Egypt

 

Egypt’s large population makes the country extremely vulnerable to climate change. Moreover, its densely populated Nile delta is seriously threatened by sea level rise. Climate change will also have its impact on citizens’ health, and studies have been undertaken in an attempt to analyze possible adaptation measures. Vulnerability assessment studies in priority sectors have been undertaken as part of the process of developing the national action plan. The studies have indicated that the following areas are the most vulnerable in order of severity and certainty of results: agriculture, coastal zones, aqua-culture and fisheries, water resources, human habitat and settlements, and human health.

Egypt is a unique country with respect to its water resources. More than 95% of the water budget of Egypt is generated outside its territory. Although we can not yet predict the impact of climate change on the Nile Basin, there are indications that the impacts will be significant. Any decrease in the total supply of water, coupled with the expected increase in consumption due to the high population growth rates will have drastic impacts. Water management is thus one of the most important adaptation actions. Adaptation of supply includes measures to improve rain harvesting techniques, increase abstraction of ground water, recycle water, desalinate water, improve its transportation and rationalize its use. Meanwhile, adaptation of demand requires minimizing the need for water and optimizing the economic return of its unit volume.

Egypt is located in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and Gaza strip, with a coastal strip extending for about 3,500 kilometers, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea in the north, and the Red Sea in the east. The dominant feature of the northern coastal zone is the low lying delta of the River Nile, with its large cities, industry, flourishing agriculture and tourism. The delta and the narrow valley of the Nile comprises 5.5% of the area of Egypt, but has over 95% of its people and its agriculture. Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as vulnerable to seal level rise.

Egypt’s climate is semi-desert characterized by hot dry summers, moderate winters and very little rainfall. The country is characterized by particularly good wind regimes with excellent sites along the Red Sea and Mediterranean coasts. Egypt has only one main source of water supply, the River Nile, which supplies over 95% of the water needs of the country. There is some winter rain in the delta and along the Mediterranean coast, west of the delta. Non-renewable underground fossil water supplies are accessible outside the river valley, especially in the oases. Consequently, agricultural development is closely linked to the River Nile and its management. The Nile waters originate outside Egypt, flowing through nine countries. Egypt’s use of the Nile water is controlled by international agreement. Massive projects to divert some of the Nile waters to Northern Sinai, and to Toshka depression, in the extreme south of the country, are underway. Consequently, the water needs of the country are growing rapidly.

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Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egyptproject aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25 percent of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced sea-level rise. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation with a total budget of US$ 31.4 million over seven years.

Sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands. Egypt relies on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, accordingly coastal inundation or saline intrusion will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s entire economy. The number of extreme weather events inducing casualties and economic losses have increased significantly in Egypt over the last ten years. These extreme events have flooded major cities, destroyed infrastructure and disturbed economic activities. In the countryside it has destroyed homes and agricultural lands, and disrupted development initiatives and the Government of Egypt's work to meet sustainable development gaols.

The GCF-financed project will expand the use of low-cost dikes system to prevent the flooding of the low-lying lands from sea surges during extreme weather events. The dike system was first tested under the pilot level under the GEF Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) project. The project will also support the development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZM) for the North Coast of Egypt that links the plan for shore protection from sea-level rise with the national development plan of the coastal zones. The ICZM plan will be associated with the establishment of a systematic observation system to monitor Oceanographic parameters changes under a changing climate as well as the impact of the different shore protection scenarios on the coastal erosion and shore stability.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (30.741210567179 30.755053419625)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The "soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban and rural communities.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$31.4 million (GCF)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$73.8 million (co-financing from Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation)
Project Details: 

The Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt project will reduce coastal flooding risks in Egypt’s North Coast due to the combination of projected sea level rise and more frequent and intense extreme storm events. The first output of the project focuses on the installation of 69 km of sand dune dikes along five vulnerable hotspots within the Nile Delta that were identified during an engineering scoping assessment and technical feasibility study. This will provide a “beneficial reuse” for existing maintenance dredged material from a number of local sources that are operating under existing Government of Egypt approvals. The second project output focuses on the development of an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) plan for the entire North Coast, to manage long-term climate change risks and provide Egypt with adaptability to impending flood risks. These measures would limit potential displacement of local coastal communities and reduce the number of young people who otherwise would be compelled to search for immigration opportunities.

The barriers that will be addressed by the proposed project include a lack of high quality data to inform planning decisions; absence of a suitable framework for implementing integrated approaches to coastal adaptation; weak institutional coordination to build coastline resilience to sea level rise impacts; the significant reduction of dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment; and low institutional capacity to anticipate and manage expected sea level rise impacts. The proposed project will facilitate transformational change in the short-term by reducing coastal flooding threats along vulnerable hotspots in the Delta and in the long-term by integrating additional risks of climate change into coastal management and planning, budgeting and implementation of risk reduction measures.

The “soft” coastal protection measures will directly benefit approximately 768,164 people and indirectly benefit 16.9 million people in urban/rural communities. They have been designed to mirror natural coastal features and/or sand dunes and will transform the areas from high to low risk zones for coastal flooding. They will be stabilized with a combination of rocks and local vegetation species to encourage dune growth by trapping and stabilizing blown sand. Importantly, the coastal protection measures will provide beneficial reuse of existing dredge material that would otherwise be disposed into the marine environment.

