As an archipelago nation located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands stretches near the equator from a latitude of 06°08N to 11°15S, and a longitude of 94°45E to 141°05E. It includes 3.1 million km2 (or 62 per cent) of territorial waters, almost 2 million km2 (or 38 per cent) of land, and 81,000 km of coastline. The country is divided into 27 provinces, 243 districts, 62 municipals, 3844 sub-districts, and 65,852 villages. With a population of over 245 million people, it has the second highest population in the region and fourth in the world (CIA, 2011). Its human development ranking of 108 of 169 (UNDP, 2010) places it in the middle of the group for the region. The country’s 54,000 kilometers of coastline and over 17,500 islands makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate change effects such as sea level rise. As well, concern over water resources and extreme weather events has grown in frequency in recent years (USDS, 2010).
NAP-GSP support to Indonesia
In response to a request from the Government of Indonesia in 2017, Indonesia received supported from the NAP-GSP with a stock-taking exercise to identify gaps and needs to advance the NAP process as well as key areas for adaptation planning through the enhancement of its National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API).
The stocktaking looked at areas for enhancing tracking and monitoring, improving the vulnerability assessment process in adaptation, and enhancing the integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and budgeting processes. Based on this support, Indonesia is developing a funding proposal to access international climate finance.
[Stocktaking report coming soon]
In an effort to connect stakeholders with new data on climate change adaptation actions in Africa and Asia, UNDP is partnering with various sectors of academia, civil society and the private sector to share and analyze datasets gathered through UNDP-supported initiatives across the globe. These datasets will be made available upon request, as a new sharing platform is being developed.
This new initiative is in its nascent stage. Working with academics from leading institutions such as Harvard and Yale, along with partner governments, civil society, think tanks and private-sector partners, UNDP is building a proof of concept and working model to share data and improve analysis.
The overall goal is simple: evidence-based decision-making has the potential to significantly improve the impact of global investments in climate actions. To learn more about the data available and the coalition that is currently forming, please sign up below.
About the data available
Current datasets are available from Africa and Asia. These datasets were collected through UNDP-supported initiatives on the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in Asia (ECCA) and Climate Information and Early Warning Systems Projects in Africa.
Household surveys were conducted in various countries and will be made available for download and analysis. Future datasets will also be shared with this coalition.
The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team with 300 household surveys. Datasets are available from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:
- Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
- Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
- Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
- Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
- Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
- Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
Climate Information and Early Warnings Africa
In Africa datasets on climate information and early warnings were gathered from 2000 household surveys. The data were collected between 2015 and 2016 by a national team. Datasets are currently being cleaned, and will be available from Burkina Faso, Liberia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
The questionnaire was divided into 4 main parts:
- Hazard identification by community and household. This section provided information on the different hazards prioritized by communities. This will feed into the EWS system to help target/provide information that will be useful for project delivery.
- Past experience on EWS, climate change, communications and responses. This section gathered data that that can be used to evaluate the current EWS system in the countries.
- Household information. This section provides detailed information on the kind of household and gender roles and basic infrastructure availability
- Information to estimate outcomes of interest – components of farmer (crop and livestock) and fishers revenue, cost and profit: depending on the kind of agent. This section provides data on labor available to the household, type of crops grown if a farmer, the growing season to differentiate different crops and value of EWS information, fertilizer use to estimate costs and inputs, irrigation use and cost, machinery, and similar information for livestock farmers.
- GPS locations for geo-spatial information and analysis. Spatial variation is a valuable instrument to help with identification of control and treated groups.
Request access to datasets and join the coalition
Strategic Planning and Action to strengthen climate Resilience of Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timor province (SPARC)
The project will apply a holistic approach to improve rural livelihoods and food security by strengthening climate resilience. It will work simultaneously at the policy and grassroots levels. It will create continuous dialogue between these levels and stakeholders involved to ensure that policies to be developed or revised are based on needs and lessons learned from the grassroots.
