Mali

 

Mali is located in western Africa at a latitudes of 10 to 25°N, straddling the sub‐tropical band called the Sahel. The northern parts of Mali reach well into the dry Sahara desert, while the southern regions experience a wetter, more tropical, climate.

The seasonal rainfalls in Mali are controlled by the movement of the tropical rain belt (also known as the Inter‐Tropical Conversion Zone, ITCZ) which oscillates between the northern and southern tropics over the course of a year, and brings rainfall to the southern regions of Mali when it is in its northern position between June and October, peaking in August. The average rainfall in the wettest (southernmost) regions at this time is an average 300mm per month, but rainfall totals diminish rapidly with increasing latitude. In the dry months between November and March, almost no rain falls at all. Variations in the latitudinal movements of the ITCZ from one year to another cause large inter‐annual variability in wet‐season rainfall, which means that Mali suffers from recurring drought. The northern, desert regions of Mali receive very little rainfall all year round.

Source: University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment. Accessed on 23 November 2009 at: http://country-profiles.geog.ox.ac.uk/.

Related Content

Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali

Like other countries in the Sahel, Mali is susceptible to climate variability and is suffering from the impacts of global climate change. According to forecasts, rainfall will fluctuate even more in the future and the frequency of extreme events such as drought or heavy rain will increase. The poorest groups are harder hit by the impacts of climate change because they depend directly on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The "Programme for the Support of the National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Mali" Project will work to strengthen Mali's National Adaptation Strategy, and works in conjunction with other UNDP-supported projects in Mali, including the Supporting Mali to Advance their NAP Process Project. 

The main objective of the project is to ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-1.3183593819504 17.855904418065)
Financing Amount: 
US$5.4 million (BMUB funding)
Project Details: 

Mali ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and presented its National Adaptation Programme of Action in 2007. The country has had a national climate policy, a climate strategy and an action plan for implementation since July 2011. At the donor conference held in May 2013 in response to the crisis in Mali, a plan was adopted for the country’s economic reconstruction. Core themes in this plan include the environment, private sector development and agriculture.

In January 2012, the Malian Government created a national climate fund designed to mobilise national and international financing from public and private sources. The government plans to use these funds to increase the population's resilience to the impacts of climate change. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) has pledged EUR 4 million to the fund and the Norwegian Government plans to contribute EUR 1.8 million. The Malian Ministry of Environment has asked GIZ to serve on the fund's steering committee as one of five donors.

The project team is working with the Malian partners to integrate climate-related issues into policies and existing planning, strategy development and monitoring instruments. The different levels of decentralisation – central government, regions and municipalities – are taken into account, which ensures that this approach is firmly established throughout the country and that resilience is being increased. Existing processes are being overhauled to take account of adaptation and mitigation potential and, where necessary, new, integrated instruments are being created to promote climate-resistant development.

Municipalities that have successfully integrated climate aspects into their planning instruments are working with the project team to identify and implement activities designed to help them and their residents deal more effectively with the consequences of climate change. This capability is extremely important, particularly when it comes to securing families’ livelihoods. The project team has given women a strong role in this process. Through direct cooperation with the municipalities, both municipal employees and the poor can benefit directly from the measures and pass on the lessons learned to other communities.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is responsible for three other areas of activity. The network of weather stations is being expanded and capabilities for analysing and using weather data developed. In addition, UNDP supports operationalisation of the climate fund so that it can be incorporated into Mali’s structures. In close consultation with the GIZ project team, UNDP also promotes adaptation measures in selected municipalities.

Project Status: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Main Objective - Ensure that ecosystems, social systems and production chains in vulnerable regions of Mali are more resilient to the impacts of climate change thanks to innovative, integrated approaches to climate change adaptation.

Project Dates: 
2014 to 2019

Council Notification Letter - Flood hazard and climate risk management to secure lives and assets in Mali

Flood hazard and climate risk management to secure lives and assets in Mali GEF Council Notification Letter.

Prodoc - Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu

"Programme Support for Climate Change Adaptation in the Vulnerable Regions of Mopti and Timbuktu" prodoc dated March 2015.

Filling Buckets, Fueling Change - Ensuring Gender-Responsive Climate Change Adaptation

This publication provides an in-depth analysis and study of gender-responsive adaptation approaches being implemented in six countries under the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility.  The study targets adaptation practitioners and decision-makers at all levels (from community to global) who are designing new adaptation initiatives and/or developing new climate change-related policies.  It provides a framework in which to examine concrete examples of gender-r

Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali

Flooding and other climate change risks have a severe impact on the people of Mali. Significant flooding events over the past 30 years have impacted over 3 million people, taking lives, destroying infrastructure, causing serious economic losses, and derailing efforts to build more resilient lives and livelihoods.

The "Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali" project will develop adaptation benefits that minimize the exposure of vulnerable populations to floods and flash flood risks, and thereby minimize losses of assets that will accelerate with the expected impacts of climate change. The project is seeking to develop long-term sustainable approaches by mainstreaming climate risk management into local development plans. By building sustainable land and water management techniques and riverbank protections, the project will help to maintain and restore biodiversity by strengthening the functionality of the ecosystems. Local government recognizes the significance of flood risk and the need to integrate flood risk assessment and its management into the planning process in order to deliver a policy to avoid and minimize potential future flood risk.

The project will take into account how resource degradation and natural disasters, such as flooding, affects men, women and vulnerable groups, such as children and the elderly, differently. The dissemination and sharing of information will be developed and disseminated in order to ensure that women and girls - especially those who are poor or who were denied the right to education - can easily have access to the necessary information.