The ICZM plan will provide benefits through capacity building to enable high resolution diagnosis of coastal threats, updated regulatory and institutional frameworks to account for sea level rise, and a coastal observation system for ongoing data collection/analysis.

The project is aligned with the Government of Egypt's (GoE) priorities as outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement and is line with Egypt’s Country Work Programme, as submitted to the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Based on a request made to UNDP by the National Designated Authority (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency NDA; Coastal Research Institute (CoRI) and Shore Protection Authority (SPA)), the project is also a part of UNDP’s Work Programme to the GCF and is aligned with Government’s priorities to focus on as per the Country Programme Document, which outlines UNDP’s foci in Egypt.

Climate impacts on Egypt's North Coast

The IPCC has singled out low-lying river deltas to be one of the most vulnerable systems to climate change and sea level rise. Low-lying river deltas are home to millions of people, highly productive agricultural lands, industrial/transport infrastructure and valuable touristic assets. Compounding the vulnerability of these areas is the fact that deltas, areas of land formed from sediment where a river flows into the sea, are sinking due to both natural factors (i.e., compaction of river sediments over time) and anthropogenic factors (construction of dams that restrict the flow of sediment that would otherwise reach the river mouth and build up delta lands, groundwater abstraction). The downward motion heightens vulnerability to coastal flooding, particularly when combined with sea-level rise.

One of the three most vulnerable deltas in the world to climate change is the Nile Delta in Egypt. This region accounts for more than 50% of Egypt’s economic activity through agriculture, industry and fisheries. The Nile Delta contributes about 20% of the Egypt’s GDP and account for the largest source of employment, around 30% of the labor force. As Egypt does not produce enough food to feed its current population, any loss of prime agricultural land  due to coastal flooding from sea level rise will have a direct adverse impact on the livelihoods of millions of people and lead to hardship throughout the entire economy.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta are especially vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level. Extreme events that result in increased sea level events, driven by the combination of high tides associated with sea level rise and storm surges, have led to devastating coastal flooding and millions of dollars in damages. The impacts, including the loss of life during coastal floods in Alexandria in 2015, as well as flood waters reaching and threatening to damage the international coastal road located hundreds of meters inland were significant. The rate of sea level rise for the Nile Delta ranges between 3.2 - 6.6mm/year and is due to three major factors; globally rising sea due to thermal ocean expansion; locally sinking land due to compaction of sediments; and loss of annual replenishment of sediments. The IPCC concludes that global mean sea levels have risen between 2.8 and 3.6mm/year from 1993 to 2010. During the same period, local land subsidence has been evident across the entire Delta, with actual rates ranging from about 0.4mm/year in Alexandria to the West to around 3mm/year in Port Said to the East.

Coastal areas in the Nile Delta will be more vulnerable to an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme coastal storms associated with sea level rise. As with many climate change modeling outcome, regional projections at the spatial scale of the Nile Delta suggest that the southern Mediterranean has already seen a measurable increase in the number of natural disasters: from an average of three natural disasters/year in 1980; to an average of>15/year in 2006. An increase in frequency and severity of storm surges is already evident ; and the continuation of rising seas, sinking lands, and more frequent and intense storms is a necessary inference from the review of recent trends and future climate change forecasts.

Economic damages from climate change induced sea-level rise on the North Coast of Egypt has been and will continue to be direct and far-reaching. As of 2017, much of Egypt’s population, industry, agriculture, private sector and tourism infrastructure and development is located along the northern low coastal lands, and the reliance on the Nile Delta for prime agricultural land is critically important to the country’s economy. Studies on the vulnerability of Alexandria, indicated that sea level rise of 0.3m would lead to infrastructure damage worth billions of dollars, displacement of over half a million inhabitants, and a loss of about 70,000 jobs. Moreover, the Nile Delta’s coastal lagoons are among the most productive natural systems in Egypt and they are internationally renowned for their abundant bird life. Approximately 60% of Egypt’s annual fish catch are from three main Delta lagoons, Idku, Burullus and Manzalla, separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km sand belt and dune system. Coastal flooding and/or permanent inundation of these areas would lead to a decline in water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons and corresponding adverse impacts on fisheries and biodiversity.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

The  project will enable reducing vulnerabilities of assets and populations through promoting and scaling up a set of “soft engineering solutions” and ecosystem-based coastal protection measures that can sustain proper ecosystem functioning and productivity in each of the coastal lagoons such as the conservation of existing wetlands and enhancement of their functionality. A UNDP-GEF-SCCF Climate Change Adaptation in the Nile Delta Project has tested the design and feasibility of several soft engineering solutions for coastal protection (namely beach nourishment and using of geotubes and low cost soft dikes to alleviate impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure and human settlements) per the geomorphologic, climatic, and development characteristics of the Nile Delta area. The initial results confirm the effectiveness of these designs and have been accepted by the Egyptian coastal engineering community.