The climate induced problem that this project is focused on is that the impacts of the ongoing and projected changes in climate will very likely exceed the coping capacity of many rural communities. This will result in decreasing security in terms of livelihoods, food and water, affecting rural development in NTT. Rural communities in NTT are highly dependent on the climate for their subsistence agricultural production and water resources. Ensuring food and water security is already a major challenge. Underlying causes of the problem include 1) Systemic vulnerabilities are high due to geographical and geophysical factors (remote and archipelagic area, with a naturally high climate variability); 2) Slow development progress in NTT (e.g. short term planning, reactive responses to problems, poor infrastructure and communication network); 3) Decentralization challenges (e.g. ineffective coordination, little attention to capacity development for sub-national institutions, 4) Community challenges such as low education levels, cultural perspectives on adopting new approaches and practices.
The project will focus on strengthening and developing climate resilient institutions and rural communities centred around livelihoods, food and water security. In particular, it will support the following long-term solution: 1) Local government (including both provincial and district governments) has integrated climate resilience principles in policy, planning and budgeting, and have the institutional capacity to develop, implement and monitor this; and 2) Communities will strengthen and diversify their livelihoods in anticipation of further changes in the climate and its impacts. Identified barriers that local government and the communities are facing to improve livelihoods, food security and water security in a changing climate include informational, policy, financial, individual, and institutional barriers, with gender cutting across these.
Rural communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur [NTT] are highly dependent on the climate for their subsistence agricultural production and water resources. Ensuring food and water security is already a major challenge. The climate-induced problem that this project is focused on is that the mpacts of the ongoing and projected changes in climate will very likely exceed the coping capacity of many rural communities. This will result in decreasing security in terms of livelihoods, food and water, affecting rural development in NTT.
SCCF funding will focus on strengthening and developing climate resilient institutions and rural communities centred around livelihoods, food and water security, to pave the way for climate resilient development in NTT. In particular, it will support the following long-term solution with regard to:
1. Local government and climate resilient development
2. Climate resilient rural communities
At the national level, the project will address climate resilience in terms of food, water and livelihood security in NTT, serving as a model for climate resilient development in an increasingly decentralized Indonesia. The project will thus contribute to MDG 1– Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Progress on this is of particular importance to NTT because the province has the highest prevalence of underweight children under five years of age, and almost a quarter of the NTT population is below the national poverty line.
Expected project outcomes are:
1. Institutional capacity developed to integrate climate resilience in sustainable development at provincial and district level
2. Livelihoods of vulnerable rural communities strengthened in a changing climate
At the provincial level, SCCF resources will be used to raise awareness, develop institutional capacity, and to integrate climate resilience in development planning, programmes and budgeting. This will indirectly benefit the whole population of NTT, which are 4.7 million people (about 960,000 households).
At the district level, SCCF resources will be invested in 3 districts for integrating climate resilience in district level development planning and programmes and access to knowledge and information, reaching out to all villages and households in these districts:
• Sabu Raijua which has a population size of 91,870 people (18,869 households), living in 58 villages (Desa) and 5 urban neighborhoods (Kelurahan).
• East Sumba which has a population size of 225,906 people (46,465 households), living in 140 villages and 16 urban neighborhoods
• Manggarai which has a population of 512,065 (105,323 households) living in 132 villages and 17 urban neighborhoods
Out of these 330 villages, SCCF resources will be directly invested in 120 villages (approximately 34,000 households) to develop community vulnerability reduction assessments, community action plans, strengthen resilience of existing livelihoods, introduce alternative livelihoods, and develop climate resilient water resources management, to integrate climate resilience in community development plans, and to develop community based climate risk information system.
The project will be monitored through the following M& E activities:
A Project Inception Workshop will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders. The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan.
The Inception Workshop should address a number of key issues including:
a) Assist all partners to fully understand and take ownership of the project. Detail the roles, support services and complementary responsibilities of UNDP CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team. Discuss the roles, functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures, including reporting and communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms. The Terms of Reference for project staff will be discussed again as needed.
b) Based on the project results framework and the relevant SOF (e.g. GEF) Tracking Tool if appropriate, finalize the first annual work plan. Review and agree on the indicators, targets and their means of verification, and recheck assumptions and risks.
c) Provide a detailed overview of reporting, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements. The Monitoring and Evaluation work plan and budget should be agreed and scheduled.
d) Discuss financial reporting procedures and obligations, and arrangements for annual audit.
e) Plan and schedule Project Board meetings. Roles and responsibilities of all project organisation structures should be clarified and meetings planned. The first Project Board meeting should be held within the first 12 months following the inception workshop.