At the national level, the project will build the overall capacity of the Government of Mali to plan for and respond to floods. At the local level, the project will deliver targeted adaptation benefits to 51 vulnerable local communities in the districts of Bamako, Kayes and Mopti, resulting in direct benefits for at least 1.2 million people in 120,000 households. Within these target intervention sites, the project will introduce multiple measures to reduce vulnerability to flood risks. Vulnerable local communities will benefit directly from the establishment of physical measures for flood protection including permeable rock dams and stormwater drains. In addition to providing physical flood protection, the project will implement awareness-raising activities on the management of floods to at least 500,000 people. The project’s awareness-raising activities will also include campaigns to increase the knowledge of municipal and village officials on the management of public risks related to floods.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-4.1857910436212 14.612643398513)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
At the local level, the project activities will deliver targeted adaptation benefits to 51 vulnerable local communities in the districts of Bamako, Kayes and Mopti, resulting in direct benefits for at least 1.2 million people across 120,000 households.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.9 million (proposed GEF-LDCF grant)
Co-Financing Total: 
US$51million (proposed cofinancing)
Project Details: 

Since the 1970s, an increase in average temperature has been observed across Mali. This trend is expected to continue, and climate models predict that by 2080 Mali’s mean annual temperature will increase by 3-4°C relative to the annual temperature in 1980. This represents a predicted temperature increase that is 1.5 times the global average. The variations in temperature and rainfall over the last few decades have been further compounded by climate-related hazards such as droughts, floods, strong winds, sand storms and heat waves.

Mali is increasingly experiencing floods. From 1980-2007, two significant floods were recorded that collectively impacted over 3 million people. In addition, the floods experienced in Bamako in August 2013, affected over 34,000 people, displacing some 20,000 people. These floods resulted in the death of 37 people and the loss of 280 homes in the capital city of Bamako.

In 2014, 98.5% of economic losses as a result of disasters were attributed to floods. This amounts to US$45 million per year. The areas most affected by floods over the last 30 years are located within the Niger Delta and include inter alia Bamako, Timbuktu, Gao, Mopti, Ségou, Kayes, Koulikoro and Sikasso.

Some of the floods experienced in Mali  reportedly damaged over 12,000 hectares of crops, thereby negatively affecting the livelihoods poor rural people. Under the predicted conditions of climate change, an increasing number of climate-related hazards such as floods and heat waves is likely to occur. These hazards are predicted to increase in severity and frequency under future climatic conditions.

An increase in the severity and frequency of flooding is likely to result in a larger number of flood-induced human deaths, people displaced, damages to houses and public infrastructure, and loss of crops.

The objective of the GEF-LDCF-financed "Flood Hazard and Climate Risk Management to Secure Lives and Assets in Mali" project is to strengthen the capacity of national and local government authorities to effectively manage and reduce the negative impacts of floods on local communities and infrastructure in Mali. To achieve this objective, the project will support improved planning and decision-making within government authorities to respond to flood risks and hazards. This enhanced capacity of national and local government authorities to plan and implement locally-appropriate flood mitigation strategies will reduce the vulnerability of local communities to the negative effects of floods.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome 1 - Strengthened technical capacity of municipal and village authorities to improve flood early warning systems and dissemination of climate-related risk information.

Output 1.1. Establish sound climate information systems and devices operating 24 hours a day for monitoring and forecasting flood hazards and providing reliable warnings using mobile phone platforms.

Output 1.2. Early warning and quick-response systems are developed to increase the resilience of vulnerable local communities in the intervention sites.

Output 1.3.  Risk mapping combining flood risks with socio-economic indicators – including inter alia population-related indices, land value, land uses, assets – is undertaken.

Output 1.4. An education programme and awareness-raising campaign is undertaken within schools and local communities to build a culture of safety and resilience to floods.

Outcome 2 - Effective flood risk management mainstreamed into the relevant development planning policies and budgetary processes to increase the resilience of local communities.

Output 2.1. Commune-specific Flood Risk Reduction Plans (FRRPs) with locally-appropriate strategies and interventions to decrease the vulnerability of local communities to floods are developed.

Output 2.2. Design, harmonize and enhance existing building and settlement codes to decrease vulnerability of local communities to floods.

Output 2.3. Financial strategies are developed and implemented to improve the financial capacity of local authorities to respond timely to climate-related hazards, in particular floods.

Output 2.4. The technical capacity of the relevant national and local authorities on climate risk management planning as well as flood prevention and reduction measures is enhanced.

Outcome 3 - Climate-resilient flood risk management and reduction techniques transferred to local communities within the targeted communes to decrease their vulnerability.

Output 3.1. Climate risk reduction measures implemented such as bank terracing, vegetative buffers, etc. implemented to increase saturation and reduce erosion

Output 3.2. Structural measures, such as embankments, dykes, levees and floodwalls, etc., financed to protect human health and safety, and valuable goods and property

Contacts: 
UNDP
Clotilde Goeman
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1 - Strengthened technical capacity of municipal and village authorities to improve flood early warning systems and dissemination of climate-related risk information. 

Outcome 2 - Effective flood risk management mainstreamed into the relevant development planning policies and budgetary processes to increase the resilience of local communities.

Outcome 3 - Climate-resilient flood risk management and reduction techniques transferred to local communities within the targeted communes to decrease their vulnerability.

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2022

SUMMARY DOC: Filling Buckets Fueling Change - Ensuring Gender-responsive Climate Change Adaptation

This document provides a summary of a comprehensive study done on gender-responsive approaches to adaptation undertaken through the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF).  The study draws on findings from the six countries engaged in the CCAF, providing insights on the types of resources and partnerships needed at local and national level for designing and implementing effective gender-responsive adaptation.  The countries examined for the study include: Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Sudan.