Sri Lanka’s economy is highly reliant on climate-sensitive sectors such as agricultural, forestry and energy production. Some adaptation measures have already been adopted in these sectors to promote better environmental management. Programmes have been established for the agricultural sector to manage soil erosion, support better water management and encourage the diversification of agricultural production. In the energy sector policies have been developed to support increased energy efficiency and to reduce associated environmental pollution. In Sri Lanka’s First National Communication of 27 October 2000, it is noted that to effectively respond to anticipated climatic changes the existing adaptation measures need to be extended and action needs to be taken in other areas.
Sri Lanka is a tropical island which lies between 6o and 10o N latitude and between 80o and 82o E longitude. It covers an area of about 65,610 square kilometres and has a maximum width of about 240 km and a maximum length of the island of about 435 km. Sri Lanka has a vast coastal plain with a mountainous area in the southern and central regions. The coastal regions are most vulnerable to climate change and a significant proportion of the population reside in these maritime provinces. The climate in Sri Lanka supports forest growth and virtually the entire land area was once covered with forests. Deforestation has made soils less productive and affected the natural water supply. The majority of water resources in Sri Lanka are generated by the hills in the central region which intercept the moisture-laden monsoonal winds from the south-west and north-east. This creates a unique rainfall pattern and the surface water is transferred by 103 distinct natural river basins that cover 90% of the island. Despite this seemingly favourable position many areas experience droughts that last several months. The available surface water is primarily used for agriculture and hydro-electricity generation. _
Sources: Initial National Communication for Sri Lanka under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 27 October 2000.
Green Climate Fund (GCF) Funding Proposal, published 8 June 2017, Sri Lanka ('Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events through an integrated approach to water management')
The datasets contained on this page were collected through the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Programme (ECCA), 2013-2015.
Household surveys were conducted in various countries as part of the ECCA Programme and were made available here for download and analysis.
The questionnaire was first translated into the local language and tested twice with local farmers. The data were collected in 2014 by a national team. Information collected in the questionnaire included the following:
- Past experience on climate change, communications and adaptation response. Interviewees were asked about their perception about climate change and current sources of weather information.
- Detailed farming area information. The survey collected information on farm planting area, fallow land area, and the division of the plots by crops and other livelihood by the household.
- Household information. Detailed information on household members, gender and basic infrastructure availability. Data were also collected on the primary and secondary occupation of the head of the households.
- Data required to calculate the farmer’s net revenue based on ongoing agriculture practices (crop and livestock). Data were collected on labour available to the household, type of crops grown including by growing season, prices as well as input costs including cost and quantity of fertilizer, irrigation, and machinery. Similar information was collected for livestock farmers.
- Global Positioning System (GPS) locations. Location is important when analysing climate impacts so information on the latitude and longitude of farms was collected.
- Information on extension services. Detailed information was provided by private extension groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), central government agencies, cooperatives and local government to be able to elicit potential policy tools available to support adaptation.
This feasibility study was conducted in preparation for the design of the "Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events" project in Sri Lanka.
This timeline outlines the activites that comprise the "Strengthening the resilience of smallholder farmers in the Dry Zone to climate variability and extreme events" project in Sri Lanka which will be implemented over seven years.