The project will scale up the use of soft engineering solutions and ecosystem-based approaches to coastal protection. The proposed interventions are no-regret interventions that need to be done no matter what priorities emerge from the ICZM plan given the incidence of coastal flooding that is currently occurring. It will support the implementation of specific measures include developing a ‘vegetative buffer’ structure for coastal protection, re-nourishing beaches, reinforcing sand dune systems as a defense mechanism, re-vegetation to stabilize seabed sediment, wetland restoration and the establishment of conservation zones to preserve essential coastal habitats.

Activity 1.1 focuses on the development of soft coastal protection (pre-construction) detailed designs, and site-specific assessments undertaken for protecting 69 km of the Nile Delta in 5 vulnerable hotspot locations.
Sub-Activity 1.1.1: Generation of local data needed to characterize the vulnerable hotspot locations including, but not limited to, digital elevation maps, geomorphology, wave characteristics, storm events, erosion/accretion trends, and other data needed to assess the suitability of soft coastal protection measures subject to the combined impact of sea level rise and extreme storm events.
Sub-Activity 1.1.2: Use of the local data generated to undertake flood modeling with and without soft coastal protection in order to establish detailed design characteristics for each of the hotspot locations
Sub-Activity 1.1.3: Finalization of all in-depth design documents, specifications, and engineering drawings necessary for the development of a comprehensive bill of quantities for the soft protection measures.

Activity 2.1 focuses on constructing location-specific coastal soft protection structures at the 5 vulnerable hotspot locations. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.2.1: Initiate a tendering process to select local contractor(s) to construct the coastal protection measures, including quality control requirements, based on the finalized design documents and bill of quantities.
Sub-Activity 1.2.2: Carry out all site preparation activities associated with clearing, grubbing, stripping, dewatering and any other activities associated with site preparation at the five locations.
Sub-Activity 1.2.3: Construct the 5 coastal protection measures, including all excavation, fill placement/compaction, rip-rap placement, geotextile placement, and final grading.
Sub-Activity 1.2.4: Conduct and maintain records for site inspection during the construction period, including environmental safeguard monitoring during the lifetime of the coastal protection works

Activity 3.1 focuses developing and implementing an operations & maintenance programme for the installed soft protection structures. It will involve the following major sub activities:
Sub-Activity 1.3.1: Develop a soft coastal protection maintenance manual to govern future maintenance and rehabilitation activities, tailored to Nile Delta conditions.
Sub-Activity 1.3.2: Codify the procedures in the manual within the governing regulations of the SPA.
Sub-Activity 1.3.3: Conduct operations and maintenance activities over the lifetime of the project consistent with the coastal protection maintenance manual.

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

The impacts of climate change on the north coast, especially regarding sea level rise, will further place the Nile Delta and the entire North Coast at risk. On the one hand, impacts such erosion and flooding will increase under different climate change scenarios with sea level rise, causing damages and losses in the coastal system (infrastructures, housing, livelihoods, coastal resources, etc.) leading to human migration outside and inside the country. On the other hand, key stakeholders will need stronger mechanisms to collaborate and join forces to face climate change challenges. A shift away from business-as-usual practices in coastal management is needed urgently to cope with sea level rise which is already occurring. The goal of long-term resilience building and risk reduction under climate change threats in the north coast requires a new planning paradigm, one offered by the implementation of the ICZM plan.

Activity 2.1 focuses on the development of national capability to conduct long-term climate change risk-induced hazard, vulnerability and risk high resolution assessments of erosion and flooding under climate change scenarios on an ongoing and iterative basis. This activity will include training in methods for the characterization of marine dynamics, establishment of databases and tools to model shoreline dynamics, high-resolution (HR) hazard assessment, and HR exposure, vulnerability and risk assessment. The assessments will be performed for different scenarios: current situation and long term scenarios (considering climate change and future coastal developments). The risk assessment will be performed at two different geographical scopes and scales: national for the whole north coast (based on the hazard assessment performed under the ICZM Scoping Study) and local at selected priority areas. The results of the process will lead to the selection of the next set of priority areas. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.1.1: Characterization of marine dynamics based on the numerical modelling of wind, waves, currents and sea level change in the future.
Sub-Activity 2.1.2: Establishment of coastal modeling systems consisting of databases, methods and tools suitable for modeling shoreline dynamics in the North Coast context.
Sub-Activity 2.1.3: Conducting high-resolution hazard assessment under a set of climate change scenarios to develop flooding maps that account for storm surge inundation levels that factor in projected sea level rise.
Sub-Activity 2.1.4: Conducting of vulnerability and risk high resolution assessment under climate change scenarios to integrate the exposure of coastal areas and their sensitivity to flooding and erosion impacts.

