco-de-mer palms, was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage list in 1982 and 1983, respectively.

The quality of the environment supports the booming but exclusive tourism industry. Numerous new initiatives, for example, the Environment Management Plan of the Seychelles (EMPS) 2000-2010 (after the successful implementation of the EMPS 1990-2000) and the National Biodiversity Action Plan provide a framework for enabling sustainable development in the Seychelles. The creation of an Environment Trust Fund has allowed the government to reinvest revenues collected from taxes and donations into environmental protection projects, and to attract private and foreign donations to support its efforts. Eco-tourism is also being developed in a sustainable manner in the Seychelles to ensure proper use of its natural resources.

Source: Seychelles' Initial National Communication (October 2000)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop and introduce policy measures, including taxes, subsidies, facilitation of free market
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Reduce water pollution
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Roland Alcindor
Country Officer
Government of Seychelles
Wills Agricole
Project Affiliate
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Seychelles AF Project Proposal

Seychelles Proposal for project, 'Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Seychelles'

 

Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Seychelles

This project seeks to reduce the vulnerability of the Seychelles to climate change, focusing on two key issues—water scarcity and flooding. Climate change projections in the Seychelles show that rainfall, while increasing in overall terms, will become even more irregular. Much of the precipitation is falling in sharp bursts, creating heavy flooding in the wet season, while imposing extended period of drought during the dry season. As the country does not have a large water storage capacity, and the topography of the islands constrains such infrastructure, water supplies are heavily dependent on rainfall. Furthermore, the coastal zone is vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of rising sea surface levels, and increased storm surges from cyclonic activity in the Western Indian Ocean. The project will reduce these vulnerabilities by spearheading ecosystem-based adaptation as climate change risk management—restoring ecosystem functionality, and enhancing ecosystem resilience and sustaining watershed and coastal processes in order to secure critical water provisioning and flood attenuation ecosystem services from watersheds and coastal areas.

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POLYGON ((55.335382075 -4.62024706306, 55.4342590282 -4.54358854741, 55.6375060985 -4.73658785681, 55.5207763622 -4.83101483757, 55.335382075 -4.62024706306))
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Communities in the targeted watersheds on the island of Mahé
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
$6,455,750 (amount requested and approved 2011-06-22)
Co-Financing Total: 
N/A
Project Details: 

The Seychelles is economically, culturally and environmentally vulnerable to the effects of climate change and associated extreme weather events. The effects of climate change are already noticeable in Seychelles and these effects and their associated impacts are projected to escalate in the future. The two biggest climate change vulnerabilities are water scarcity and coastal flooding.

Freshwater is crucial both for human needs (e.g. drinking and sanitation) as well as other sectoral uses that are intrinsic to the development process (e.g. tourism/agriculture). Although the country receives a relatively high average annual precipitation quotient of 2,200 mm of rainfall, the Seychelles is considered to be “water stressed”. The impacts of climate change on Seychelles‘ water resources are expected to be severe. The dry southeast monsoon season is expected to become drier and the period between rainfall events during this season is likely to become longer. This will have impacts on stream flow. The water storage capacity in Seychelles will be severely challenged as a consequence.

Ecosystems play an important role in determining the vulnerability of communities to climate change—particularly in Small Island Developing States such as the Seychelles. The forests and wetlands of the granitic islands play an important role in regulating stream flows and water quality. Forested land binds the soil, thereby decreasing soil erosion and increasing the capacity of soils to absorb and retain water. This allows water to penetrate deeper into the soil, allowing for less runoff and slower release. Wetlands and riparian vegetation also assist in reducing erosion slowing water discharge over a longer period of time. This will have two benefits in ameliorating the effects of climate change on water supplies - providing more regular stream flow during the lengthier dry season, and buffering against flooding following intense rainfall events. Similarly, mangroves and fringing coral reefs protect coastal land against coastal erosion, while coastal sand dunes and wetlands play an important role in controlling coastal flooding. These flood attenuation services are likely to be critical given projected climate change induced flooding risks.

The project will implement results-oriented ecosystem based adaptation measures centered on the issues and opportunities identified by local stakeholders. It will focus on the development and application of technological solutions and tools for resolving specific vulnerability issues as a result of climate change in the main granitic islands of Seychelles. In doing so, it will build on technologies that have been used in similar contexts, or successfully tested at a pilot scale in the Seychelles (e.g., forest rehabilitation). The overall approach is to work from the level of technical solutions at specific watershed/coastal sites to the policy and regulatory level, such that future replication of adaptation measures will be catalysed, supported by new policies, guidelines, and awareness of watershed stewardship. Communities will be increasingly climate resilient and able to protect water supply and livelihoods that are linked to the integrity of the watersheds and coastal ecosystems on the Granitic islands.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1: Ecosystem-based adaptation approach to enhancing freshwater security

Finance technology development and application to restore riparian areas, including forests and wetlands (Output 1.1), and manage forest catchments to enhance climate change resilience, including integrated wildfire management (Output 1.2). Design and construct small-scale artificial raw water storage facilities in critical waterways (Output 1.3).

Component 2: Ecosystem-based adaptation approaches along the shorelines of the Granitic Islands

Restore and protect critical ecosystems, including mangrove forests, sand dunes, wetlands, and coral reefs through planting and removal of alien species (Output 2.1). Enhance adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities and resource users by establishing local-level bodies and training in Ecosystem-Based Adaptation methodologies (Output 2.2).

Component 3: Ecosystem based adaptation mainstreamed into development planning and financing

Mainstream EBA into land/water planning and regulation processes (Output 3.1) while creating/enhancing institutional mechanisms that internalize climate change risks into coastal zone management planning (Output 3.2). Capture and disseminate EBA applications (Output 3.3) and plan for up-scaling of best practices (Output 3.4).

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) scheme will be applied in accordance with the established UNDP procedures throughout the project lifetime. As an implementing partner, MHAETE, together with the UNDP Mauritius/Seychelles will ensure the timeliness and quality of the project implementation. Technical guidance and oversight will be also provided from the UNDP‘s Regional Bureau for Southern Eastern Africa, as well as the Project Board (PB). Audits on the project will follow UNDP finance regulations and rules and applicable audit policies.

Project start: A Project Inception Workshop (IW) will be held within the first 3 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project management, AF, UNDP CO and where appropriate/feasible, regional technical advisors as well as other stakeholders. The IW is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.

Annual Progress Report. An Annual Progress Report (APR) shall be prepared by the Project Manager, shared with the Project Board and submitted to the Donor. The APR will be prepared with progresses against set goals, objectives and targets, lessons learned, risk management and detailed financial disbursements.

Mid-term of the project cycle: The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) at the mid-point of project implementation (September 2015). The MTE will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. The findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project‘s term.

Periodic Monitoring through site visits: UNDP Mauritius/Seychelles will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Annual Work Plan to assess, at first hand, project progress. Other members of the PB may also join these visits.

Project Closure: An independent Final Evaluation will be undertaken 3 months prior to the final PB meeting. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project‘s results as initially planned and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction takes place. The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Johan Robinson
UNDP/GEF Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
AF
Project Status: