Kenya

 

Kenya is located in east Africa, at latitudes of 6°S to 6°N. Located on the Indian Ocean, its climate is tropical, but moderated by diverse topography in the west. Kenya’s topography rises from the coastal plains to the eastern edge of the East African Plateau, and the Great Rift Valley. The central highland regions are substantially cooler than the coast, with the coolest (highest altitude) regions at 15°C compared with 29°C at the coast. Temperatures vary little throughout the year, but drop by around 2 degree in the coolest season. Seasonal rainfall in Kenya is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), relatively narrow belt of very low pressure and heavy precipitation that forms near the earth’s equator. The exact position of the ITCZ changes over the course of the year, migrating southwards through Kenya in October to December, and returning northwards in March, April and May. This causes Kenya to experience two distinct wet periods – the ‘short’ rains in October to December and the ‘long’ rains in March to May. The amount of rainfall received in these seasons is generally 50‐200mm per month but varies greatly, exceeding 300mm per month in some localities. Kenya’s geographic location makes it inherently prone to cyclical droughts and floods. However, according to the First National Communication (INC), such types of cyclical climate-driven events will increase in intensity and frequency due to global climate change. Livelihoods and economic activities in Kenya’s are highly vulnerable to climatic fluctuations in space and time. The country’s inland areas are largely arid with two thirds of the country receiving less than 500 mm of rainfall per year, limiting the potential for agriculture. In general inter-annual climate variability is high. The arid and semi-arid regions cover about 83 per cent of the country; only around 17 per cent of Kenya’s land is arable (MENR, 2010). Land degradation is a key issue in Kenya, driven partly by overgrazing and deforestation; biomass accounts for 78 per cent of the energy consumed in the country (MENR, 2010). Indeed, high population growth, deforestation, shifting climate patterns and overgrazing have significantly degraded the country’s environment (USDS, 2010). Rainy seasons can be extremely wet and associated with floods and landslides, but can also arrive late or fail, introducing considerable uncertainty in agricultural practices. The rural poor are the most vulnerable to the impacts of Kenya’s current climate variability.

Kenya has the largest economy in East Africa, and serves as a finance and transport hub for the region (USDS, 2010). Rain-fed agriculture, tourism and the services industry are major drivers of its economy (MENR, 2010). Additional key industries include livestock/pastoralism, horticulture, fisheries and forest products (MENR, 2010). Approximately 75 per cent of Kenyans derive their livelihoods from the agricultural sector (CIA, 2010). With many Kenyans living abroad, remittances also contribute greatly to Kenya’s economy; they constitute the single largest source of foreign exchange and act as a social safety net (USDS, 2010). Despite the relative regional strength of Kenya’s economy, a large number of Kenyans live in extreme poverty; mean annual income per capita is approximately US$700 (USDS, 2010).

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Country Workplan -- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Kenya)

The Government of Kenya -- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) -- has begun implementation of a programme on "Implementing Agriculture into NAPs". At the programme's inception workshop, Stephen King'uyu from MENR presented the workplan for programme implementation between 2016 and 2018.

Supporting developing countries to integrate the agricultural sectors into National Adaptation Plans: Kenya

Agriculture contributes approximately 30.3 percent of Kenya’s GDP and another 27 percent indirectly via linkages to agro-based industries and the service sector. Increased temperatures and variation in precipitation are expected to affect crops, livestock and threatening livelihoods.

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Agriculture and Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Kenya

Lucy Ng’ang’a, who is working as an Agriculture and Climate Change Expert in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries of Kenya, describes why and how the country is preparing its national adaptation plan.
In Kenya, the most vulnerable people are already being impacted by climate variability. Ms Ng’ang’a underlines the need to build capacity at all levels as being essential for climate change adaptation, especially in rural areas.

Project Details: 

Agriculture contributes approximately 30.3 percent of Kenya’s GDP and another 27 percent indirectly via linkages to agro-based industries and the service sector. Increased temperatures and variation in precipitation are expected to affect crops, livestock and threatening livelihoods.

Kenya is located on the equator with the Indian Ocean lying to the south east. Within its borders are a diverse range of climatic conditions. They include tropical hot humid conditions along the coast, cooler savannah grasslands in the interior, hot and dry arid and semi-arid areas to the north and temperate forested, hilly areas in the West.  

Agriculture contributes about 30.3 percent of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product (in 2014) and another 27 percent indirectly via linkages to agro-based industries and the service sector. Farming in Kenya is primarily small scale, with approximately 75 percent of output produced on rain fed farms averaging between 0.3 to 3 hectares in size.

Climate changes already observed include rising temperatures, shifts in seasonal rainfall patterns as well as a decreasing amounts of rain in many locations. Rain fed agriculture is particularly vulnerable to these changes. Increased temperatures and variation in precipitation are expected to affect crops and livestock, threatening livelihoods. Resource poor farmers vulnerable to shifts in climate will face serious crop failures, income loss and loss of livelihoods.

UNDP and FAO are supporting farming communities in Kenya identify and implement adaptation strategies through the Integrating Agriculture Into NAPs initiative. This entails:

  • strengthening technical and institutional capacities for NAP implementation
  • developing a strategy for integrating adaptation measures with national planning and budgeting processes (Kenya Climate Smart Agricultural Framework Programme)
  • strengthened relevant monitoring and evaluation capacities
  • disseminate lessons learned and case studies on integrating agriculture into NAPs process at a national level
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About (Summary): 
Agriculture contributes approximately 30.3 percent of Kenya’s GDP and another 27 percent indirectly via linkages to agro-based industries and the service sector. Increased temperatures and variation in precipitation are expected to affect crops, livestock and threatening livelihoods.

Kenya’s National Climate Change Response Strategy – April 2010

The first document to address climate change concerns of the country, the National Climate Change Response Strategy was formulated through a participatory process involving a wide range of stakeholders. Climate change has already had profound effects on the people of Kenya, the La Niña droughts in 2000 left more than 4.7 million facing starvation. To respond to these challenges, the document outlines a number of actions including the establishment of a climate change legislation as well as a climate change secretariat to ensure effective implementation of these actions.

Kenya’s National Climate Change Action Plan – 2012

 

The National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) seeks to reduce Kenya’s vulnerability to climate change by increasing climate resilience and adopting a low-carbon development pathway. The plan summarizes an analysis of mitigation and adaptation options, which point to drought and water scarcity as key impacts of climate change. The country’s approach of transitioning to a low-carbon pathway is by adopting a cross-sectoral and high-level response to reduce risks and maximize opportunities. 

Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya

 As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNDP, global project on public health adaptation to climate change, the "Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health in Kenya" is working to strengthen national focus and adaptive capacity to prevent epidemic highland malaria.

The Kenya project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas.

Kenya is one of seven countries taking part in this Global Pilot. The seven countries, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kenya and Uzbekistan, together represent four distinct environments (Highlands, Small Islands, Arid Countries and Urban environments,) and their related health risks.

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Coordinates: 
POINT (35.2868011226 -0.367682342201)
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The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large. Specifically, the beneficiaries of this project are the communities in the highlands of Kenya: Kericho zone, Nandi zone, Trans-nzoia zone and Kisii zone.
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Financing Amount: 
550,000 USD
Project Details: 

The objective of this first global project on public health adaptation to climate change is to “increase adaptive capacity of national health system institutions, including field practitioners, to respond to climate-sensitive health risks”. This will contribute to the broader goal of ensuring that “Health sectors are able to cope with health risks resulting from climate change, including variability”.

Project scope

The pilot project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas. A model for predicting highland malaria was developed in 2006 and validated with previously observed malaria epidemics. It indicated a very high utility in predicting malaria epidemics three months in advance at areas higher than 1800 m. This project aims to take the model to the next step by operationally validating it and developing better tools for malaria forecasting to support decision-making on public health interventions that help prevent epidemics. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity development will the specifically targeted in the project:

  • Improved use of weather forecasting - Forecasting through global weather networks can provide the data needed to predict malaria epidemics. Currently there is limited access to short-term and long-term health specific weather information at the community, district and national levels.
  • Improved disease prediction capacity - The development of an Early Warning System will significantly improve preparedness for malaria epidemics, despite current deficiencies in the quality of routinely collected health data.
  • Improved epidemic preparedness, and disease detection - Districts have the capacity to develop plans for epidemic preparedness and response, however timely availability of the required resources has been a challenge. Most districts have adequate data to calculate threshold levels for existing epidemic detection only.
  • Improved outbreak response - Many barriers to effective response currently exist and will be addressed in the project.

Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Malaria has always existed in Kenya, however in the past, the higher altitudes of the highlands region limited highland malaria transmission to seasonal outbreaks, with considerable year-to-year variation.

Climate change is projected to make malaria control more difficult in many areas of Kenya.  In areas where malaria already occurs, transmission intensity is expected to increase along with the length of the transmission season. It is also expected that malaria will spread into new locations, particularly the higher altitudes of the highlands, where its prevalence is not currently actively monitored or forecasted. Communities living at altitudes above 1,100 meters are more vulnerable to malaria epidemics due to lack of immunity, lack of preparedness, climate variability and other factors.

Approximately 13 to 20 million Kenyans are at risk of malaria, with the percentage at risk increasing as climate change facilitates the movement of the malaria vector up the highlands.

Studies into the affect of climate change on health in Kenya also reported increases in acute respiratory infections for ASAL areas; emergence and re-emergence of Rift Valley fever; leishmaniasis and malnutrition.  Floods, occasional outbreaks of waterborne diseases e.g. cholera, dysentery and typhoid have been reported in lowland areas.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit envisioned to arise from this project is the reduction in the burden of highland malaria epidemics. Additional benefits include:

  • Increased capacity of health actors to climate sensitive diseases.
  • Harmonized management structures across all provisions provided by the Annual Operational Plans (AOPs)
  • Additional Implementation of malaria epidemic prevention measures through the National Malaria Strategy.
  • Strengthening partnerships, including: meteorological department provision of forecasting data to the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI).
  • Improved interactions between health officers and stakeholders and sharing of resources and reduction in duplication of tasks within a district.
Project Components:
  1. Climate change and health early warning and planning systems
  2. Institutional and technical capacity to manage climate change health risks
  3. Demonstration Measures to reduce vulnerability
  4. Regional Cooperation to address climate change health risks
Expected Outputs:

Outcome 1: Climate-sensitive health risks are identified with sufficient lead-time for effective response

  1. Climate-sensitive health risk data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  2. Climate data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
  3. Climate change-induced changes and drivers of health-risks are determined.

Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate-sensitive health risks will be improved

  1. Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public health.
  2. Training syllabus and long-term support mechanisms for community and national level health  protection from climate change developed.

Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change

  1. Advance planning of responses for pilot regions.
  2. Preventative interventions applied on the basis of plan, in response to warning system information.

 

 

Contacts: 
WHO
Solomon Nzioka
WHO Country Contact
WHO
Wilfred Ndegwa
WHO Country Contact
UNDP
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
UNDP Senior Technical Advisor on Climate Change Adaptation
WHO
Joy Guillemot
Public Health and Environment Department
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
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sccf
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Kenya NAMA

Under the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme, financed by the EU, Germany, and AusAID, participating countries are primarily focusing on capacity building activities at the national level.  This includes formulating Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and/or Nationally appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), as well as establishing the underlying data collection systems (i.e. national GHG inventory systems, and monitoring, reporting and verification systems).

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, policies, and/or programmes that shift a technology or sector in a country onto a low-carbon development trajectory.  A LEDS, on the other hand, outlines the intended overall economic, energy, and emissions trajectory for a country and helps to identify entry points for policy intervention (including identifying and prioritizing NAMAs and ensuring coherence between NAMAs and national development goals).

In Kenya national stakeholders will work to build a policy and regulatory environment, investigate financing options, and improve knowledge sharing. Additionally, the government has identified the development of a GHG national inventory system as the highest priority under the Programme, since this will provide the foundation for identifying NAMAs and supporting MRV actions.
A transport NAMA for reducing vehicle emissions will be fast-tracked to gain experience and capacity for investigating NAMAs in the energy (household demand/biomass use) and industrial (energy demand) sub-sectors.

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Coordinates: 
POINT (38.562014773022 0.97259894384475)
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The four-year Low Emission Capacity Building Programme is being implemented with €8,000,000 of funding from the European Union and €5,000,000 from the Federal Republic of Germany.
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Supporting Mitigation Actions

As a country driven process, each country determines, develops and executes its own project with a clear focus on one of the two areas. From the inception phase of each project, however, and for the life of the project, countries will receive guidance and support from UNDP. Guidance and technical backstopping for all national-level projects will be coordinated, delivered and supported through an over-arching component of the programme: the Global Support Unit.

Programme-supported projects fall into one of several categories:

  • Identifying opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and designing low emission development strategies (LEDS) in context of national priorities
  • Design ofsystems for measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme promotes essential cooperation between relevant institutions, engaging the public sector and industry in a concerted effort to address climate change consistent with national development priorities around the world.

The overall objectives are to strengthen capacities in participating countries in the following ways:

  • Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory management systems;
  • Identify opportunities for nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA);
  • Design low emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national priorities
  • Design systems for measuring, reporting, and verification of proposed actions and means to reduce GHG emissions
  • Facilitate the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries in some countries
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) should be an essential component of any LEDS, NAMAs, or Mitigation Action Plans (MAPs) prepared by developing countries – particularly if a developing country is seeking external financial, technical or capacity-building support, and will therefore be subject to international MRV as described in the Cancun Accords. However, MRV needs will differ depending on whether a country is undertaking a REDD+ type NAMA, for example, versus improving an urban mass transit system. (It is worth noting that the international political arena also refers to the MRV of public finance; this is not being addressed under this project.)

Methodological approach

New methodologies are being developed by different organizations for the development and adoption of MRVs. Although there are still no adopted guidelines on MRV, we can assume that there will be some overarching principles of good practice, such as using the GHG estimation and reporting processes described in the IPCC guidance materials for GHG inventories.

Institutional and political context

As with the GHG national inventory system, it will be important to raise awareness of all key stakeholders on the necessity for MRV to ensure full engagement. It may be useful to consider developing a strategy to engage key providers of data and ensure they are adequately trained.

Linkages to other relevant initiatives

Clearly, the work undertaken under this component has a direct linkage to the National Communications process. Some countries may also be undertaking GHG inventories at the sub-national level and will need to consider how to incorporate this work, as appropriate. Indicators being used in mitigation projects financed by the GEF or other sources may also provide insights for the MRV strategy for NAMAs, LEDS, and/or MAPs.

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Funding Source Short Code: 
bf
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Kenya Project Information Questionnaire

Title: Reducing Disaster Risks from Wildland Fire Hazards Associated with Climate Change in South Africa

Project Objective:  To develop and implement integrated disaster risk management strategies to address climate change-induced fire hazards and risks