Activity 2.2 focuses on the development of a climate change risk-informed ICZM plan to include a shoreline management plan and a regulatory/legislative/institutional framework. This is the core activity of the ICZM policy cycle where the ICZM plan for the North Coast of Egypt is developed. It is estimated that the complete process for the development of the ICZM plan including the supporting frameworks will need five years. However, it is expected that there will be outputs from the ICZM plan starting from the third year of the project. Accordingly implementation of the urgent coastal protection measures will overlap with the development of ICZM plan. The ICZM Plan is essentially a planning tool that defines the objectives and measures necessary to achieve a climate-resilient development of the North Coast. It will consist of a Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) and a Coastal Management Plan (CMP), as mentioned earlier. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.2.1: Development of a Shoreline Management Plan for climate change adaptation to define the most promising shoreline management measures for climate change adaptation, and their implementation strategy.
Sub-Activity 2.2.2: Development of a regulatory and legislative framework to ensure the effective implementation of climate change adaptation activities under ICZM principles.
Sub-Activity 2.2.3: Development of an institutional governance mechanism at the national and governorate levels to ensure a shared ownership of the ICZM Plan with concerned authorities and civil society groups in the planning process.
Sub-Activity 2.2.4: Establishment of the monitoring and evaluation system to enable managers to take appropriate corrective actions to achieve the expected results of the plan by evaluating the progress of the plan implementation.
Sub-Activity 2.2.5: Initiate implementation of the coastal protection measures generated from the ICZM plan

Activity 2.3  focuses on the development of a capacity building program on climate change risk management for institutions involved in the long-term management of the north coast. The program will create the basis for a thorough understanding of various aspects of coastal management, including climate change adaptation and ICZM, as well as promoting collaborative networks equipped with the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to undertake different tasks involved in the climate change adaptation and planning of the coastal areas of Egypt. The framework for the program will aim to identify gaps and corresponding capacity needs relative to key ICZM implementation issues, and to build capacity of individuals and institutions to implement the ICZM Plan. It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.3.1: Assessment of capacity needs for ICZM planning to catalog on-going coastal management capacity building activities, and to identify gaps in skills, knowledge and attitudes for the practice of ICZM and climate change adaptation.
Sub-Activity 2.3.2: Transfer of coastal observation and modelling systems to coastal management to ensure that staff from selected institutions have the necessary scientific knowledge to assimilate and integrate both the coastal observation and modelling systems.
Sub-Activity 2.3.3: Design and implementation of modular training program for MWRI/SPA and EEAA to build skills for professional development of coastal management practitioners, in a diversity of capacities (e.g. policy positions or day-to-day management).
Sub-Activity 2.3.4: Design and implementation of the modular training program for other stakeholders to be able to collaborate and actively participate in the implementation of the ICZM Plan.
Sub-Activity 2.3.5: Monitoring and evaluation of the capacity building program's results.
Sub-Activity 2.3.6: Design and implementation of a programme to promote sustainable livelihoods of poor women in hotspot areas for household income diversification and other community development activities

Activity 2.4  focuses on the implementation of specific components of a national observation system. The National Observation System has already been designed (see Annex IIa). It will involve the following major sub-activities:
Sub-Activity 2.4.1: Procurement and installation of an observation/monitoring equipment relative to meteorological, oceanographic, networking, and other operational objectives for coastal zone management of climate change induced risks on coastal areas.
Sub-Activity 2.4.2: Development and implementation of a capacity building programme for MWRI/SPA and EEAA that focuses on training in the operation of all elements of the national observation system, including systems for coordination with coastal zone analysts/modelers who will use the data generated.
Sub-Activity 2.4.3: Design and implementation of a quality control/assurance programme amongst the participating institutions and agencies for the collection, evaluation, and distribution of data generated from the various components of the national observation system.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
News and Updates: 

Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt

Dredging Today
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) 18th Board meeting, convened in Cairo, has approved the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Project entitled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” to be implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. With a total budget of $31.4 million over seven years, the project aims to protect the densely populated low-lying lands in the Nile Delta, the home of 25% of the Egyptian population, which have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea-Level Rise (SLR). The SLR will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt’s infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands.

Green fund approves $31.4 mln UNDP project to protect Egypt's Delta from climate change

Ahram Online
Wednesday 4 October 2017

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) approved on Sunday a $31.4 million United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project to protect Egypt's Nile Delta from rising sea levels due to climate change, the UNDP said in a press statement. The project titled “Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast of Egypt” will be implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation over seven years. The GCF is a global fund that offers support to developing countries to deal with the challenge of climate change. The approval for the project came during the GCF's 18th board meeting in Cairo from Saturday to Monday.

 

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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1: Reduced vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and agricultural assets to coastal flooding damage in hotspot locations in Nile Delta

Output 2: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZM) for the entire North Coast of Egypt.

Supporting Egypt to advance their NAP process

  • A request has been received for NAP support from the Government of Egypt in May 2015. A response letter was sent to Mr. Mohamad Badyoumi from UNDP CO to share with the government, with a view to scheduling a skype call on technical support needs for Egypt.