An Inception Workshop report is a key reference document and must be prepared and shared with participants to formalize various agreements and plans decided during the meeting.
Progress made shall be monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Managment Platform.
Based on the initial risk analysis submitted, the risk log shall be regularly updated in ATLAS. Risks become critical when the impact and probability are high. Note that for UNDP GEF projects, all financial risks associated with financial instruments such as revolving funds, microfinance schemes, or capitalization of ESCOs are automatically classified as critical on the basis of their innovative nature (high impact and uncertainty due to no previous experience justifies classification as critical).
Based on the information recorded in Atlas, a Project Progress Reports (PPR) can be generated in the Executive Snapshot.
Other ATLAS logs can be used to monitor issues, lessons learned etc. The use of these functions is a key indicator in the UNDP Executive Balanced Scorecard.
Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July). The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) reporting requirements.
The APR/PIR includes, but is not limited to, reporting on the following:
• Progress made toward project objective and project outcomes - each with indicators, baseline data and end-of-project targets (cumulative)
• Project outputs delivered per project outcome (annual).
• Lesson learned/good practice.
• AWP and other expenditure reports
• Risk and adaptive management
• ATLAS QPR
• Portfolio level indicators (i.e. GEF focal area tracking tools) are used by most focal areas on an annual basis as well.
Periodic Monitoring through site visits:
UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress. Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits. A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.
Mid-term of project cycle:
The project will undergo an independent Mid-Term Evaluation at the mid-point of project implementation (insert date). The Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project’s term. The organization, terms of reference and timing of the mid-term evaluation will be decided after consultation between the parties to the project document. The Terms of Reference for this Mid-term evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG. The management response and the evaluation will be uploaded to UNDP corporate systems, in particular the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC).
The relevant SOF (GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the mid-term evaluation cycle.
End of Project:
An independent Final Evaluation will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and SOF (e.g. GEF) guidance. The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place). The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-EEG.
The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities and requires a management response which should be uploaded to PIMS and to the UNDP Evaluation Office Evaluation Resource Center (ERC).
The relevant SOF (e.g GEF) Focal Area Tracking Tools will also be completed during the final evaluation.
During the final three months, the project team will prepare the Project Terminal Report. This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. It will also lay out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project’s results.
Learning and knowledge sharing:
Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums.
The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects. Finally, there will be a two-way flow of information between this and related projects.
Project audit will follow UNDP Financial Rules and Regulations, and applicable Audit policies.
The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities.The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.
Key vulnerabilites identified in Indonesia's Second National Communication (2010):
- Water Resources
- Coastal zones and marine ecosystems
- Public Health
Assessments and Background Documents
Potential Adaptation Measures identified in Indonesia's Second National Communication (2010):
- Improvement of water management, irrigation scheme, soil and fertilization management including organic fertilizer and development of carbon efficient farming
- Development of early, drought, salinity and inundation tolerant crop varietes
- Development of farming risks insurance against adverse climate
- Cropping pattern adjustment by preparation and dissemination of guidance and tools as dynamic cropping calendar and flood and drought naticipation blue print
Coastal zones and marine ecosystems
- Development of dike sequipped with polder system to protect area behind the dike
- Mangrove rehabilitation in an effort to increase soil surface and reduce wave energy destruction so that the rate of erosion can be reduced; and
- Practicing fish culture using sylvofishery.
- Improvement of the disease ecology surveillance system and development of early warning system for outbreaks;
- Enhancement of capacity building for the government, private sectors, civil society institutions related to the prevention and mitigation of public health aspects affected by climate change;
- Increasing political awareness of the effects of climate change on public health;
- Empowering community health service systems for the prevention and control of diseases;
- Conducting research and developing methods for epidemiology and medicine to break the chains of disease transmissions; and
- Prevention and eradication of contagious and vector-borne diseases affected by climate change.
- Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
- Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
- Measures contributing to addressing climate change
- Research and systematic observation
- Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
- Education, training and public awareness
In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.
Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.
The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.
Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.