Sri Lanka

 

Sri Lanka’s economy is highly reliant on climate-sensitive sectors such as agricultural, forestry and energy production. Some adaptation measures have already been adopted in these sectors to promote better environmental management. Programmes have been established for the agricultural sector to manage soil erosion, support better water management and encourage the diversification of agricultural production. In the energy sector policies have been developed to support increased energy efficiency and to reduce associated environmental pollution. In Sri Lanka’s First National Communication of 27 October 2000, it is noted that to effectively respond to anticipated climatic changes the existing adaptation measures need to be extended and action needs to be taken in other areas.

Sri Lanka is a tropical island which lies between 6o and 10o N latitude and between 80o and 82o E longitude. It covers an area of about 65,610 square kilometres and has a maximum width of about 240 km and a maximum length of the island of about 435 km. Sri Lanka has a vast coastal plain with a mountainous area in the southern and central regions. The coastal regions are most vulnerable to climate change and a significant proportion of the population reside in these maritime provinces. The climate in Sri Lanka supports forest growth and virtually the entire land area was once covered with forests. Deforestation has made soils less productive and affected the natural water supply. The majority of water resources in Sri Lanka are generated by the hills in the central region which intercept the moisture-laden monsoonal winds from the south-west and north-east. This creates a unique rainfall pattern and the surface water is transferred by 103 distinct natural river basins that cover 90% of the island. Despite this seemingly favourable position many areas experience droughts that last several months. The available surface water is primarily used for agriculture and hydro-electricity generation. _

Sources: Initial National Communication for Sri Lanka under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 27 October 2000.

 

Related Content

Funding Proposal - GCF Sri Lanka

Green Climate Fund (GCF) Funding Proposal, published 8 June 2017, Sri Lanka ('Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events through an integrated approach to water management')

 

Datasets: Economics of Climate Change Adaptation

The datasets contained on this page were collected through the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme (ECCA), 2013-2015.

Household surveys were conducted in various countries as part of the ECCA Programme and were made available here for download and analysis.

Data Collection and Sampling Methods: 

The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:

  1. Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
  2. Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
  3. Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
  4. Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
  6. Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
Datasets: 
ECCA Bangladesh
A total of 360 farm households were interviewed for this study drawn from 7 provinces. Of the sampled households, 87% practised irrigated agriculture while 13% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 7.10 acres of land in total, with those practicing rainfed farming owning larger parcels (average 8.99 acres) relative to those practicing irrigated farming (average 6.81 acres).
ECCA Indonesia
The data collection was conducted in Brantas River Basin in East Java district as agriculture center in Indonesia, particularly in villages in Batu City (> 100 m above sea level) and Mojokerto District (< 45 m above sea level). In each location, 100 farm households were interviewed based on purposive sampling by using size of farmland as selection criteria. The households in the survey reported having about 27 years of farming experience ranging from 1 to 70 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 9 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (68%) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 32% have a computer and 20% have access to the Internet.
ECCA Sri Lanka
Three hundred and twenty-one households were interviewed spanning the agro-ecological zones of the country. About 40% of the sample is from the Central Province of the country while the rest are distributed across the other provinces including the North west and Uva provinces that are about 14% of the sample. The majority of the households in the survey reported having about 20 years of farming experience, with a minimum of four years and a maximum of 60 years. On average, each household consisted of five people (minimum four, max 16) with 10 years of education. The majority (88 percent) of the respondents owned a telephone, while 33 percent had a computer, 18 percent of which had access to the Internet.
ECCA Thailand
A total of 395 farm households were interviewed, drawn from 18 provinces. Of the sampled households, 58% practised irrigated agriculture while 42% relied on non-irrigated (rainfed) agriculture. Interviewed farmers on average own 15.18 acres of land in total, with those practicing irrigated farming owning larger parcels (average 18.89 acres) relative to those practicing rainfed farming (average 10.26 acres).
ECCA Viet Nam
Survey locations were selected to cover each of the ago-ecological zones present across Viet Nam in the context of agriculture production. In each location, the Viet Nam country team surveyed 18 households, with a total of 342 surveyed households. Out of the 342 surveyed households, the team obtained 323 usable questionnaires, of which 306 cover households with cultivation activities. The households in the survey have about 27 years of farming experience ranging from one year to 60 years. The average household size is 4, ranging from 1 to 13. The heads of household have an average of 7.5 years of education with access to electricity by almost all the households. In terms of access to information and telecommunication technology, the majority (96 per cent) of the respondents have a telephone, although only 20 per cent have a computer and 15 per cent have access to the Internet. On average, the respondents owned 7.4 acres of land (2.96 ha) with the majority of planted crops in two seasons, while a few planted all the three seasons. The average annual planted area across the three seasons is 5.5 acres (Figure 11), with 2 acres left fallow, on average. A third of the farmers have less than 2 acres of planted area, while nearly 15 per cent of farmers planted more than 10 acres.
Country: 
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Theme: 
Agriculture/Food Security
Tools: 
Title: 
Economics of Adaptation Toolkit
Title: 
Survey Questionnaire
Description: 
Countries Conducting Survey: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

Feasibility Study

This feasibility study was conducted in preparation for the design of the "Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events" project in Sri Lanka.

Timetable of project implementation

This timeline outlines the activites that comprise the "Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events" project in Sri Lanka which will be implemented over seven years.

Environmental and Social Management Plan

This document is an outline of the plan to manage the environmental and social impacts of the "Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events" project in Sri Lanka.

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