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Funding Source: 
Project Status: 
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Strengthening the Monitoring & Reporting System for Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Egypt

Previous assessments have revealed a number of priority cross-cutting capacity constraints concerned with public participation, technology transfer and cooperation, monitoring, evaluation and reporting, financial mechanisms/economic valuation, legislation formulation/enforcement, and the development of scientific research capacities. In addition, the analysis indicated that monitoring, evaluation and reporting represents a cause for a number of these other constraints. Without effective monitoring, evaluation and reporting, the development of integrated national policies cannot take place adequately, even if the necessary capacity developments for policy and strategy formulation were addressed. Addressing the issue of environmental monitoring, evaluation and reporting is a necessity not only for its own sake, but also for the other identified constraints which can be considered as directly dependent on it

Thus the main objective of this project is to strengthen monitoring, evaluation and reporting for Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in Egypt, in order to promote the mainstreaming of Global Environment in national plans and policies. The project aims to accomplish this by 1) improving data management (including acquisition, processing, exchange and utilization); 2) delineating the monitoring and reporting roles and responsibilities of different concerned entities; 3) ensuring the financial sustainability for environmental monitoring, evaluation and reporting. This project will focus on the three Rio conventions (UNCBD, UNFCCC and UNCCD) in coordination with the overall environmental monitoring and reporting mechanisms in Egypt. 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.245034066 30.0447025421)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
480,000
Co-Financing Total: 
350,000
Project Details: 

Egypt ratified most of the international agreements, including the 3 Rio Conventions (UNCBD) in 1994, UNFCCC in 1994, and UNCCD in 1995). From 2005 to 2007, under the leadership of the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) and funded by GEF, a National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) for Egypt was conducted to assess the thematic and cross-cutting capacity building issues hindering the synergistic implementation of the 3 Rio Conventions: Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification.

The assessment revealed a number of priority cross-cutting capacity constraints concerned with public participation, technology transfer and cooperation, monitoring, evaluation and reporting, financial mechanisms/economic valuation, legislation formulation/enforcement, and the development of scientific research capacities. In addition, the analysis indicated that monitoring, evaluation and reporting represents a cause for a number of these other constraints. Without effective monitoring, evaluation and reporting, the development of integrated national policies cannot take place adequately, even if the necessary capacity developments for policy and strategy formulation were addressed. Addressing the issue of environmental monitoring, evaluation and reporting is a necessity not only for its own sake, but also for the other identified constraints which can be considered as directly dependent on it

Thus the main objective of this project is to strengthen monitoring, evaluation and reporting for Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in Egypt, in order to promote the mainstreaming of Global Environment in national plans and policies. The project aims to accomplish this by 1) improving data management (including acquisition, processing, exchange and utilization); 2) delineating the monitoring and reporting roles and responsibilities of different concerned entities; 3) ensuring the financial sustainability for environmental monitoring, evaluation and reporting. This project will focus on the three Rio conventions (UNCBD, UNFCCC and UNCCD) in coordination with the overall environmental monitoring and reporting mechanisms in Egypt. This Terms of Reference outlines the mid-term evaluation process of this project.  The UNDP-GEF Project is implemented by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) as host entity for the National UNCBD and UNFCCC focal points in collaboration with the Desert Research Center (DRC) which is the host of UNCCD focal point.

The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) policy at the project level in UNDP/GEF has four objectives: i) to monitor and evaluate results and impacts; ii) to provide a basis for decision making on necessary amendments and improvements; iii) to promote accountability for resource use; and iii) to document, provide feedback on, and disseminate lessons learned. A mix of tools is used to ensure effective project M&E. These might be applied continuously throughout the lifetime of the project – e.g. periodic monitoring of indicators -, or as specific time-bound exercises such as mid-term reviews, audit reports and independent evaluations.

In accordance with UNDP/GEF M&E policies and procedures, all projects with long implementation periods (e.g. over 5 or 6 years) are strongly encouraged to conduct mid-term evaluations. In addition to providing an independent in-depth review of implementation progress, this type of evaluation is responsive to GEF Council decisions on transparency and better access of information during implementation.


Egypt’s large population makes the country extremely vulnerable to climate change. Moreover, its densely populated Nile delta is seriously threatened by sea level rise. Climate change will also have its impact on citizens’ health, and studies have been undertaken in an attempt to analyze possible adaptation measures. Vulnerability assessment studies in priority sectors have been undertaken as part of the process of developing the national action plan. The studies have indicated that the following areas are the most vulnerable in order of severity and certainty of results: agriculture, coastal zones, aqua-culture and fisheries, water resources, human habitat and settlements, and human health.

Egypt is a unique country with respect to its water resources. More than 95% of the water budget of Egypt is generated outside its territory. Although we can not yet predict the impact of climate change on the Nile Basin, there are indications that the impacts will be significant. Any decrease in the total supply of water, coupled with the expected increase in consumption due to the high population growth rates will have drastic impacts. Water management is thus one of the most important adaptation actions. Adaptation of supply includes measures to improve rain harvesting techniques, increase abstraction of ground water, recycle water, desalinate water, improve its transportation and rationalize its use. Meanwhile, adaptation of demand requires minimizing the need for water and optimizing the economic return of its unit volume.

Egypt is located in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and Gaza strip, with a coastal strip extending for about 3,500 kilometers, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea in the north, and the Red Sea in the east. The dominant feature of the northern coastal zone is the low lying delta of the River Nile, with its large cities, industry, flourishing agriculture and tourism. The delta and the narrow valley of the Nile comprises 5.5% of the area of Egypt, but has over 95% of its people and its agriculture. Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as vulnerable to seal level rise.

Egypt’s climate is semi-desert characterized by hot dry summers, moderate winters and very little rainfall. The country is characterized by particularly good wind regimes with excellent sites along the Red Sea and Mediterranean coasts. Egypt has only one main source of water supply, the River Nile, which supplies over 95% of the water needs of the country. There is some winter rain in the delta and along the Mediterranean coast, west of the delta. Non-renewable underground fossil water supplies are accessible outside the river valley, especially in the oases. Consequently, agricultural development is closely linked to the River Nile and its management. The Nile waters originate outside Egypt, flowing through nine countries. Egypt’s use of the Nile water is controlled by international agreement. Massive projects to divert some of the Nile waters to Northern Sinai, and to Toshka depression, in the extreme south of the country, are underway. Consequently, the water needs of the country are growing rapidly.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1.  An operational monitoring and information management system for MEAs is enhanced at the policy, institutional and individual level.
    • Output 1.1. A database and its management system developed to include all data categories for global environmental management.
    • Output 1.2. Necessary legislative and regulatory changes made to streamline the procedures for integrated monitoring for global environmental management.
    • Output 1.3. The capacity of MSEA and other institutions responsible for monitoring are strengthened through provision of necessary technical assistance and targeted training.
  • Outcome 2.  Coordination mechanism established to comply with the reporting obligations under the global environmental conventions. 
    • Output 2.1. Necessary legislative and regulatory changes made to involve sectorial agencies in national reporting to the MEAs in a consistent manner.
    • Output 2.2. Communication and feed back mechanism established for the reporting process to contribute to the national policy and decision-making.
  • Outcome 3.  The funding procedure installed to achieve monitoring and national reporting practice on a sustainable basis.
    • Output 3.1. Funding scenarios developed for the monitoring and reporting;
    • Output 3.2. Necessary legislative and procedural changes made to operationalise the funding mechanisms for sustainable monitoring and reporting. The project outputs and indicators will be further developed during the PDF-A implementation phase.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and GEF procedures and will be provided by the project team and the UNDP Country Office (UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF. 

The PDF-A will particularly take account of the findings of the NCSA process in Egypt to develop the M&E plan of the project. Other baseline activities will also be considered during MSP development and will inform the M&E strategy of the project. 

Audit of project expenditure will be done in accordance with agreed UNDP and GEF requirements.


Project Start:

  • Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

  • Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

  • Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits:

  • UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

  • Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term.  

End of Project:

  • Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.
  • Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

  • Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 
  • The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.
  • Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

 

Contacts: 
UNDP [nid:57]
Mohamed Bayoumi
Country Officer
Government of Egypt
Yasmine Fouad
Project Coordinator
UNDP
Tom Twining-Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Egypt- Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Key Vulnerabilities identified in Egypt's Second National Communication (2010):
  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Tourism Sector
  • Infrustructure
  • Public Health
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (31.2890625 30.1691868092)
Funding Source: 
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Details: 
Potential Adaptation Measures identified in Egypt's Second National Communication (2010):

Water Resources

Adaptation to Increase of Inflow:

  • Maintaining storage at Aswan High Dam at lower elevations in order to allow for receiving higher flood events, and at the same time, the preparation of other stores to receive any surplus water in emergency cases
  • The increase of cultivated areas especially in highly elevated lands to absorb surplus water.

Adaptation to Inflow Reduction:

  • Physical improvement of the irrigation system.
  • More efficient and reliable water delivery.
  • Better control on water.
  • Augmented farm productivity and raised farmers’ income
  • Quick resolution of conflicts between users.
  • Use of new technologies of weed control.
  • Redesign of canal cross sections to reduce evaporation losses.
  • Cost recovery systems.
  • Improvement of drainage.
  • Change of cropping pattern and on farm irrigation systems.

 

Agriculture/Food Security

  • Conducting a national program for improving the current crop patterns and calendar to be adapted to the incoming projected climate changes
  • Implementing a nationwide project targeting the improvements of on-farm irrigation systems in order to tackle the expected increase in pressures on water availability and the higher irrigation demand under climate change conditions
  • Assuring sustainable adaptation funds and climate hazards insurance systems
  • Establishing a strong information dissemination system regarding climate change and its impacts on agriculture targeting all growers, in order to assist them in
    developing appropriate adaptation measures.

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Creating wetlands in areas vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise in low lying deltas. Lake Manzala and Lake Burullus are two examples of such areas eligible for such adaptation processes;
  •  Progressing with protecting and fixing natural sand dunes systems which constitute an important natural protection;
  • Reinforcing the international road along the Mediterranean coast to act as a second line of defense for the protection of the northern zone of the Delta. In this respect, the northern side of this road should be reinforced so as to act as a sea wall;
  • Possibly using Al-Salam Canal banks as protection, as they rise 2 m above Lake Manzala water level;
  •  Activating the National Coastal Zone Management Committee which should formulate an integrated coastal zone management plan

Tourism Sector

  • Expanding the marine protected areas and enforcing regulations;
  • Adopting an integrated coastal zone management approach for development in coastal areas;
  • Carrying out vulnerability assessments and protection of archeological and touristic sites and roads against impacts of climate changes;
  • Redirecting growth away from sensitive lands and towards less vulnerable areas;
  • Developing a strong monitoring and law enforcement system to ensure the implementation of these measures.

Infrastructure

  • Improving building standards
  • Natural ventilation for buildings
  • Bituminous materials with appropriate stiffness characteristics should be used in road construction or maintenance works on the road network. Alternative modes of transportation need to be considered;
  • Re-orienting flood routes away from road paths;
  • Slowing down, collection, and storing rain and flood water;
  •  Bridging water: Notwithstanding the high cost of constructing a bridge over the water path, this is an obvious way to face the problem;
  • The road network should be reviewed to identify areas of potential risk from coastal flooding, taking account into the cumulative effects of sea-level changes and storm surges. Any new projects proposed in low-lying areas should be reviewed with respect to these risk factors;
  •  A strong need for upgrading public transportation systems and encouraging non-motorized transport.

Public Health

  • Reduction of socioeconomic vulnerability
  • Maintenance of a national public health infrastructure
  • Access to quality health services:
  • Improvement of vaccination programs
  • The development of early warning systems and control programs for infectious diseases

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
Government of Egypt
Amr Osama Abdel-Aziz
Country Contact
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
TRUST
Project Status: 

Egypt NAMA

Under the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme, financed by the EU, Germany, and AusAID, participating countries are primarily focusing on capacity building activities at the national level.  This includes formulating Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and/or Nationally appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), as well as establishing the underlying data collection systems (i.e. national GHG inventory systems, and monitoring, reporting and verification systems).

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, policies, and/or programmes that shift a technology or sector in a country onto a low-carbon development trajectory.  A LEDS, on the other hand, outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify entry points for policy intervention (including identifying and prioritizing NAMAs and ensuring coherence between NAMAs and national development goals).

In Egypt, the government will work with the iron and steel and/or cement industries to build capacities to develop and implement mitigation action plans. Under the Programme, the government also plans to design and adopt a national GHG inventory system (in collaboration with 3rd National Communication), design LEDS, and develop up to 20 NAMAs in the energy and transport sectors.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (29.663092046 29.0856087988)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
The four-year Low Emission Capacity Building Programme is being implemented with €8,000,000 of funding from the European Union and €5,000,000 from the Federal Republic of Germany.
Project Details: 

Supporting Mitigation Actions

As a country driven process, each country determines, develops and executes its own project with a clear focus on one of the two areas. From the inception phase of each project, however, and for the life of the project, countries will receive guidance and support from UNDP. Guidance and technical backstopping for all national-level projects will be coordinated, delivered and supported through an over-arching component of the programme: the Global Support Unit.

Programme-supported projects fall into one of several categories:

  • Identifying opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and designing low emission development strategies (LEDS) in context of national priorities
  • Design ofsystems for measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme promotes essential cooperation between relevant institutions, engaging the public sector and industry in a concerted effort to address climate change consistent with national development priorities around the world.

The overall objectives are to strengthen capacities in participating countries in the following ways:

  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems;
  • Identify opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA);
  • Design low emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national priorities
  • Design systems for measuring, reporting, and verification of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any LEDS, NAMAs, or Mitigation Action Plans (MAPs) prepared by developing countries – particularly if a developing country is seeking external financial, technical or capacity-building support, and will therefore be subject to international MRV as described in the Cancun Accords. However, MRV needs will differ depending on whether a country is undertaking a REDD+ type NAMA, for example, versus improving an urban mass transit system. (It is worth noting that the international political arena also refers to the MRV of public finance; this is not being addressed under this project.)

Methodological approach

New methodologies are being developed by different organizations for the development and adoption of MRVs. Although there are still no adopted guidelines on MRV, we can assume that there will be some overarching principles of good practice, such as using the GHG estimation and reporting processes described in the IPCC guidance materials for GHG inventories.

Institutional and political context

As with the GHG national inventory system, it will be important to raise awareness of all key stakeholders on the necessity for MRV to ensure full engagement. It may be useful to consider developing a strategy to engage key providers of data and ensure they are adequately trained.

Linkages to other relevant initiatives

Clearly, the work undertaken under this component has a direct linkage to the National Communications process. Some countries may also be undertaking GHG inventories at the sub-national level and will need to consider how to incorporate this work, as appropriate. Indicators being used in mitigation projects financed by the GEF or other sources may also provide insights for the MRV strategy for NAMAs, LEDS, and/or MAPs.

Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
bf
Project Status: 

UNDP Egypt Project Document PIMS: 3748 (June 2009)

Due to the concentration of much of Egypt's infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands and the reliance on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, coastal inundation or saline intrusion caused by anthropogenic climate change induced sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt's entire economy.  In addition to the current trends, Egypt's Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea Level Rise (SLR).

Adaptation in Egypt through Integrated Coastal Zone Management

The essential objective of this project, Adaptation to climate change in the Nile Delta through Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Egypt, is to integrate the management of SLR risks into the development of Egypt’s Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta.

The dominant feature of Egypt's Northern Costal Zone is the low lying delta of the River Nile, with its large cities, industry, agriculture and tourism.   Due to the concentration of much of Egypt's infrastructure and development along the low coastal lands and the reliance on the Nile delta for prime agricultural land, coastal inundation or saline intrusion caused by anthropogenic climate change induced sea-level rise will have a direct and critical impact on Egypt's entire economy.  In addition to the current trends, Egypt's Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change induced Sea Level Rise (SLR). The proposed project aims to integrate the management of SLR risks into the development of Egypt's Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta by strengthening the regulatory framework and institutional capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and development infrastructure, implement innovative and environmentally friendly measures that facilitate/promote adaptation in the Nile Delta, and establish a monitoring and assessment framework and knowledge management systems on adaptation. 

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (29.8938232623 31.1998496697)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Egyptian rural and urban residents in low-lying areas in the Nile Delta subject to sea level rise (SLR) and salinization of freshwater resources.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
4,000,000 (as of December 1, 2010)
Co-Financing Total: 
12,840,000 (as of December 1, 2010)
Project Details: 

One of the most certain consequences of global warming is a rise in mean sea level. As a result, coastal zones are regarded as one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change. In the coming decade, 3.3% of total land area of the Nile Delta will be lost to rising sea levels, including submersion of approximately 16 km2 of valuable currently cultivated land in the absence of adaptive action. In addition to the sea level rise (SLR) and current subsidence trends, Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as highly vulnerable to abrupt SLR, which is considered to be due to climate change.

The Nile Delta’s coastal lakes are key ecosystems that act as a protective zone for inland economic activities. Lake Manzala, Burullus, Idku, and Maryut, however, are only separated from the Mediterranean by 0.5- 3km wide eroding and retreating sand belt and dune system.  Rising seas would destroy parts of the protective offshore sand belt, which has already been weakened by reduced sediment flows after the construction of the Aswan Dam in 1964. The sediment belt protects the lagoons and low-lying reclaimed land. Without this sediment belt, water quality in coastal freshwater lagoons will be altered, groundwater will be salted and recreational tourism and beach facilities will be inundated. 

The goal of the project is to enhance Egypt’s resilience and reduce vulnerability to Climate Change impacts. The objective of the proposed projects is to integrate the management of sea level rise risks into the development of Egypt’s Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) in the Nile Delta by taking an “adaptive capacity approach” for both human and natural systems.

The project will have three major outcomes. First, the regulatory framework and institutional capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and infrastructure will be strengthened. Second, strategies and measures that facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts, with sea level rise (SLR) in particular; will be implemented in vulnerable coastal areas in the Nile Delta. And third, monitoring/assessment frameworks and knowledge management systems will be established to facilitate adaptive management in the face of unfolding climate change impacts.

The first and third major outcomes target the adaptive capacity of the institutions responsible for coastal zone management. The second outcome targets the implementation of proactive adaptation measures to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of coastal lagoons in the Nile Delta that are both highly productive and particularly vulnerable to future sea level rise and have been identified through stakeholder processes as environmental hotspots and priority areas for adaptation. The second outcome will be achieved through installation of a set of innovative shoreline protection strategies modeled after the “Living Shorelines Approach” in the Idku, Burullus, and Manzala coastal lagoons. The third outcome will capture key lessons and transfer through various national and international platforms for further replication of good practices and scaling up.

According to the 2006 Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CPAMS) census figures, the population, (including those living abroad), is estimated to have reached 76.5 million at a growth rate of 37% over the 1996 figure of 59.3 million. United Nations projections indicate that the population will continue to grow to 95.6 million by 2026 and 114.8 million before it stabilizes in 2065. Population in urban areas increased by 40 % and is now at nearly 31 million people, and rural populations grew by 64% to roughly 41.6 million people. The rate of unemployment is estimated at 9.31%. CPAMS also estimates, in 2007, that 12 million people or ~16% of Egypt’s population live in slum communities. UNSTATS (2000) also estimates that 17% of the population lives below the national poverty line.

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity to improve resilience of coastal settlements and development infrastructure is strengthened
    • Output 1.1: Modified coastal development legislation and regulations (focusing on ICZM and EIA)
    • Output 1.2: Strengthened institutional capacity of the NCIZMC and other key institutions to support the mainstreaming of climate risks and implementation of adaptation measures 
    • Output 1.3: Information systems established that reflect climate change impacts on coastal zones
    • Output 1.4: Budgetary planning of Shore Protection Agency reflects adaptation needs
  • Outcome 2: Innovative and environmentally friendly coastal zone adaptation measures enforced in the framework of Nile Delta ICZM
    • Output 2.1: Innovative adaptation pilot activities implemented to protect vulnerable coastal lagoons
    • Output 2.2: Socio-economic assessment and adaptation option appraisal
    • Output 2.3: Introduction of climate risk assessment into ICZM system for Nile Delta
  • Outcome 3: An enhanced M&E framework and knowledge management system in place
    • Output 3.1: M&E system with measurable indicators introduced
    • Output 3.2: Lessons codified and disseminated through the ALM
    • Output 3.3: Lessons disseminated throughout Egyptian Institutions

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

 

 
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits: UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Establish a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: UNDP Egypt Project Document (June 24, 2009)

 

Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Mohamed Bayoumi
Country Officer
Mohamed Aly
Project Coordinator
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
sccf
Project Status: